Photorefractivity and Optical Wave Mixing Effects in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped with Fullerene Derivatives and Dyes

  • Brett D. Guenther
  • M. V. Wood
  • I. C. Khoo


The photorefractive effect has been observed and documented for decades1,2. This effect is typically observed in impurity doped electrooptic crystals. When the crystal is illuminated, charge carriers are excited from occupied donor states to the conduction band. These excited charge carriers migrate under the influence of diffusion, and any internal or external electric fields, until they are trapped by empty donors thereby causing a space-charge field to be formed within the crystal. The electric field that results from the charge separation acts to modulate the index of refraction through the electrooptic Pockels effect.


Liquid Crystal Nematic Liquid Crystal Diffraction Efficiency Photorefractive Effect Space Charge Field 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brett D. Guenther
    • 1
  • M. V. Wood
    • 1
  • I. C. Khoo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

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