Property Enhanced Natural Fiber Composite Materials Based on Chemical Modification

  • Roger M. Rowell

Abstract

Agro-based resources, also referrered to as lignocellulosics, are resources that contain cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. Lignocellulosics include wood, agricultural residues, water plants, grasses, and other plant substances. When considering lignocellulosics as possible engineering materials, there are several very basic concepts that must be considered. First, lignocellulosics are hygroscopic resources that were designed to perform, in nature, in a wet enviornment. Secondly, nature is programmed to recycle lignocellulosics in a timely way through biological, thermal, aqueous, photochemical, chemical, and mechanical degradations.

Keywords

Acetic Anhydride Equilibrium Moisture Content Weight Percent Gain Thickness Swell Cell Wall Polymer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andersson, M. and Tillman, A.-M., (1989). Acetylation of Jute. Effects on strength, rot resistance and hydrofobicity, J. Applied Polymer Sci., 37, 3437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ANSI (1982). American National Standard. Basic Hardboard. ANSI/AHA 135.4 (reaffirmed Jan, 1988), American Hardboard Association, Palatine, IL.Google Scholar
  3. Banks, W. B. and Lawther, J. M., (1994). Derivation of wood in composites, In, Cellulosic polymers, blends and composites, Gilbert, R. G. ed., Hanser Publishers, New York, NY, 131.Google Scholar
  4. Callow, H. J., (1951). Acetylation of cellulose and lignin in jute fiber, Journal of the Indian Chemical Society, 43, 605.Google Scholar
  5. Cowling, E. B., (1961). Comparative biochemistry of the decay of Sweetgum sapwood by white-rot and brown-rot fungus, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Serv. Technol. Bull, No. 1258, 50.Google Scholar
  6. Feist, W. C., Rowell, R. M., and Ellis, W. D., (1991a). Moisture sorption and accelerated weathering of acetylated and/or methyl methacrylate treated aspen, Wood and Fiber Sci., 23(1), 128.Google Scholar
  7. Feist, W. C., Rowell, R. M., and Youngquist, J. A., (1991b). Weathering and finish performance of acetylated aspen fiberboard, Wood and Fiber Sci., 23(2), 260.Google Scholar
  8. Hon, D. N.-S., (1992). Chemical modification of lignocellulosic materials: old chemistry, new approaches, Polymer News, (17), 102.Google Scholar
  9. Imamura, Y., and Nishimoto, K., (1985). Bending creep test of wood-based materials under fungal attack. J. Soc. Materials Sci. 34(38), 985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Imamura, Y., Nishimoto, K., Rowell, R. M., (1987). Internal bond strength of acetylated flakeboard exposed to decay hazard, Mokuzai Gakkaishi. 33(12), 986.Google Scholar
  11. Imamura, Y., Rowell, R. M, Simonson, R., and Tillman, A.-M., (1988). Bending-creep tests on acetylated pine and birch particleboards during white-and brown-rot fungal attack, Paperi ja Puu, 9, 816.Google Scholar
  12. Johnson, B. R., and Rowell, R. M., (1988). Resistance of chemically-modified wood to marine borers, Material und Organismen, 23(2), 147.Google Scholar
  13. Krzysik, A. M., Youngquist, J. A., Muehl, J. M., Rowell. R. M., Chow, P., and Shook, S. R., (1992). Dry-process hardboards from recycled newsprint paper fibers. In, Materials interactions relevant to recycling of wood-based materials, Rowell, R. M., Laufenberg, T. L., and Rowell, J. K., eds., Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA, 266, 73.Google Scholar
  14. Krzysik, A. M., Youngquist, J. A., Rowell, R. M., Muehl, J. M., Chow, P., and Shook. S. R., (1993). Feasibility of using recycled newspaper as a fiber source for dry-process hardboards. For. Prod. J., 43(7/8), 53.Google Scholar
  15. Kumar, S., (1994). Chemical modification of wood, Wood and Fiber Sci, 26(2) 270.Google Scholar
  16. Nilsson, T., (1986). Personal communication, Upsalla, Sweden.Google Scholar
  17. Nilsson, T., Rowell, R. M., Simonson, R., and Tillman, A.-M., (1988). Fungal resistance of pine particle boards made from various types of acetylated chips, Holzforschung., 42(2), 123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rowell, R. M., (1975). Chemical modification of wood: advantages and disadvantages, Proceedings, Am. Wood Preservers’ Assoc, 71, 41.Google Scholar
  19. Rowell, R. M., (1982). Distribution of reacted chemicals in southern pine modified with acetic anhydride, Wood Sci. 15(2), 172.Google Scholar
  20. Rowell, R. M., (1983). Chemical modification of wood: A review, Commonwealth Forestry Bureau, Oxford, England, 6(12), 363.Google Scholar
  21. Rowell, R. M., (1984). The Chemistry of Solid Wood, Advances in Chemistry Series No. 207, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rowell, R. M., (1990). Chemical modification of wood: Its application to composite wood products, Proceedings, Composite Products Symposium, Rotorua, New Zealand, November, 1988, FRI Bulletin, No. 153, 57.Google Scholar
  23. Rowell, R. M., (1991). Chemical modification of wood, Handbook on Wood and Cellulosic Materials, Hon, D. N.-S., and Shiraishi, N., eds., Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, 703.Google Scholar
  24. Rowell, R. M., (1992). Property enhancement of wood composites, Composites Applications: The role of matrix, fiber, and interface, Vigo, T. L., and Kinzig, B.J., eds., VCH Publishers, Inc, New York, NY, 365.Google Scholar
  25. Rowell, R. M., (1993). Opportunities for composite materials from jute and kenaf, International consultation of jute and the environment, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, ESC:JU/IC 93/15, 1.Google Scholar
  26. Rowell, R. M., and Banks, W. B., (1985). Water repellency and dimensional stability of wood, USDA Forest Service General Technical Report FPL 50, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  27. Rowell, R. M., and Banks, W. B., (1987). Tensile strength and work to failure of acetylated pine and lime flakes, British Polymer J., 19, 479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rowell, R. M. and Ellis, W. D., (1984). Reaction of epoxides with wood, USDA Forest Service Research Paper, FPL 451, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  29. Rowell, R. M., Esenther, G. R., Youngquist, J. A., Nicholas, D. D., Nilsson, T., Imamura, Y., Kerner-Gang, W., Trong, L., and Deon, G., (1988a). Wood modification in the protection of wood composites, Proceedings: IUFRO wood protection subject group, Honey Harbor, Ontario, Canada. Canadian Forestry Service, 238.Google Scholar
  30. Rowell, R. M., and Harrison, S. E., (1993). Property enhanced kenaf fiber composites, Proceedings, Fifth Annual International Kenaf Conference, Bhangoo, M. S., ed., California State University Press, Fresno, CA, 129.Google Scholar
  31. Rowell, R. M., Hart, S. V. and Esenther, G. R. (1979). Resistance of alkylene-oxide treatments on dimensional stability of wood, Wood Sci, 11(4), 271.Google Scholar
  32. Rowell, R. M., and Keany, F., (1991). Fiberboards made from acetylated bagasse fiber, Wood and Fiber Sci. 23(1), 15.Google Scholar
  33. Rowell, R. M., and Konkol, P.,(1987). Treatments that enhance physical properties of wood, USDA, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory Gen. Technical Report FPL-GTR-55, Madison, WL.Google Scholar
  34. Rowell, R. M., and Norimoto, M., (1987). Acetylation of bamboo fiber, J. Jap. Wood Res. Soc, 33(11), 907.Google Scholar
  35. Rowell, R. M., and Norimoto, M., (1988). Dimensional stability of bamboo particleboards made from acetylated particles, Mokuzai Gakkaishi, 34(7), 627.Google Scholar
  36. Rowell, R. M, and Rowell, J. S., (1989). Moisture sorption of various types of acetylated lignocellulosic fibers, Cellulose and Wood, Schuerch, C., ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, 343.Google Scholar
  37. Rowell, R. M., Simonson, R., Hess, S., Plackett, D. V., Cronshaw, D., and Dunningham, E., (1994b). Acetyl distribution in acetylated whole wood and reactivity of isolated wood cell wall components to acetic anhydride, Wood and Fiber Sci., 26(1), 11.Google Scholar
  38. Rowell, R. M., Simonson, R., and Tillman, A.-M., (1991). A process for improving dimensional stability and biological resistance of lignocellulosic materials, European Patent 0213252..Google Scholar
  39. Rowell, R. M., Susott, R. A., De Groot, W. G., and Shafizadeh, F., (1984). Bonding fire retardants to wood. Part I, Wood and Fiber Sci., 16(2), 214.Google Scholar
  40. Rowell, R. M., Tillman, A.-M., and Simonson, R., (1986). A simplified procedure for the acetylation of hardwood and softwood flakes for flakeboard production, J. Wood Chem. and Tech., 6(3), 427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rowell, R. M.; Youngquist, J. A., and Imamura, Y., (1988b). Strength tests on acetylated flakeboards exposed to a brown rot fungus, Wood and Fiber Sci., 20(2), 266.Google Scholar
  42. Rowell, R. M., and Youngs, R. L., (1981). Dimensional stabilization of wood in use, USDA Forest Serv. Res. Note. FPL-0243, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  43. Stamm, A. J., (1964). Wood and Cellulose Science’, The Ronald Press Co., New York.Google Scholar
  44. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, (1987). Wood Handbook,. USDA Agri. Handbook 72, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  45. Vick, C. B., and Rowell, R. M., (1990). Adhesive bonding of acetylated wood, Internat. J. Adhesion and Adhesives, 10(4), 263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roger M. Rowell
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.USDA Forest ServiceForest Products LaboratoryMadisonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biological Systems EngineeringUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations