Advertisement

Protective Mechanisms in Germ Cells: Stress Proteins in Spermatogenesis

  • David J. Dix
  • Robert L. Hong
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 444)

Abstract

A wide range of environmental exposures trigger protective mechanisms in reproductive tissues which are mediated by stress or heat shock proteins (HSPs). These stress proteins maintain normal cellular functions such as protein synthesis, as well as assist in resisting and recovering from toxicant-induced cellular damage. Over the past decade a number of laboratories have examined the expression and potential functions of these stress proteins during gametogenesis (reviewed in Dix, 1997a) and in reproductive toxicology (Dix, 1997b). This paper reviews the expression of HSPs in testes, presents a detailed analysis of the function of Hsp70-2 during the meiotic phase of spermatogenesis, and concludes with a discussion of stress-inducible HSPs and putative protective mechanisms.

Keywords

Heat Shock Protein Sertoli Cell Stress Protein Synaptonemal Complex Meiotic Prophase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, J.W., Dix, D.J., Bollins, B.W., Merrick, B.A., He, C., Selkirk, J.K., Poorman-allen, P., Dresser, M.E., and Eddy, E.M., 1996, HSP70-2 is part of the synaptonemal complex in mouse and hamster spermatocytes, Chromosoma 104: 414–421.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, R.L., O’Brien, D.A., and Eddy, E.M., 1988a, A Novel hsp70-like protein (P70) is present in mouse spermatogenic cells, Mol. Cell Biol. 8: 828–832.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen, R.L., O’Brien, D.A., Jones, C.C., Rockett, D.L. and Eddy, E.M., 1988b, Expression of heat shock proteins by isolated mouse spermatogenic cells, Mol. Cell Biol. 8: 3260–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bonnycastle, L.L.C., Yu, C., Hunt, C.R., Trask, B.J., Clancy, K.P., Weber, J.L., Patterson, D. and Schellenberg, G.D., 1994, Cloning, sequencing, and mapping of the human chromosome 14 heat shock protein gene (HSPA2), Genomics 23: 85–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dix, D.J., 1997a, Hsp70 expression and function during gametogenesis, Cell Stress & Chaperones 2: 73–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dix, D.J., 1997b, Stress proteins in reproductive toxicology, Environmental Health Perspectives 4: 436–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dix, D.J., Allen, J.W., Collins, B.W., Mori, C., Nakamura, N., Poorman-Allen, P., Goulding, E.H. and Eddy, E.M., 1996, Targeted gene disruption of Hsp70-2 results in failed meiosis, germ cell apoptosis, and male infertility, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U S A 93: 3264–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dix, D.J., Allen, J.W., Collins, B.W., Poorman-Allen, P., Mori, C., Blizard, D.R., Brown, P.R., Goulding, E.H., Strong, B.D. and Eddy, E.M., 1997, HSP70-2 is required for desynapsis of synaptonemal complexes during meiotic prophase in juvenile and adult mouse spermatocytes. Development, in press.Google Scholar
  9. Dyer, K.D. and Rosenberg, H.F., 1994, HSP70RY: Further characterization of a novel member of the HSP70 protein family, Biochem. and Biophys. Research Comm. 1: 577–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gruppi, C.M. and Wolgemuth, D.J., 1993, HSP86 and HSP84 exhibit cellular specificity of expression and co-precipitate with an HSP70 family member in the murine testis, Devel. Genetics 14: 119–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kaneko, Y., Kimura, T., Nishiyama, H., Noda, Y. and Fujita, J., 1997, Developmentally regulated expression of APG-1, a member of heat shock protein 110 family in murine male germ cells, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1: 113–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kaneko, Y., Kimura, T., Kishishita, M., Noda, Y. and Fujita, J., 1997, Cloning of apg-2 encoding a novel member of heat shock protein 110 family, Gene 1: 19–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Maekawa, M., O’Brien, D.A., Allen, R.L. and Eddy, E.M., 1989, Heat-shock cognate protein (hsc71) and related proteins in mouse spermatogenic cells, Biol. of Reproduction 40: 843–852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Matsumoto, M. and Fujimoto, H., 1990, Cloning of a hsp70-related gene expressed in mouse spermatids, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 166: 43–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Meinhardt, A., Parvinen, M., Bacher, M., Aumuller, G., Hakovirta, H., Yagi, A. and Seitz, J., 1995, Expression of mitochondrial heat shock protein 60 in distinct cell types and defined stages of rat seminiferous epithelium, Biol. of Reproduction 52: 798–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Milner, C.M. and Campbell, R.D., 1990, Structure and expression of the three MHC-linked HSP70 genes, Immunogenetics 32: 242–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Miller, D., Brough, S. and Al-Harbi, O., 1992, Characterization and cellular distribution of human spermatozoal heat shock proteins, Human Reproduction 5: 637–645.Google Scholar
  18. Mori, C., Nakamura, N., Dix, D.J., Fujioka, M., Nakagawa, S., Shiota, K. and Eddy, E.M., 1997, Morphological analysis of germ cell apoptosis during postnatal testis development in normal and Hsp70-2 knockout mice, Devel. Dynamics 208: 125–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Paranko, J., Seitz, J. and Meinhardt, A., 1996, Developmental expression of heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) in the rat testis and ovary, Differentiation 3: 159–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sarge, K.D., 1995, Male germ cell-specific alteration in temperature set point of the cellular stress response, J. Biol. Chem,. 270: 18745–18748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sarge, K.D., Bray, A.E., and Goodson, M.L., 1995, Altered stress response in testis, Nature 374: 126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Werner, A., Seitz, J., Meinhardt, A and Bergmann, M., 1996, Distribution pattern of HSP60 immunoreactivity in the testicular tissue of infertile men, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 9: 3385–90.Google Scholar
  23. Welsh, M.J., Wu, W., Parvinen and Gilmont, R.R., 1996, Variation in expression of hsp27 messenger ribonucleic acid during the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium and co-localization of hsp27 and microfilaments in sertoli cells of the rat, Biol. of Reproduction 55: 141–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wisniewski, J., Kordula, T. and Krawczyk, Z., 1990, Isolation and nucleotide sequence analysis of the rat testis-specific major heat-shock protein (HSP70)-related gene, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1048: 93–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Yasuda, K., Nakai, A., Hatayama, T. and Nagata, Kazuhiro, 1995, Cloning and expression of murine high molecular mass heat shock proteins, HSP105, The Journal of Biol Chem. 50: 29718–29723.Google Scholar
  26. Zakeri, Z.F., Welch, W.J. and Wolgemuth, D.J., 1990, Characterization and inducibility of hsp 70 proteins in the male mouse germ line, The Journal of Cell Biol, 111: 1785–1792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zakeri, Z.F., Wolgemuth, D.J. and Hunt, C.R., 1988, Identification and sequence analysis of a new member of the mouse HSP70 gene family and characterization of its unique cellular and developmental pattern of expression in the male germ line, Mol. Cell Biol. 8: 2925–2932.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Zhu, D., Dix, D.J. and Eddy, E.M., 1997, HSP70-2 is required for CDC2 kinase activity in meiosis I of mouse spermatocytes, Development 124: 3007–3014.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • David J. Dix
    • 1
  • Robert L. Hong
    • 1
  1. 1.Reproductive Toxicology Division, Natl. Health and Environmental Effects Res. Lab.US Environmental Protection AgencyResearch Triangle ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations