Reactive Extrusion Compatibilization of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) — Polyolefin Blends

  • Lloyd M. Robeson
  • Amir Famili
  • James F. Nangeroni


Reactive extrusion compatibilization of highly incompatible blend combinations has been an active area of research for almost two decades. Polyamide-polyolefin reactive extruded blends involving peroxide grafting of anhydride or acid groups onto polyolefin followed by reaction with terminal polyamide amine groups has been well demonstrated as a method for achieving mechanical compatibilization. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-polyolefin blends comprise a combination of polar, hydrophilic polymers with non-polar hydrophobic polymers and expectedly poor mechanical compatibility. A similar procedure involving reactive extrusion grafting of maleic anhydride onto the polyolefin followed by thermoplastic poly(vinyl alcohol) addition allows for anhydride-alcohol reactions and thus compatibilization.


Impact Strength Maleic Anhydride Vinyl Alcohol Melt Index Reactive Extrusion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    O. Olabisi, L. M. Robeson, and M. T. Shaw, “Polymer-Polymer Miscibility,” Academic Press, New York, 1979.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    F. Ide and A. Hasegawa, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 18, 963 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    S.Y. Hobbs, R. C. Bopp, and V. H. Watkins, Polym. Eng. Sci., 23, 380 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Cummins, F. Coppola, L. D’Orazio, R. Greco, G. Maglio, M. Malinconico, C. Mancarella, E. Martuscelli, and G. Ragosta, Polym., 27, 1874 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    B. N. Epstein, U.S. Pat. 4,174,358, assigned to E. I. duPont de Nemours and Co., Nov. 13, 1979.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Cimmino, L. D’Orazio, R. Greco, G. Maglio, M. Malinconico, C. Mancarella, E. Martuscelli, R. Palumbo and G. Ragosta, Polym. Eng. Sci., 24, 48 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. S. Dagli, M. Xanthos and J. A. Biesenberger, Polym. Eng. Sci., 34, 1720 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. J. M. Borggreve, R. J. Gaymans, J. Schuijer, and J. F. Ingen Housz, Polym., 28, 1489 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. R. Gallucci, R. van der Meer, and R. W. Avabian, U.S. Pat. 4,873,286, assigned to General Electric Co., Oct. 10, 1989.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Ueno and T. Mariyama, U.S. Pat. 4,315,086, assigned to Sumitonio Chemical Company Ltd., Feb. 9, 1982.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. S. Dagli and K. M. Kamdar, Polym. Eng. Sci., 34, 1709 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. Y. Han and W. L. Gately, U.S. Pat. 4,689,372, assigned to General Electric Co.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Saleem and W. E. Baker, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 39, 655 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. W. Fowler and W. E. Baker, Polym. Eng. Sci., 28, 1427 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. B. Brown, in “Reactive Extrusion: Principles and Practice,” ed. by M. Xanthos, pp. 75–199, Hanser Publishers, New York, 1992.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Y. Hobbs, M. E. J. Dekkers and V. H. Watkins, Polym., 29, 1598 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    L. M. Robeson, U.S. Pat. No. 4,532,288, assigned to Union Carbide Corp., July 30, 1985.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    D. Lausberg, G. Blinne, P. I. Hermann, G. Heinz, E. Seiler, and M. Knoll, U.S. Patent 4,798,855, assigned to BASF, Jan. 17, 1989.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. C. Schwarz, J. W. Barlow and D. R. Paul, J. Appl. Polm. Sci., 35, 2053 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    L. M. Robeson, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 30, 4081 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. E. McGrath, L. M. Robeson, M. Matzner, in “Recent Advances in Polymer Blends, Grafts and Blocks,” ed. by L. H. Sperling, p. 195, Plenum Press, New York, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    L. M. Robeson, R. J. Axelrod, M. S. Vratsanos, and M. R. Kittek, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 52, 1837(1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    F. L. Marten, A. Famili, and J. F. Nangeroni, U.S. Pat. 5,051,222, assigned to Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Sept. 24, 1991.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    N. G. Gaylord, in Reactive Extrusion: Principles and Practice, ed. by M. Xanthos, pp. 55–71, Hauser Publishers, New York, 1992.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lloyd M. Robeson
    • 1
  • Amir Famili
    • 1
  • James F. Nangeroni
    • 2
  1. 1.Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.AllentownUSA
  2. 2.J. Nangeroni Associates, Inc.USA

Personalised recommendations