There are at least five reasons for geropsychologists to be interested in physical activity. The first reason is that activity is a prominent life-span developmental personality variable. We will see that stable individual activity differences begin prenatally, are universally recognized as a major dimension of infant temperament, comprise a facet of introversion which is recognized as an important personality trait by all investigators, and remain stable throughout adult life. The ability to ambulate and lead an active life assumes greater importance with advanced age. Perception of health in oneself and others is directly proportional to physical activity. Active lifestyle, therefore, constitutes an important individual difference for geropsychologists.


Physical Activity Sleep Disorder Aerobic Exercise Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Sleep Onset 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ades, P. A., Waldmann, M. L., & Gillespie, C. (1995). A controlled trial of exercise training in older coronary patients. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 50A, M7–M11.Google Scholar
  2. Aharon-Peretz, J., Masiah, A., Pillar, T., Epstein, R., Tzischinsky, O., & Lavie, P. (1991). Sleep-wake cycles in multi-infarct dementia and dementia of the Alzheimer type. Neurology, 41 1616–1619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ancoli-Israel, S., Klauber, M. R., Butters, N., Parker, L., & Kripke, D. F. (1991). Dementia in institutionalized elderly: Relation to sleep apnea. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 39 258–263.Google Scholar
  4. Bierman, E. L. (1978). Atherosclerosis and aging. Federal Proceedings, 37 2832–2836.Google Scholar
  5. Birrell, P. C. (1983). Behavioral, subjective, and electroencephalographic indices of sleep onset latency and sleep duration. Journal of Behavioral Assessment, 5 179–190.Google Scholar
  6. Blair, S. N., Kohl, H. W., Paffenbarger, R. S., Jr., Clark, D. G., Cooper, K. H., & Gibbons, L. W. (1989). Physical fitness and all-cause mortality: A prospective study of healthy men and women. Journal of the American Medical Association, 262 2395–2401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Blake, H., Gerard, R. W., & Kleitman, N. (1939). Factors influencing brain potentials during sleep. Journal of Neurophysiology, 2 48–60.Google Scholar
  8. Bliwise, D. L. (1993). Sleep in normal aging and dementia. Sleep, 16 40–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bliwise, D. L. (1994a). Dementia. In M. H. Kryger, T. Roth, & W. C. Dement (Eds.), Principles and practice of sleep medicine (2nd ed., pp. 790–800). Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  10. Bliwise, D. L. (1994b). Normal Aging. In M. H. Kryger, T. Roth, & W. C. Dement (Eds.), Principles and practice of sleep medicine (2nd ed., pp. 26–39). Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  11. Blumenthal, J. A., Emery, C. F., Madden, D.J., George, L. K., Coleman, R. E., Riddle, M. W., McKee, D. C., & Williams, R. S. (1989). Cardiovascular and behavioral effects of aerobic exercise training in healthy older men and women. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 44 M147–M157.Google Scholar
  12. Bonato, R. A., & Ogilvie, R. D. (1989). A home evaluation of a behavioral response measure of sleep/wakefulness. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 68 87–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bortz W. M., II. (1982). Disuse and aging. Journal of the American Medical Association, 248 1203–1208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bouchard, C., Shepard, R. J., Stephens, T., Sutton, J. R., & McPherson, B. D. (1990). Exercise, fitness and health. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  15. Bunney, W. E., Jr., Wehr, T. R., Gillin, J. C., Post, R. M., Goodwin, F. K., & van Kammen, D. P. (1977). The switch process in manic-depressive psychosis. Annals of Internal Medicine, 87 319–335.Google Scholar
  16. Burnside, I. M. (1978). Working with the elderly. North Scituate, MA: Duxbury.Google Scholar
  17. Buss, A. H., & Plomin, R. (1984). Temperament: Early developing personality traits. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  18. Carskadon, M. A., Dement, W. C., Mitler, M. M., Guilleminault, C., Zarcone, V. P., & Spiegel, R. (1976). Self-reports versus sleep laboratory findings in 122 drug-free subjects with complaints of chronic insomnia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 133 1382–1388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Clarkson-Smith, L., & Hartley, A. A. (1989). Relationships between physical exercise and cognitive abilities in older adults. Psychology and Aging, 4 183–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Colvin, R. H., & Olson, S. B. (1983). A descriptive analysis of men and women who have lost significant weight and are highly successful at maintaining the loss. Addictive Behaviors, 8 287–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1980). Still stable after all these years: Personality as a key to some issues in adulthood and old age. In. P. B. Baltes & O. G. Brim (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior (pp. 65–102). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  22. Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI): Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  23. Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1994). Stability and change in personality from adolescence through adulthood. In C. F. Halverson, Jr., G. A. Kohnstamm, & R. P. Martin (Eds.), The developing structure of temperament and personality from infancy to adulthood (pp. 139–150). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  24. Cunningham, D. A., Rechnitzer, P. A., Howard, J. H., & Donner, A. P. (1987). Exercise training of men at retirement: A clinical trial. Journals of Gerontology, 42 17–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Czeisler, C. A., Allan, J. S., Strogatz, S. H., Ronda, J. M., Sanchez, R., Rios, C. D., Freitag, W. O., Richardson, G. S., & Kronauer, R. E. (1986). Bright light resets the human circadian pacemaker independent of the timing of the sleep-wake cycle. Science, 233 667–671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Davidson, M. B. (1979). The effect of aging on carbohydrate metabolism: A review of the English literature and a practical approach to the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in the elderly. Metabolism, 28 688–705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. deVries, H. A. (1983). Physiology of exercise and aging. In D. S. Woodruff & J. E. Birren (Eds.), Aging (2nd ed., pp. 285–304). New York: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  28. Dishman, R. K. (1990). Determinants of participation in physical activity. In C. Bouchard, R. J., Shephard, T. Stephens, J. R. Sutton, & B. D. McPherson (Eds.), Exercise, fitness and health (pp. 75–102). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  29. Dishman, R. K. (1991). Increasing and maintaining exercise and physical activity. Behavior Therapy, 22 345–378.Google Scholar
  30. Doyne, E. J., Chambless, D. L., & Beutler, L. E. (1983). Aerobic exercise as a treatment for depression in women. Behavior Therapy, 14 434–440.Google Scholar
  31. Dustman, R. E., Ruhling, R. O., Russell, E. M., Shearer, D. E., Bonekat, H. W., Shigeoka, J. W., Wood, J. S., & Bradford, D. C. (1984). Aerobic exercise training and improved neuropsychological function of older individuals. Neurobiology of Aging, 5 35–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Eaton, W. O., & Saudino, K. J. (1992). Prenatal activity level as a temperament dimension? Individual differences and developmental functions in fetal movement. Infant Behavior and Development, 15 57–70.Google Scholar
  33. Eisendorfer, C., Cohen, D., Paveza, G. J., Ashford, J. W., Luchins, D. J., Gorelick, P. B., Hirschman, R. S., Freels, S. A., Levy, P. S., Semla, T. P., & Shaw, H. A. (1992). An empirical evaluation of the Global Deterioration Scale for staging Alzheimer’s disease. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140 190–194.Google Scholar
  34. Ensberg, M. D., Paletta, M. J., Galecki, A. T., Dacko, C. L., & Fries, B. E. (1993). identifying elderly patients for early discharge after hospitalization for hip fracture. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 48 M187–M195.Google Scholar
  35. Espie, C. A., Lindsay, W. R., & Espie, L. C. (1989). Use of the sleep assessment device (Kelley and Lichstein, 1980) to validate insomniacs’ self-report of sleep pattern. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 11 71–79.Google Scholar
  36. Evans, L. K. (1987). Sundown syndrome in institutionalized elderly. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 35 101–108.Google Scholar
  37. Fillingim, R. B., & Blumenthal, J. A. (1993). Psychological effects of exercise among the elderly. In P. Seraganian (Ed.), Exercise psychology: The influence of physical exercise on psychological processes (pp. 237–253). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  38. Fishbein, W., Ferris, S., & Reisberg, B. (1995). Progressive circadian rhythm decline in Alzheimer’s disease. Sleep Research, 24 519.Google Scholar
  39. Fleming, J., Clark, C., Wood, C., & Ramirez, C. (1994). Leg actigraphy reliably detects Periodic Limb Movements during sleep. Sleep Research, 23 437.Google Scholar
  40. Folkins, C. H., & Sime, W. E. (1981). Physical fitness training and mental health. American Psychologist, 36 373–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Fox, S. M., III., Naughton, J. P., & Haskell, W. L. (1971). Physical activity and the prevention of coronary heart disease. Annals of Clinical Research, 3 404–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Franklin, J. (1981). The measurement of sleep onset latency in insomnia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 19 547–549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Fremont, J., & Craighead, L. W. (1984). Aerobic exercise and cognitive therapy for mild/moderate depression. Presented at the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  44. Gerety, M. B., Mulrow, C. D., Tuley, M. R., Hazuda, H. P., Lichtenstein, M. J., Bohannon, R., Katen, D. N., O’Neil, M. G., & Gorton, A. (1993). Development and validation of a physical performance instrument for the functionally impaired elderly: The physical disability index (PDI). Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 48 M33–M38.Google Scholar
  45. Gibson, G. E., & Peterson, C. (1982). Biochemical and behavioral parallels in aging and hypoxia. In E. Giacobini, G. Filogamo, G. Giacobini, & A. Vernadakis (Eds.), The aging brain: Cellular and molecular mechanisms of aging in the nervous system (pp. 107–122). New York: Raven.Google Scholar
  46. Goldsmith, H. H., Buss, A. H., Plomin, R., Rothbart, M. K., Thomas, A., Chess, S., Hinde, R. A., & McCall, R. B. (1987). Roundtable: What is temperament? Four approaches. Child Development, 58 505–529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Goodrick, C. L. (1980). Effects of long-term voluntary wheel exercise on male and female Wistar rats. Gerontology, 26 22–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Granada, A. M., & Hammack, J. T. (1961). Opérant behavior during sleep. Science, 133 1485–1486.Google Scholar
  49. Greist, J. H. (1984). Exercise in the treatment of depression. Coping with mental stress: The potential and limits of exercise intervention. Washington, DC: NIMH Workshop.Google Scholar
  50. Greist, J. H., Klein, M. H., Eischens, R. R., Faris, J., Gurman, A. S., & Morgan, W. P. (1979). Running as treatment for depression. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 20 41–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Gueldner, S. H., & Spradley, J. (1988). Outdoor walking lowers fatigue. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 14 6–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Guralnik, J. M., & Simonsick, E. M. (1993). Physical disability in older Americans. Journals of Gerontology, 48 3–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Guralnik, J. M., Simonsick, E. M., Ferrucci, L., Glynn, R. J., Berkman, L. F., Blazer, D. G., Scherr, P. A., & Wallace, R. B. (1994). A short physical performance battery assessing lower extremity function: Association with self-reported disability and prediction of mortality and nursing home admission. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 49 M85–M94.Google Scholar
  54. Harrington, M. E., Rusak, B., & Mistleberger, R. E. (1994). Anatomy and physiology of the mammalian circadian system. In M. H. Kryger, T. Roth, & W. C. Dement (Eds.), Principles and practice of sleep medicine (2nd ed., pp. 286–300). Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar
  55. Haskell, W. L. (1985). Physical activity and health: Need to define the required stimulus. American Journal of Cardiology, 55 4D–9D.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hill, R. D., Storandt, M., & Malley, M. (1993). The impact of long-term exercise training on psychological function in older adults. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 48 P12–P17.Google Scholar
  57. Hoiberg, A., Bernard, S., Watten, R. H., & Caine, C. (1984). Correlates of weight loss in treatment and at follow-up. International Journal of Obesity, 8 457–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Holloszy, J. O. (1993). Exercise increases average longevity of female rats despite increased food intake and no growth retardation. Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences, 48 B97–B100.Google Scholar
  59. Holloszy, J. O., & Schechtman, K. B. (1991). Interaction between exercise and food restriction: Effects on longevity of male rats. Journal of Applied Physiology, 70 1529–1535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Holloszy, J. O., Smith, E. K., Vining, M., & Adams, S. A. (1985). Effect of voluntary exercise on longevity of rats. Journal of Applied Physiology, 59 826–831.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Hultsch, D. F., Hammer, M., & Small, B. J. (1993). Age differences in cognitive performance in later life: Relationships to self-reported health and activity life style. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 48 P1–P11.Google Scholar
  62. Jacobs, B. L. (1994). Serotonin, motor activity and depression-related disorders. American Scientist, 82 456–463.Google Scholar
  63. Jacobs, B. L., & Fornal, C. A. (1993). 5-HT and motor control: A hypothesis. Trends in Neuroscience, 16 346–352.Google Scholar
  64. Jacobs, D., Ancoli-Israel, S., Parker, L., & Kripke, D. F. (1989). Twenty-four-hour sleep-wake patterns in a nursing home population. Psychology and Aging, 4 352–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Joseph, J. A., & Roth, G. S. (1988). Upregulation of striatal dopamine receptors and improvement of motor performance in senescence. In J. A. Joseph (Ed.), Central determinants of age-related declines in motor function. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 15 355–362.Google Scholar
  66. Joseph, J. A., & Roth, G. S. (1993). Hormonal regulation of motor behavior in senescence. Journals of Gerontology, 48 (Special Issue), 51–55.Google Scholar
  67. Kagan, J., & Snidman, N. (1991). Temperamental factors in human development. American Psychologist, 46 856–862.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kazenwadel, J., Pollmacher, T., Trenkwalder, C., Oertel, W. H., Kohnen, R., Künzel, M., & Krüger, H.-P. (1995). New actigraphic assessment method for periodic leg movements (PLM). Sleep, 18 689-697. Kelley, J. E., & Lichstein, K. L. (1980). A sleep assessment device. Behavioral Assessment, 2 135–146.Google Scholar
  69. King, A. C., Taylor, C. B., Haskell, W. L., & DeBusk, R. F. (1989). Influence of regular aerobic exercise on psychological health: A randomized, controlled trial of healthy middle-aged adults. Health Psychology, 8 305–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. King, D. S., Dalsky, G. P., Clutter, W. E., Young, D. A., Staten, M. A., Cryer, P. E., & Holloszy, J. O. (1988). Effects of exercise and lack of exercise on insulin secretion. American Journal of Physiology, 254 E537–E542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kirwan, J. P., Kohrt, W. M., Wojta, D. M., Bourey, R. E., & Holloszy, J. O. (1993). Endurance exercise training reduces glucose-stimulated insulin levels in 60-to 70-year-old men and women. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 48 M84–M90.Google Scholar
  72. Kleitman, N. (1963). Sleep and wakefulness. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  73. Knapp, D. N. (1988). Behavioral management techniques and exercise promotion. In R. K. Dishman (Ed.), Exercise adherence: Its impact on public health (pp. 203–235). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  74. Kraus, H., & Raab, W. (1961). Hypokinetic disease. Springfield, IL: Thomas.Google Scholar
  75. Kripke, D. F., Ancoli-Israel, S., Klauber, M. R., & Wingard, D. L. (1995). U.S. population estimate for disordered sleep breathing: High rates in minorities. Sleep Research, 24 268.Google Scholar
  76. Kryger, M. H., Roth, T., & Carskadon, M. (1994). circadian rhythms in humans: An overview. In M. H. Kryger, T. Roth, & W. C. Dement (Eds.), Principles and practice of sleep medicine (2nd ed., pp. 301–308). Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar
  77. Kuo, T. F., Bootzin, R. R., Bell, I. R., Wyatt, J. K., Rider, S. P., & Anthony, J. L. (1995). Normative sleep characteristics in the elderly: A six-night PSG study. Sleep Research 24,125.Google Scholar
  78. Lavie, P., Aharon-Peretz, J., Klein, F., Grüner, F., Epstein, R., Tzischinsky, O., & Herer, P. (1992). Sleep quality in geriatric depressed patients: Comparison with elderly demented patients and normal controls and the effects of Moclobemide. Dementia, 3 360–366.Google Scholar
  79. Lavie, P., Epstein, R., Tzischinsky, O., Gilad, D., Nahir, M., Lorber, M., & Scharf, Y. (1992). Actigraphic measurements of sleep in rheumatoid arthritis: Comparison of patients with low back pain and healthy controls. Journal of Rheumatology, 19 362–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. LeBlanc, J., Nadeau, A., Richard, D., & Tremblay, A. (1981). Studies on the sparing effect of exercise on insulin requirements in human subjects. Metabolism, 30 1119–1124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Leon, A. S., Connett, J., Jacobs, D. R., Jr., & Rauramaa, R. (1987). Leisure-time physical activity levels and risk of coronary heart disease and death. Journal of the American Medical Association, 258 2388–2395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Lieberman, H. R., Wurtman, J. J., & Teicher, M. H. (1989). Circadian rhythms of activity in healthy young and elderly humans. Neurobiology of Aging, 10 259–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Magnus, K., Matroos, A., & Strackee, J. (1979). Walking, cycling, or gardening, with or without seasonal interruption, in relation to acute coronary events. American Journal of Epidemiology, 110, 724–733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Manton, K. G., Stallard, E., & Liu, K. (1993). Forecasts of active life expectancy: Policy and fiscal implications. Journals of Gerontology, 48 (Special Issue), 11–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Marston, A. R., & Criss, J. (1984). Maintenance of successful weight loss: Incidence and prediction. International Journal of Obesity, 8 435–439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Martinsen, E. W. (1984). Interaction of exercise and medication in the psychiatric patient. Coping with mental stress: The potential and limits of exercise intervention. Washington, DC: NIMH Workshop.Google Scholar
  87. Massie, C., Daniels, R., & Juszynski, G. (1995). Leg actigraphy: Preliminary normative data. Sleep Research, 24 284.Google Scholar
  88. McAuley, E. (1992). The role of efficacy cognitions in the prediction of exercise behavior in middle-aged adults. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 15 65–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. McAuley, E. (1993). Self-efficacy and the maintenance of exercise participation in older adults. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 16 103–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. McAuley, E., Courneya, K. S., & Lettunich, J. (1991). Effects of acute and long-term exercise on self-efficacy responses in sedentary, middle-aged males and females. Gerontologist, 31 534–542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. McAuley, E., Lox, C., & Duncan, T. E. (1993). Long-term maintenance of exercise, self-efficacy, and physiological change in older adults. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 48 P218–P224.Google Scholar
  92. McCann, I. L., & Holmes, D. S. (1984). Influence of aerobic exercise on depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46 1142–1147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Middlekoop, H. A. M., & Kerkhof, G. A. (1990). Nocturnal wrist motor activity and subjective sleep quality in young and elderly subjects. Journal of Interdisciplinary Cycle Research, 21 218–219.Google Scholar
  94. Minor, M. A., Hewett, J. E., Webel, R. R., Anderson, S. K., & Ray, D. R. (1989). Efficacy of physical conditioning exercise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 32 1396–1405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Mintz, A. Y., & Mankovsky, N. B. (1971). Changes in the nervous system during cerebral atherosclerosis and aging. Geriatrics, 26 134–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Mistleberger, R. E., & Rusak, B. (1994). Circadian rhythms in mammals: Formal properties and environmental influences. In M. H. Kryger, T. Roth, & W. C. Dement (Eds.), Principles and practice of sleep medicine (2nd ed., pp. 277–285). Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar
  97. Monk, T. H. (1994). Circadian rhythms in subjective activation, mood, and performance efficiency. In M. H. Kryger, T. Roth, & W. C. Dement (Eds.), Principles and practice of sleep medicine (2nd ed., pp. 321–330). Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar
  98. Moran, M. G., Thompson, T. L., & Nies, A. S. (1988). Sleep disorders in the elderly. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145 1369–1378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Morris, J. N., Chave, S. P. W., Adam, C., Sirey, C., Epstein, L., & Sheehan, D. J. (1973). Vigorous exercise in leisure-time and the incidence of coronary heart-disease. Lancet, 1 333–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Morris, J. N., Everitt, M. G., Pollard, R., Chave, S. P. W., & Semmence, A. M. (1980). Vigorous exercise in leisure-time: Protection against coronary heart disease. Lancet, 2 1207–1210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Oberman, A. (1985). Exercise and the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Cardiology, 55 10D–20D.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. O’Brien, S. J., & Vertinsky, P. A. (1991). Unfit survivors: Exercise as a resource for aging women. Gerontologist, 31 347–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Ogilvie, R. D., & Harsh, J. R. (1994). Sleep onset: Normal and abnormal processes. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  104. Ogilvie, R. D., & Wilkinson, R. T. (1988). Behavioral versus EEG-based monitoring of all-night sleep-wake patterns. Sleep, 11 139–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Ogilvie, R. D., Wilkinson, R. T., & Allison, S. (1989). The detection of sleep onset: Behavioral, physiological, and subjective convergence. Sleep, 12 458–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Paffenbenbarger, R. S., Jr., & Hale, W. E. (1975). Work activity and coronary heart mortality. New England Journal of Medicine, 292 545–550.Google Scholar
  107. Paffenbarger, R. S., Jr., & Hyde, R. T. (1984). Exercise in the prevention of coronary heart disease. Preventive Medicine, 13 3–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Paffenbarger, R. S., Jr., Wing, A. L., & Hyde, R. T. (1978). Physical activity as an index of heart attack risk in college alumni. American Journal of Epidemiology, 108 161–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Paffenbarger, R. S., Jr., Hyde, R. T., Wing, A. L., & Steinmetz, C. H. (1984). A natural history of athleticism and cardiovascular health. Journal of the American Medical Association, 252 491–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Paffenbarger, R. S., Jr., Hyde, R. T., Wing, A. L., & Hsieh, C. C. (1986). Physical activity, all-cause mortality, and longevity of college alumni. New England Journal of Medicine, 314 605–613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Palmore, E. (1970). Health practices and illness among the aged. Gerontologist, 10 313–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Perry, T. J., & Goldwater, B. C. (1987). A passive behavioral measure of sleep onset in high-alpha and low-alpha subjects. Psychophysiology, 24 657–665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Petruzzello, S. J., Landers, D. M., Hatfield, B. D., Kubitz, K. A., & Salazar, W. (1991). A meta-analy-sis on the anxiety-reducing effects of acute and chronic exercise. Sports Medicine, 11 143–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Pollak, C. P., Perlick, D., & Linsner, J. P. (1986). Sleep in the elderly: Survey of an urban community. Sleep Research, 15 54.Google Scholar
  115. Pollak, C. P., Perlick, D., Linsner, J. P., Wenston, J., & Hsieh, F. (1990). Sleep problems in the community elderly as predictors of death and nursing home placement. Journal of Community Health, 15 123–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Pollak, C. P., Perlick, D., & Linsner, J. P. (1992). Daily sleep reports and circadian rest-activity cycles of elderly community residents with insomnia. Biological Psychiatry, 32 1019–1027.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Pollak, C. P., Ford, T., McGuire, P. J., Vaisman, S., & Zendell, S. (1995). Motor activity of community elders and their caregivers. Sleep Research, 24 536.Google Scholar
  118. Powell, K. E., Thompson, P. D., Caspersen, C. J., & Kendrick, J. S. (1987). Physical activity and the incidence of coronary heart disease. Annual Review of Public Health, 8 253–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Powell, R. R. (1974). Psychological effects of exercise therapy upon institutionalized geriatric mental patients. Journals of Gerontology, 29 157–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Raoux, N., Benoit, O., Dantchev, N., Denise, P., Franc, B., Allilaire, J. F., & Widlocher, D. (1994). Circadian pattern of motor activity in major depressed patients undergoing antidepressant therapy: Relationship between actigraphic measures and clinical course. Psychiatry Research, 52 85–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Rechtschaffen, A. (1994). Sleep onset: Conceptual issues. In R. D. Ogilvie & J. R. Harsh (Eds.), Sleep onset: Normal and abnormal processes (pp. 3–17). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  122. Redwood, D. R., Rosing, D. R., & Epstein, S. E. (1972). Circulatory and symptomatic effects of physical training in patients with coronary artery diseases and angina pectoris. New England Journal of Medicine, 286 959–965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Reisberg, B., Borenstein, J., Salob, S. P., Ferris, S. H., Frannsen, E., & Georgotas, A. (1987). Behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease: Phenomenology and treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 48 9–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Renfrew, J. W., Pettigrew, K. D., & Rapoport, S. I. (1987). Motor activity and sleep duration as a function of age in healthy men. Physiology and Behavior, 41 627–634.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Rogers, M. A., King, D. S., Hagberg, J. M., Ehsani, A. A., & Holloszy, J. O. (1990). Effect of 10 days of inactivity on glucose tolerance in master athletes. Journal of Applied Physiology, 68 1833–1837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Rosnow, I., & Breslau, N. (1966). A Guttman health scale for the aged. Journals of Gerontology, 21 556–559.Google Scholar
  127. Sack, R. L., Blood, M. L., Percy, D. L., & Pen, J. C. (1995). A comparison of sleep onset latency measured by PSG., actigraphy and behavioral response. Sleep Research, 24 540.Google Scholar
  128. Sadeh, A. (1994). Assessment of intervention for infant night waking: Parental reports and activity-based home monitoring. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62 63–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Sadeh, A., Sharkey, K., & Carskadon, M. A. (1994). Activity-based sleep-wake identification: An empirical test of methodological issues. Sleep, 17 201–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Sadeh, A., Hauri, P. J., Kripke, D. F., & Lavie, P. (1995). The role of actigraphy in the evaluation of sleep disorders. Sleep, 18 288–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Salonen, J. T., Puska, P., & Tuomilehto, J. (1982). Physical activity and risk of myocardial infarction, cerebral stroke and death: A Longitudinal study in eastern Finland. American Journal of Epidemiology, 115 526–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Sanford, J. R. A. (1975). Tolerance of debility in elderly dependents by supporters at home: Its significance for hospital practice. British Medical Journal, 23 471–473.Google Scholar
  133. Satlin, A., Teicher, M. H., Lieberman, H. R., Baldessarini, R. J., Volicer, L., & Rheaume, Y. (1991). Circadian locomotor activity in Alzheimer’s disease. Neuropsychopharmacology, 5 115–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Satlin, A., Volicer, L., Ross, V., Herz, L., & Campbell, S. (1992). Bright light treatment of behavioral and sleep disturbances in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149 1028–1032.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Seals, D. R., Hagberg, J. M., Allen, W. K., Hurley, B. F., Dalsky, G. P., Ehsani, A. A., & Holloszy, J. O. (1984). Glucose tolerance in young and older athletes and sedentary men. Journal of Applied Physiology, 56 1521–1525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Sidney, K. H., & Shephard, R. J. (1977). Activity patterns of elderly men and women. Journals of Gerontology, 32 25–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Simons, A. D., McGowan, C. R., Epstein, L. H., Kupfer, D. J., & Robertson, R. J. (1985). Exercise as a treatment for depression: An update. Clinical Psychology Review, 5 553–568.Google Scholar
  138. Siu, A. L., Hays, R. D., Ouslander, J. G., Osterwell, D., Valdez, R. B., Krynski, M., & Gross, A. (1993). Measuring functioning and health in the very old. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 48 M10–M14.Google Scholar
  139. Slattery, M. L., Schumacher, M. C., Smith, K. R., West, D. W., & Abd-Elghany, N. (1988). Physical activity, diet, and risk of colon cancer in Utah. American Journal of Epidemiology, 128 989–999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Slattery, M. L., Jacobs, D. R., Jr., & Nichaman, M. Z. (1989). Leisure time physical activity and coronary heart disease death: The US railroad study. Circulation, 79 304–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Snyder, F., & Scott, J. (1972). The psychology of sleep. In N. S. Greenfield & R. A. Sternback (Eds.), Handbook of psychophysiology (pp. 645–708). Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  142. Standards of Practice Committee. (1995). Practice parameters for the use of actigraphy in the clinical assessment of sleep disorders. Sleep, 18 285–287.Google Scholar
  143. Stephens, T., Craig, C. L., & Ferris, B. F. (1986). Adult physical fitness in Canada: Findings from the Canada Fitness Survey 1. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 77 285–290.Google Scholar
  144. Stickgold, R., & Hobson, J. A. (1994). Home monitoring of sleep onset and sleep-onset mentation using the Nightcap (tm). In R. D. Ogilvie & J. R. Harsh (Eds.), Sleep onset: normal and abnormal processes (pp. 141–160). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  145. Stones, M. J., & Kozma, A. (1989). Age, exercise, and coding performance. Psychology and Aging, 4 190–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Svanborg, E., Larsson, H., Carlsson-Nordlander, B., & Pirskanen, R. (1990). A limited diagnostic investigation for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Chest, 98 1341–1345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Teicher, M. H., Lawrence, J. M., Barber, N. I., Finklestein, S. P., Lieberman, H. R., & Baldessarini, R. J. (1988). Increased activity and phase delay in circadian motility rhythms in geriatric depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45 913–917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Teri, L., Larsen, E. B., & Reifler, B. V. (1988). Behavioral disturbance in dementia of Alzheimer’s type. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 36 1–6.Google Scholar
  149. Thoman, E. B., Acebo, C., & Lamm, S. (1993). Stability and instability of sleep in older persons recorded in the home. Sleep, 16 578–585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Trenkwalder, C., Stiasny, K., Pollmächer, T., Wetter, Th., Schwarz, J., Kohnen, R., Kazenwadel, J., Krüger, H. P., Ramm, S., Kunzel, M., & Oertel, W. H. (1995). L-dopa therapy of uremic and ideopathic restless legs syndrome: A double-blind, crossover trial. Sleep, 18 681–688.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Tryon, W. W. (1985). The measurement of human activity. In W. W. Tryon (Ed.), Behavioral assessment in behavioral medicine (pp. 200–256). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  152. Tryon, W. W. (1993). The role of motor excess and instrumented activity measurement in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Behavior Modification, 17 371–406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Tryon, W. W. (1996). Nocturnal activity and sleep assessment. Clinical Psychology Review, 16 197–213.Google Scholar
  154. Tryon, W. W. (1997). Motor Activity and DSM-IV. In. S. M. Turner & M. Hersen (Eds.), Adult psy-chopathology and diagnosis (3rd ed., pp.547–577). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  155. Tryon, W. W., & Williams, R. (1996). Fully proportional actigraphy: A new instrument. Behavior Research Methods Instruments & Computers, 28 392–403.Google Scholar
  156. Tune, G. S., (1968). Sleep and wakefulness in normal human adults. British Medical Journal, 2 269–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Van Gool, W. A., & Mirmiran, M. (1986). Aging and circadian rhythms. Progress in Brain Research, 70 255–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. van Hüten, B., Hoff, J. I., Huub, A. M., Middelkoop, M. A., van der Velde, E. A., Kerkhof, G. A., Wauquier, A., Kamphuisen, H. A. C., & Roos, R. A. C. (1994). Sleep disruption in Parkinson’s disease. Archives of Neurology, 51 922–928.Google Scholar
  159. van Hüten, J. J., Braat, E. A. M., van der Velde, E. A., Middelkoop, H. A. M., Kerhof, G. A., & Kamphuisen, H. A. C. (1993). Ambulatory activity monitoring during sleep: An evaluation of internight and intrasubject variability in healthy persons aged 50-98 years. Sleep, 16 146–150.Google Scholar
  160. van Hüten, J. J., Middelkoop, H. A. M., Kuiper, S. I. R., Kramer, C. G. S., & Roos, R. A. C. (1993). Where to record motor activity: An evaluation of commonly used sites of placement for activity monitors. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 89 359–362.Google Scholar
  161. van Someren, E. J. W., Mirmiran, M., & Swaab, D. F. (1993). Non-pharmacological treatment of sleep and wake disturbances in aging and Alzheimer’s disease: Chronobiological perspectives, behavioral Brain Research, 57 235–253.Google Scholar
  162. Viens, M., De Koninck, J., Van den Bergen, R., Audet, R., & Christ, G. (1988). A refined switch-activated time monitor for the measurement of sleep-onset latency. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 26 271–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Wallace, J. E., Krauter, E., & Campbell, E. (1980). Motor and reflexive behavior in the aging rat. Journals of Gerontology, 35 364–370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Webb, W. B. (1968). Sleep: An experimental approach. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  165. Webster, J. B., Messin, S., Mullaney, D. J., & Kripke, D. F. (1982). Transducer design and placement for activity recording. Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, 20 741–744.Google Scholar
  166. Weinert, D., Sitka, U., Minors, D. S., & Waterhouse, J. M. (1994). The development of circadian rhythmicity in neonates. Early Human Development, 36 117–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Westover, S. A., & Lanyon, R. I. (1990). The maintenance of weight loss after behavioral treatment. Behavior Modification, 14 123–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Wever, R. A. (1979). The circadian system of man: Results of experiments under temporal isolation. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  169. Winograd, C. H., & Jarvik, L. F. (1986). Physician management of the demented patient. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 34 295–308.Google Scholar
  170. Witting, W., Kwa, I. H., Eikelenboom, P., Mirmiran, M., & Swaab, D. F (1990). Alterations in the circadian rest-activity rhythm in aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Biological Psychiatry, 27 563–572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Woollacott, M. H. (1993). Age-related changes in posture and movement. Journals of Gerontology, 48 (Special Issue), 56–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Zuckerman, M. (1991). Psychobiology of personality. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Warren W. Tryon
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyFordham UniversityBronxUSA

Personalised recommendations