Mucosal Vaccines: Perspectives on the Development of Anti-H.pylori Vaccines

  • Paolo Ghiara
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 293)


Chronic infection of the gastric mucosa by the Gram negative organism Helicobacter pylori causes chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer and increases the risk of gastric cancer (Parsonnet et al., 1991; Parsonnet et al., 1994; Blaser and Parsonnet, 1994). The risk of infection is high in childhood and is directly correlated to hygienic conditions and overcrowded homes (Webb et al., 1994). Once established, a successful colonization may be lifelong. Due to significant improvement in hygienic conditions the risk of exposure to infection is now decreasing in the developed contries, where the prevalence of infection approximately increases 1% per year of age and is about 40–50% in the over 50 year old population. However as high as 80% of the young population can be infected in developing countries before the adolescence, and nearly all elderly individuals are infected (Megraud, 1994).


Peptic Ulcer Duodenal Ulcer Gastric Epithelial Cell Hygienic Condition Oral Immunization 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paolo Ghiara
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept of ImmunologyChiron Vaccines, Immunobiological Research Institute SienaSienaItaly

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