Introducing Maritime Archaeology

  • Keith Muckelroy
Part of the The Springer Series in Underwater Archaeology book series (SSUA)


In any preindustrial society, from the Upper Paleolithic to the 19th century A.D., a boat or (later) a ship was the largest and most complex machine produced. At Star Carr, the Mesolithic site in Yorkshire excavated by Professor Grahame Clark, none of the artifacts discussed in the report would have rivaled in terms of size, variety of materials, or construction time the skin-craft whose existence the excavator has postulated (Clark, 1954:23). At the other end of that time span, the 18th-century First-Rate naval ship, with its 100-plus guns and crew of over 800, exceeded several times over, in numbers of constituent artifacts and in quantity of power harnessed, the largest machines used on land for transport, manufacture, or mining. Even the Roman Empire, with its development of large-scale systems in military, mining, and food-processing technology, is not exempt, as these operations were paralleled by a gigantism in shipbuilding that reached its peak with the grain ships running between Egypt and Rome (Casson, 1971:184–189). But such a dominating position for maritime activities has not been limited to the technical sphere; in many societies it has pervaded every aspect of social organization. The political importance of these same grain, ships, in giving the ruling emperor the whip hand over the Roman populace, constituted an important part of his power base (Lewis and Reinhold, 1955:138–142). In 5th-century B.c. Athens, the political power of the Demos owed a great deal to its role as the motive force for the Athenian galleys, on which in turn the security of the state was thought to depend (Ehrenberg, 1967:216). And in 18th-century England, the Admiralty was the biggest single employer of labor in manufacturing, and played no small role in determining the level of economic activity, and stimulating industrial innovation. At a different level, in many societies past and present, seafaring and fishing folk have formed a distinct subculture, alongside the more generally recognized urban and rural groups (Hasslöf, 1972:15–17). In these ways, and countless others besides, the course of human history has owed not a little to maritime activities, and their study must constitute an important element in the search for a greater understanding of man’s past.


Underwater Environment Maritime Activity Maritime Archaeology Wreck Site Early Medieval Period 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Barker, P., 1977, Techniques of Archeological Excavation. Batsford: London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bass, G.F., 1966, Archaeology Under Water. Thames and Hudson: London.Google Scholar
  3. Bass, G.F, 1967, Cape Gelidonya: A Bronze Age Shipwreck. Transactions of the Philosophical Society 57(8).Google Scholar
  4. Bax, A., and Martin, C.J.M., 1974, De Liefde, a Dutch East Indiaman Lost on the Out Skerries, Shetland, in 1711. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration 3: 81–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benoit, F., 1961, L’épave du Grand Congloué à Marseilles. XIVe supplément à Gallia, Paris.Google Scholar
  6. Blundell: Rev. O., 1909, The Crannog of Eilean Muireach. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 43:159–164.Google Scholar
  7. Blundell, Rev. O., 1910, Further Examination of Artificial Islands. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 44: 12–33.Google Scholar
  8. Bruce-Mitford, R., 1975, The Sutton Hoo Ship-burial, Vol. 1. British Museum Publications: London.Google Scholar
  9. Carrazé, F., 1975, L’épave ‘Grand Ribaud A’. Cahiers d’Archéologie Subaquatique A: 9-58.Google Scholar
  10. Casson, L., 1971, Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  11. Cederlund, CO., 1977, Preliminary Report on Recording Methods Used for the Investigation of 87 Merchant Shipwrecks at Jutholmen and Alvsnabben in 1973–74. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration 6: 87–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cederlund, CO., and Ingelman-Sundberg, C., 1973, The Excavation of the Jutholmen Wreck, 1970–71. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration 2: 30–327.Google Scholar
  13. Clark, J.G.D., 1939, Archaeology and Society. Methuen: London.Google Scholar
  14. Clark, J.G.D. 1954, Excavations at Star Carr. Cambridge University Press, London.Google Scholar
  15. Clarke, D.L., 1968, Analytical Archaeology. Methuen: London.Google Scholar
  16. Daniel, G., 1967, The Origin and Growth of Archaeology. Penguin: London.Google Scholar
  17. Davis, R.H., 1955 Deep Diving and Submarine Operations, 6th ed. Siebe Gorman, London. de Weerd, M., and Haalebos, J.K., 1973, Schepen voor het opscheppen. Spiegel Historiael (Bussum) 8: 386-397.Google Scholar
  18. Ehrenberg, V., 1967, From Solon to Socrates. Methuen: London.Google Scholar
  19. Ellmers, D., 1973, The Earliest Report on an Excavated Ship in Europe. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration 2: 177–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fenwick, V.H., 1972, The Graveney Boat. A Pre-conquest Discovery in Kent. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration 1: 119–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fiori, P, and Joncheray, J.-P., 1975, L’épave de la tradelière. Cahiers d’Archéologie Subaquatique 4: 59–70.Google Scholar
  22. Franzen, A., 1966, The Warship ‘Wasa.’ Norstedts: Stockholm.Google Scholar
  23. Frondeville, G. de, 1965, Mahdia. Marine Archaeology, edited by J. du P. Taylor, pp. 39–52. Hutchinson, London.Google Scholar
  24. Frost, H. 1963, Under the Mediterranean. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  25. Green, J.N., 1973, The Wreck of the Vergulde Draeck, 1656. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration 2: 267–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Green, J.N., 1975, The VOC Ship Batavia Wrecked in 1629 on the Houtman Abrolhos, Western Australia. Internationaljournal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration 4: 43–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Green, J.N., and Henderson, G., 1977, Maritime Archaeology and Legislation in Western Australia. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration 6: 245–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Greenhill, B., 1976, The Archaeology of the Boat. A. and C. Black: London.Google Scholar
  29. Hasslöf, O., 1972, Maritime Ethnology and Its Associated Disciplines. In Ships and Shipyards, Sailors and fishermen, edited by O. Hasslöf, H. Henningsen, and A.E. Christensen, pp. 9–19. Copenhagen University Press. Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  30. Henderson, G., 1976, James Matthews Excavation: Summer 1974; an Interim Report. 5: 245–251.Google Scholar
  31. Ingelman-Sundberg, C., 1977, The VOC Ship Zeewijk Lost off the Western Australian Coast in 1727. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration 6: 225–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Joncheray, J.-P, 1975, Etude de d’épave Dramont D; les objets métalliques. Cahiers d’Archéologie Subaquatique 4:5–18.Google Scholar
  33. Joncheray, J.-R, 1976, Le Roche Fouras. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration 5: 107–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Katzev, M.L., 1974, Last Harbor for the Oldest Ship National Geographic 146: 618–625.Google Scholar
  35. Kirkman, J., 1972, A Portuguese Wreck off Mombasa, Kenya. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration 1: 153–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lewis, N., and Reinhold, M., 1955, Roman Civilisation, 2 vols. Columbia University Press: New York.Google Scholar
  37. Linder, E., and Raban, A., 1975, Marine Archaelogy. Cassel: London.Google Scholar
  38. Lyell, C., 1832, Principles of Geology, 1st ed.: 3 vols. London.Google Scholar
  39. McKee, A., 1973, King Henry VIII’s ‘Mary Rose.’ Souvenir Press: London.Google Scholar
  40. Marsden, P., 1966, A Roman Ship from Blackfriars. Guildhall Museum: London.Google Scholar
  41. Marsden, P., 1971, A Seventeenth Century Boat Found in London. Post-Medieval Archaeology 5: 88–98.Google Scholar
  42. Marsden, P., 1972 The Wreck of the Amsterdam near Hastings, 179. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration 1: 73–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Marsden, P., 1974, The Wreck of the ‘Amsterdam.’ Hutchinson: London.Google Scholar
  44. Martin, C.J.M., 1975, Full Fathom Five: The Wrecks of the Spanish Armada. Chatto and Windus: London.Google Scholar
  45. Mayhew, D.R., 1974, The Defense; Search and Recovery, 1972–3. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration 3:312–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Müller-Wille, M., 1974, Boat Graves in Northern Europe. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration 187-204.Google Scholar
  47. Olsen, O., and Crumlin-Pedersen, O., 1967, Skuldelev Ships, II. Acta Archaeologica 38: 73–174.Google Scholar
  48. Osaki, E., 1973, Seventeenth Century Japanese Harbour Works. In Science Diving International, edited by N.C. Flemming, pp. 66-69. British Sub-Aqua Club. London.Google Scholar
  49. Pearson, C., 1976, Legislation for the Protection of Shipwrecks in Western Australia. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration 5: 171–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Poidebard, A., 1939, Un grand port disparu, Tyr. Bibliothèque archéologique et historique: Vol. 29, Paris.Google Scholar
  51. Prynne, M.W., 1968, Henry V’s Grace Dieu. Mariner’s Mirror 54: 115–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rice, W.McP, 1824, An Ancient Vessel Recently Found under the Old Bed of the River Rother in 1822. Archaeologica 20: 553–565.Google Scholar
  53. Smith, R.A., 1909, The Pudding Pan Rock, Herne Bay, Kent. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries 22: 395–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Stenuit, R., 1972, Treasures of the Armada. David and Charles: Newton Abbot.Google Scholar
  55. Swiny, H.W., and Katzev, M.L., 1973, The Kyrenia Shipwreck; a Fourth Century B.C. Merchant Ship. In Marine Archaeology, edited by D.J. Blackman, pp. 339–359. Butterworths, London.Google Scholar
  56. Taillez, P., 1965, Titan. In Marine Archaeology, edited by J. du P. Taylor, pp. 76–92. Hutchinson, London.Google Scholar
  57. Ucelli, G., 1950, Le navi di Nemi. La Liberia dello Stato: Rome.Google Scholar
  58. van der Heide, G., 1976, Archaeological Research in the Zuider Zee. National Maritime Museum: London.Google Scholar
  59. Vrsalovic, D., 1974, Istrazivanja i zastita podmorskih archeoloskih spomenika u SR Hrvatskoj. Republicki Zavod za zastitu spomenika kulcture: Zagreb.Google Scholar
  60. Weier, L.E., 1974, The Deterioration of Inorganic Materials under the Sea. Institute of Archaeology Bulletin 11: 131–163.Google Scholar
  61. Weinberg, G.D., Grace, V.R., Edwards, G.R., Robinson, H.S., Throckmorton, P. and Ralph, E.K., 1965, The Antikythera Shipwreck Reconsidered. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 55(3).Google Scholar
  62. Wheeler, R.C., and van Gemert, R.C., 1972, Waterways Open the New World. In A History of Seafaring, Based on Underwater Archaeology, edited by G.F. Bass, pp. 282–304. Thames and Hudson, London.Google Scholar
  63. Wheeler, R.C., Kenyon, W.A. Woolworth, A.R., and Birk, D.A., 1975, Voices from the Rapids. Minnesota Historical Archaeology Series: No. 3. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.Google Scholar
  64. Wheeler, R.E.M., 1954, Archaeology from the Earth. Oxford University Press: Oxford.Google Scholar
  65. Zacharchuk, W., 1972, The Restigouche Excavation. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration 1: 157–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keith Muckelroy

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations