Advances in Three-Dimensional Data Acquisition and Analysis

  • John Kappelman


Advances in computer technology have greatly expanded the range of topics that can be investigated within the general field of primate locomotion and the field has witnessed great strides in such areas as telemetered electromyography (Jungers and Stern, 1980). The study of the relationship between form and function in living animals remains a critical focus of functional morphology because this approach offers the only bridge to understanding the function of extinct species and the nature of evolutionary transitions. Technological advances have not, however, changed the fact that the fossil record is almost exclusively limited to skeletal remains, and studies of this material are necessarily more limited and are usually restricted to quantifying the shape and size of different skeletal elements and how these variables are related to function.


Skeletal Element Functional Morphology Physical Anthropology Nuclear Magnetic Reso Extinct Species 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aiello LC, Wood BA, Key C, and Wood C (1998) Laser scanning and palaeoanthropology: An example from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. In E Strasser, JG Fleagle, AL Rosenberger, and H McHenry (eds.): Primate Locomotion: Recent Advances, New York: Plenum Press, pp. 223–236.Google Scholar
  2. Baran NM (1988) Finite Element Analysis on Microcomputers. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  3. Carter DR (1987) Mechanical loading history and skeletal biology. J. Biomech. 20:1095–1109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carter DR, Orr TR, and Fyhrie DP (1989) Relationships between loading history and femoral cancellous bone architecture. J. Biomech. 22:231–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen X, and Povirk G (1996) Assessing errors introduced by modeling the anisotropic human mandible isotropically with finite element method. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. Supplement 22:83.Google Scholar
  6. Chen X, and MacLatchy LM (1997) The biomechanical significance of the trabecular bone in hominoid proximal femora. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. Supplement 24:90–91.Google Scholar
  7. Cifelli RL, Rowe TB, Luckett WP, Banta J, Reyes R, and Howes RI (1996) Fossil evidence for the origin of the marsupial pattern of tooth replacement. Nature 379:715–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Conroy GC, and Vannier MW (1984) Noninvasive three-dimensional computer imaging of matrix-filled fossil skulls by high-resolution computer tomography. Science 226:456–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Conroy GC, and Vannier MW (1987) Dental development of the Taung skull from computerized tomography. Nature 329:625–627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Coolidge HJ Jr. (1933) Panpaniscus. Pygmy chimpanzee from south of the Congo River. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 18:l–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Corner BD, and Richtsmeier JT (1993) Cranial growth and growth dimorphism in Ateles geoffroyi. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 92:371–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Currey J (1984) The Mechanical Adaptations of Bones. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  13. Dean D (1996) Three-dimensional data capture and visualization. In LF Marcus, M Corti, A Loy, GJP Naylor, and DE Slice (eds.): Advances in Morphometrics. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 53–69.Google Scholar
  14. Duncan A, and Kappelman J (1991) Image manipulation, analysis, and mass storage on the microcomputer. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. Supplement 12:69–70.Google Scholar
  15. Duncan A, Kappelman J, and Shapiro LJ (1994) Metatarsophalangeal joint function and positional behavior in Australopithecus afarensis. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 93:67–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Duncan A, Podnos E, Cleghorn NE, and Kappelman J (1997) Development and analysis of 3-D finite element models of human femoral diaphyses. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. Supplement 24:103–104.Google Scholar
  17. Edelman DB, and Reeke GN Jr. (1996) Finite element analysis of hominoid proximal femora. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. Supplement 22:101.Google Scholar
  18. Finlay JB, Bourne RB, and McLean J (1982) A technique for the in vitro measurement of principal strains in the human tibia. J. Biomech. 15:723–739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hake P (1992) An examination of sexual dimorphism in the dentition and postcranium of Papio anubis. B.A. Senior Honors Thesis, The University of Texas at Austin.Google Scholar
  20. Hannam AG, and Wood WW (1989) Relationships between the size and spatial morphology of human masseter and medial pterygoid muscles, the craniofacial skeleton, and jaw biomechanics. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 80:429–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hartwig WC, and Sadler LL (1993) Visualization and physical anthropology. In AJ Almquist and A Manyak (eds.): Milestones in Human Evolution. Prospect Heights: Waveland Press, Inc, pp. 187–222.Google Scholar
  22. Hjalgrim H, Lynnerup N, Liversage M, and Rosenklint A (1995) Stereolithography: Potential applications in anthropological studies. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 97:329–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hobatho MC, Darmana R, Pastor P, Barrau JJ, Laroze S, and Morucci JP (1991) Development of a three-dimensional finite element model of a human tibia using experimental modal analysis. J. Biomech. 24:371–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Howells WW (1973) Cranial Variation in Man. A Study by Multivariate Analysis of Patterns of Differences among Recent Human Populations. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archeology and Ethnology, 67:1–259.Google Scholar
  25. Howells WW (1989) Skull Shapes and the Map. Craniometric Analyses in the Dispersion of Modern Homo. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archeology and Ethnology 79:1–189.Google Scholar
  26. Howells WW (1995) Who’s Who in Skulls. Ethnic Identification of Crania from Measurements. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archeology and Ethnology 82:1–108.Google Scholar
  27. Howells WW (1996) Howell’s craniometric data on the Internet. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 101:441–442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Huiskes R, and Chao EYS (1983) A survey of finite elements analysis in orthopedic biomechanics: The first decade. J. Biomech. 16:385–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Johanson DC (1995) Face-to-face with Lucy’s family. National Geographic 189:96–117.Google Scholar
  30. Jungers WL, and Stern JT Jr. (1980) Telemetered electromyography of forelimb muscle chains in gibbons (Hylobates lav). Science 208:617–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kalvin AD, Dean D, and Hublin JJ (1995) Reconstructing human fossils. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 15:12–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kappelman J (1992) Three-dimensional input and output of solid models for studies in functional morphology. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. Supplement 14:97.Google Scholar
  33. Kappelman J (1993) Building an evolutionary database using digital imaging and animation software. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. Supplement 16:122.Google Scholar
  34. Korioth TWP, Romilly DP, and Hannam AG (1992) Three-dimensional finite element stress analysis of the dentate human mandible. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 88:69–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Langdon JH, Bruckner J, and Baker HH (1991) Paleokinematics of the australopithecine foot with three-dimensional imaging. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. Supplement 12:111.Google Scholar
  36. Lanyon LE (1971) Strain in sheep lumbar vertebrae recorded during life. Acta. Orthop. Scand. 42:102–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lanyon LE, and Rubin CT (1984) Functional adaptation in skeletal structures. In M Hildebrand, DM Bramble, KF Liem, and DB Wake (eds.): Functional Vertebrate Morphology. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, pp. 1–25.Google Scholar
  38. Lanyon LE, and Smith RN (1970) Bone strain in the tibia during normal quadrupedal locomotion. Acta. Orthop. Scand. 41:238–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lanyon LE, Hampson WGJ, Goodship AG, and Shah JS (1975) Bone deformation recorded in vivo from strain gauges attached to the human tibial shaft. Acta. Orthop. Scand. 46:256–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. MacLatchy LM (1996) Another look at the australopithecine hip. J. Hum. Evol. 31:453–476.Google Scholar
  41. MacLatchy LM (1998) Reconstruction of hip joint function in extant and fossil primates. In E Strasser, JG Fleagle, AL Rosenberger, and HM McHenry (eds.): Primate Locomotion: Recent Advances. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 111–130.Google Scholar
  42. MacLatchy LM, and Bossert WH (1996) An analysis of the articular surface distribution of the femoral head and acetabulum in anthropoids, with implications for hip function in Miocene hominoids. J. Hum. Evol. 31:425–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mann AE (1975) Some Paleodemographic Aspects of the South African Australopithecines. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  44. Martin RD (1989) New quantitative developments in primatology and anthropology. Folia Primatol. 53:1–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Oxnard CE (1973) Form and Pattern in Human Evolution: Some mathematical, physical, and engineering approaches. Chicago: University Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  46. Oxnard CE (1975) Uniqueness and Diversity in Human Evolution: Morphometric studies of Australopithecines. Chicago: University Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  47. Oxnard CE (1984) The Order of Man: A Biomathematical Anatomy of the Primates. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Rao SS (1982) The Finite Element Method in Engineering. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  49. Richmond B, and Qin Y-X (1996) Finite element methods in paleoanthropology: The case of phalangeal curvature. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. Supplement. 22:197.Google Scholar
  50. Richtsmeier JT (1989) Application of finite-element scaling analysis in primatology. Folia Primatol. 53:50–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rowe T, Carlson WD, and Bottorff W (1993) Thrinaxodon: Digital Atlas of the Skull. CD ROM, 623 MB, Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  52. Rowe T, Kappelman J, Carlson WD, Ketcham R, and Denison C (1997) High resolution computed tomography: A breakthrough technology for earth scientists. Geotimes 42:23–27.Google Scholar
  53. Ruff CB (1989) New approaches to structural evolution of limb bones in primates. Folia Primatol. 53:142–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ruff CB, and Leo FP (1986) Use of computed tomography in skeletal structure research. Yrbk. Phys. Anthropol. 29:181–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ryan T (1997) A structural analysis of the cross-sectional shape of the tibia in Homo and Pan using the finite element method. M. A. Thesis, The University of Texas at Austin.Google Scholar
  56. Ryan T, and Kappelman J (1997) A structural analysis of tibial shape using the finite element method. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. Supplement 24:202.Google Scholar
  57. Ryan TM, Scott RS, Duncan A, Kappelman J, Shapiro L, Grant S, Lewis K, and Stearman R (1996) Finite element analysis using a 3-D laser scanner. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. Supplement 22:206.Google Scholar
  58. Spears IR, and Crompton RH (1996) The mechanical significance of the occlusal geometry of great ape molars in food breakdown. J. Hum. Evol. 31:517–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Spencer MA, and Spencer GS (1995) Technical note: Video-based three-dimensional morphometrics. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 96:443–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tate JR, and Cann CE (1982) High-resolution computed tomography for the comparative study of fossil and extant bone. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 58:61–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Taube RA, and Adelstein SJ (1987) A short history of modern medical imaging. In E Guzzardi (ed.): Physics and Engineering of Medical Imaging. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, pp. 9–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Thompson DW (1971) On Growth and Form. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Vannier MW, Conroy GC, Marsh JL, Knapp RH (1985) Three-dimensional cranial surface reconstructions using high-resolution computed tomography. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 67:299–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wainwright SA, Biggs WD, Currey JD, and Gosline JM (1976) Mechanical Design in Organisms. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  65. Ward SC, and Molnar S (1980) Experimental stress analysis of topographic diversity in early hominid gnathic morphology. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 53:383–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Weidenreich F (1943) The skull of Sinanthropus pekinensis: A comparative study on a primitive hominid skull. Palaeontologia Sinica D 10:1–485.Google Scholar
  67. Wilkins SW, Gureyev TE, Gao D, Pogany A, and Stevenson AW (1996) Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays. Nature 384:335–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Winkler LA, Schwartz JH, and Swindler DR (1996) Development of the orangutan permanent dentition: Assessing patterns and variation in tooth development. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 99:205–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Zollikofer CPE, Ponce de Leon MS, Martin RD, and Stucki P (1995) Neanderthal computer skulls. Nature 357:283–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Kappelman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyThe University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA

Personalised recommendations