Team Orientated Medical Simulation

  • Stephan C. U. Marsch


Team orientated medical simulation (TOMS) stands for high-fidelity full scale simulation of a complete operating room including all personnel usually involved in the patients’ care. This novel approach to training in the medical field was first performed at the University of Basel in Switzerland in December 1994 under the leadership of Hans-Gerhard Schäfer (figure 1). After the death of Hans-Gerhard in July 1995 his work has been carried on by a team of investigators from both the anesthetic and surgical departments of the University of Basel as well as coworkers from outside the institution. To the best of our knowledge, the simulator situated in the University of Basel is still the only one used to train complete operating room teams.


Operating Room Critical Incident Simulator Training Medical Simulation Simulation Session 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephan C. U. Marsch
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiaUniversity of Basel, KantonsspitalBaselSwitzerland

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