Control of HIV Entry and Transcription, as a Possible Mechanism of the Antiviral Effects of T Lymphocytes in HIV Infection
For decades it has generally been assumed that T cell-mediated antiviral immunity acts through lysis of infected cells by specific T lymphocytes recognizing viral epitopes in the context of major histocompatibility antigens class I. Indeed, MHC class I restricted-, CD8 T cells are found in infected animals and do lyse infected cells in vitro in a highly specific manner. The MHC-dependence of this phenomenon was a remarkable discovery by Rolf Zinkernagel and Peter Dogherty (Nature, 1974), who were awarded a Nobel prize in 1996 precisely for this important finding. The “CTL assay” remains the best tool of research to asses the fine specificity and MHC restriction of antiviral CD8 T lymphocytes. The in vivo relevance of the CTL assay as a host defence mechanism, however, is not yet fully ascertained in most cases of viral infection or immunization.
KeywordsHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Type IKBa Expression ofThe National Academy ofSciences Cytolytic Mechanism Phorbol Ester Stimulation
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