Vaccine Design pp 129-146 | Cite as

Active Immunotherapy for Solid Tumours

  • A. Maraveyas
  • A. G. Dalgleish
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 293)


Although the concept of treating human cancer with vaccines has been explored for several decades, it is only in the last 10–15 years that a concerted effort has started to be made to prove or disprove the possibility that “therapeutic vaccines” may have more than just anecdotal efficacy against cancer. The recognition that the immune system could be stimulated into rejecting established tumour came from the work of Coley (1893/1894) who refined earlier observations of a number of workers, such as Fehleisen (1882) and Bruns (1887–1888), that infectious empyemas occasionally led to the resolution of an established tumour. This led him to develop a heat-killed pool of bacteria that came to be known as Coley’s toxins. Therapy with tumour cell vaccines per se was first described in 1902 by von Leyden and Blumenthal (1902). From the start however similar procedures were to yield conflicting results at the hands of different researchers; for example Coca and colleagues reported tumour regression in some patients while Risley found no response in his cancer patients using Coca’s “vaccine emulsion” (Coca et al, 1912; Coca and Gilman, 1909; Risley, 1911). Both researchers administered autologous or allogeneic tumour cell extracts at 14 day intervals. Experimentation continued for example with intraperitoneal administration of tumour extracts by Vaughan (1914) or the investigation of combination treatments with radiotherapy by Graham and Graham (1962) who reported that the administration of a tumour cell vaccine to patients from whom tumour had been removed appeared to radiosensitize the residual disease. These therapeutic “blends” with or without live bacteria fell into disuse and disrepute following the discovery of mustard based chemotherapy and radiotherapy which became popular after the 2nd world war.


Renal Cell Carcinoma Melanoma Cell Newcastle Disease Virus Cell Vaccine Active Immunotherapy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Acres, R.B., Hareuveni, M., Balloul, J.-M. and Kieny, M.P. 1993. Vaccinia virus MUC1 immunisation of mice: immune response and protection against the growth of murine tumours bearing the MUC1 antigen. J.Immunother. 14: 136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aisner, J., Weinberg, M., Perloff, M., Weiss, R., Perry, M., Korzum, A., Ginsberg, S. and Holland, J.F. 1987. Chemotherapy versus chemoimmunotherapy (CAF v CAFVP v CFM each +/− MER) for metastatic carcinoma of the breast: a CALGB study. J.Clin.Oncol. 5: 1523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, J.M., Kelly, F., Gettinby, G. and Wood, S.E. 1977. Prolonged survival after immunotherapy (irradiated cancer autografts) for mammary cancers assessed by a measure of therapeutic deficiency. Cancer. 40: 30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, J.M., Kelly, F., Wood, S.E. and Hainan, K.E. 1974. Stimulatory immunotherapy in mammary cancer. Br.J.Surg. 61: 778.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asher, A., Mule, J.J., Kasid, A., Restifo, N.P., Salo, J.C., Reichert, C.M., Jaffe, G., Frendly, B., Krieger, M. and Rosenberg, S.A. 1991. Murine tumor cells transduced with the gene for tumor necrosis factor-a. Immunol. 146: 3227.Google Scholar
  6. Barnd, D. L., Lan, M.S., Metzgar, R.S. and Finn, O.J. 1989. Specific, major histocompatibility complex-unrestricted recognition of tumour-associated mucins by human cytotoxic T cells. Proc.Ntl.Acad.Sci. USA. 86: 7159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berd, D., Maguire Jr. H.C. and Mastrangelo, M.J. 1986. Induction of cell-mediated immunity to autologous melanoma cells and regression of metastases after treatment with a melanoma cell vaccine preceded by cyclophosphamide. Cancer Res. 46: 2572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Berd, D., Maguire Jr. H.C., McCue, P. and Mastrangelo, M.J. 1990. Treatment of metastatic melanoma with an autologous tumor-cell vaccine: clinical and immunological results in 64 patients. J. Clin. Oncol. 8: 1858.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Berd, D. and Mastrangelo, M.J. 1987. Effect of low dose cyclophosphamide on the immune system of cancer patients: Reduction of T suppressor function without depletion of the CD8+ subset. Cancer Res. 47: 3317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Berd, D and Mastrangelo, M.J. 1988a. Active immunotherapy of human melanoma exploiting the immuno-potentiating effects of cyclophosphamide. Cancer Invest. 6: 335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berd, D. and Mastrangelo, M.J. 1988b. Effect of low dose cyclophosphamide on the immune system of cancer patients: Depletion of CD4+ 2H4+ suppressor-inducer T-cells. Cancer Res. 48: 1671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bodenham, D.C. 1968. A study of 650 observed malignant melanomas in the South-West region. An. Royal Col.Surg.Engl., 43: 218.Google Scholar
  13. Boon, T. 1993. Tumor antigens recognized by cytolytic T lymphocytes: present perspectives for specific immunotherapy. Int.J.Cancer. 54: 177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bruns, P. 1887–1888. Die Heilwirking des Erysipels auf Geschwulste. Beitr.Klin.Chir. 3: 443.Google Scholar
  15. Burchell, J., Taylor-Papadimitriou, J., Boshell, M., Gendler, S. and Duhig, T. 1989. A short sequence, within the amino acid tandem repeat of a cancer-associated mucin, contains immunodominant epitopes. Int.J.Cancer. 44: 691.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bystryn, J.-C., Tedholm, C.A. and Heaney-Kieras, J. 1981. Release of surface macromolecules by humanelanoma and normal cells. Cancer Res. 41: 91.Google Scholar
  17. Bystryn, J.C., Oratz, R., Henn, M., Adler, A., Harris, M.N. and Roses, D.F. 1992. Relationship between immune response to melanoma vaccine and clinical outcome in stage II malignant melanoma. Cancer. 69: 1157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bystryn, J.C., Oratz, R., Roses, D.F., Harris, M.N., Henn, M. and Lew, R. 1991. Improved survival of melanoma patients with delayed hypersensitivity response to melanoma vaccine immunization. Clin.Res. 39: 503A.Google Scholar
  19. Carney, W. 1988. Human tumor antigens and specific tumor therapy. Immunol. Today. 9: 363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carrel, S. and Johnson, J. 1993. Immunologic recognition of malignant melanoma by autologous lymphocytes. Curr.Opin.Oncol. 5: 383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cassel, W. A., Murray, D.R. and Phillips, H.S. 1983. A phase II study on the post-surgical management of Stage II malignant melanoma with a Newcastle disease virus oncolysate. Cancer. 2: 856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Coca, A.F., Dorrance, G.M. and Lebredo, M.G. 1912. Vaccination in cancer: a report of the results of vaccination therapy as applied to seventy-nine cases of human cancer. Z.Immun. Exp.Ther. 13: 543.Google Scholar
  23. Coca, A.F. and Gilman, G. 1909. The specific treatment of carcinoma. Phil.J.Sci.Med. 4: 381.Google Scholar
  24. Coley, W.B., 1894. Treatment of inoperable malignant tumours with the toxins of erysipelas and the Bacillus prodigosus. Trans.Am.Surg.Assoc. 12: 183.Google Scholar
  25. Coulie, P.G. 1996. Human tumor antigens recognized by cytolytic T-lymphocytes. Tumor Immunology: Immunotherapy and Cancer Vaccines. Cambridge, University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Cunningham, T.J., Olson, K.B., Laffin, R., Horton, J. and Sullivan, J. 1969. Treatment of advanced cancer with active immunization. Cancer. 24: 932.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Czajkowski, N.P., Rosenblatt, M., Wolf, P.L. and Vasquez, J. 1967. A new method of active immunization to autologous human tumour tissue. Lancet. 2: 905.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dalgleish, A.G. 1996. Co-stimulatory molecules and their role in tumour immunity, In: “Tumor Immunology: Immunotherapy and Cancer Vaccines”. Cambridge, University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Demetrick, DJ., Herlyn, D., Tretiak, M., Creasey, D., Clevers, H., Donoso, L.A., Vennegoor, C.J., Dixon, W.T. and Jerry, L.M. 1992. ME491 melanoma-associated glycoprotein family: antigenic identity of ME491, NKI/C-3, neuroglandular antigen (NGA) and CD63 proteins. J.Natl.Cancer Tnst. 84: 422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dore, J. F., Portoukalian, J., Berthier-Vergnes, O., Jacubovich, R., Geneve, J., Bailly, M., Leftheriotis, E. and Weissbrod, A. 1990. Responses de malades atteints de melanome a l’immunisation par oncolysats de melanomes au virus de la vaccine. Bull. Cancer. 77: 881.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Dranoff, G., Jaffee, E., Lazenby, A., Golumbek, P., Levitsky, H., Brose, K., Jackson, V., Hamada, H., Pardoll, D. and Mulligan, R.C. 1993. Vaccination with irradiated tumor cells engineered to secrete murine granulocyte-macrophege colony-stimulating factor stimulates potent, specific and long-lasting anti-tumor immunity. Proc.Natl.Acad. Sci. USA. 90: 3539.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Eilber, F.R., Townsend Jr, C.M. and Morton, D.L. 1975. Osteosarcoma: Results of treatment employing adjuvant immunotherapy. Clin.Orthop.Rel.Res. 111: 94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Elliott, G.T., McLeod, R.A., Perez, J. and von Eschen, K.V. 1992. Results of phase II multicenter trial evaluating the activity of melacine melanoma theracine in the treatment of disseminated melanoma. Proc.Am.Assoc. Cancer Res. 33: 332.Google Scholar
  34. Fagerberg, J., Steinitz, M., Wigzell, H., Askelof, P., Mellstedt, H. 1995. Human antiidiotypic antibodies induced a humoral and cellular immune response against a colorectal carcinoma-associated antigen in patients. Proc.Nat. Acad.of Sci. 92(11): 4773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Farzaneh, N.K., Waiden, T.L., Hearing, V.J., Gersten and D.M. 1991. B700, an albumin-like melanoma-specific antigen, is a vitamin D binding protein. Eur.J. Cancer. 27: 1158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fearon, E.R., Pardoll, D.M., Itaya, T., Golumbek, P., Levitsky, H.I., Simons, J.W., Karasuyama, H., Vogelstein, B. and Frost, P. 1990. Interleukin-2 production by tumor cells bypasses T-helper function in the generation of an anti-tumor response. Cell. 60: 397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fehleisen, F. 1882. Uber die Zuchtung der Erysipel-Kokken auf kuntschlichen Nahrboden und die Ubertragbarkeit auf den Menschen. Deutsche Med. Wschr. 8: 533.Google Scholar
  38. Ferrane, S. 1993. Human tumor-associated antigen mimicry by anti-idiotypic antibodies. Immunogenicity and clinical trials in patients with solid tumors. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 690: 214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ferrane, S. and Tagashita, T. 1988. Human high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen as a target for active specific immunotherapy: a Phase I clinical trial with murine monoclonal antibodies. J.Dermatol. 15: 457.Google Scholar
  40. Finney, J.W., Byers, E.H. and Wilson, R.H. 1960. Studies in tumour auto-immunity. CancerRes. 20: 351.Google Scholar
  41. Freeman, G.J., Gribben, J.G., Boussiotis, V.A., Ng, J.W., Restivo, Jr. V.A., Lombard, L.A., Gray, G.S. and Nadler, L.M. 1993. Cloning of B7-2: a CTLA-4 counter receptor in B7-deficient mice. Science. 262: 907.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gabrilovich, D.I., Chen, H.L., Girgis, K.R., Cunningham, H.T., Meny, G.M., Nadaf, S., Kavanaugh, D. and Carbone, D.P. 1996. Production of vascular endothelial growth factor by human tumors inhibits the functional maturation of dendritic cells. Nature Med. 2: 1096.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gansbacher, B. 1992. A pilot study of immunization with HLA-A2 matched allogeneic melanoma cells that secrete interleukin-2 in patients with metastatic melanoma. Hum. Gene Ther. 3: 677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gansbacher, B., Bannerji, R., Daniels, B., Zier, K., Cronin, K. and Gilboa, E. 1990. Retroviral vector-mediated γ-interferon gene transfer into tumor cells generates potent and long-lasting antitumor immunity. Cancer Res. 50: 7820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gendler, S., Taylor-Papadimitriou, J., Duhig, T., Rothbard, J. and Burchell, J. 1988. A highly immunogenic region of a human polymorphic epithelial mucin expressed by carcinomas is made up of tandem repeats. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 263: 12280.Google Scholar
  46. Graham, J.B. and Graham, R.M. 1962. Autologous vaccine in cancer patients. Surg.Gynec.Obstet. 109: 121.Google Scholar
  47. Gupta, R.K., Golub, S.H. and Morton, D.L. 1979. Correlation between tumor burden and anticomplementary activity in sera from patients. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 6: 63.Google Scholar
  48. Hahne, M., Rimoldi, D., Schröter, M., Romero, P., Schreier, M., French, L. E., Schneider, P., Bornand, T., Fontana, A., Lienard, D., Cerottini, J-C. and Tschopp, J. 1996. Melanoma cell expression of Fas (Apo-1/CD95) ligand: implications for tumour immune escape. Science 274: 1363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Handley, W.S. 1907. The pathology of melanotic growths. Lancet. 1: 927.Google Scholar
  50. Hanna, M., Peters, L.C. and Hoover, H.C. 1991. Immunotherapy by active specific immunization: basic principles and preclinical studies. In: “Biologic Therapy of Cancer”. Philadelphia, Lippincott.Google Scholar
  51. Hareuveni, M., Wreschner, D.H., Kieny, M.P., Dott, K., Gautier, C., Tomasetto, C., Keydar, I., Chambon, P. and Lathe, R. 1991. Vaccinia recombinants expressing secreted and transmembrane forms of breast cancer-associated epithelial tumour antigen (ETA). Vaccine. 9: 618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Helling, F., Shang, A., Calves, M., Shang, A., Calves, M., Zhang, S., Ren, S., Yu, R.K., Oettgen, H.F. and Livinston, P.O. 1994. GD3 vaccines for melanoma: superior immunogenicity of keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate vaccines. Cancer Res. 54: 197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Heppner, G.H. 1984. Tumor heterogeneity. Cancer Res. 44: 2259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Herlyn, M., Thurin, J., Balaban, G., Bennicelli, J.L., Herlyn, D., Elder, D.E., Bondi, E., Guerry, D., Nowell, P., Clark, W.H. and Koprowski, H. 1985. Characteristics of human melanocytes isolated from different stages of tumor progression. Cancer Res. 45: 5670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hersey, P., Edwards, A., Coates, A., Shaw, H., McCarthy, W.H. and Milton, G.W. 1987. Evidence that treatment with vaccinia melanoma cell lysates (VMCL) may improve survival of patients with stage II melanoma. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 25: 257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hills, D., Rowlinson-Busza, G. and Gullick, W.J. 1995. Specific targeting of a mutant, activated EGF receptor found in glioblastoma using a monoclonal antibody. Int.J.Cancer. 63: 537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hoch, H., Dorsch, M., Diamantstein, T. and Blankenstein, T. 1991. Interleukin 7 induces CD4+ T cell-dependent tumor rejection. J.Exp.Med. 174: 1291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hollinshead, A. 1991. Active specific immunotherapy and immunochemotherapy in the treatment of lung and colon cancer. Semin.Surg.Oncol. 7: 199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hollinshead, A., Takita, H., Stewart, T. and Raman, S. 1988. Specific active lung cancer immunotherapy: immune correlates of clinical responses and an update of immunotherapy trials evaluations. Cancer. 62: 1662.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hollinshead, A., Arlen, M., Yonemoto, R., Cohen, M., Janner, K., Kundin, W.D. and Scherrer, J. 1982. Pilot studies using melanoma tumor-associated antigens (TAA) in specific active immunotherapy of malignant melanoma. Cancer. 49: 1387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hoover, Jr. H.C., Surdyke, M.G., Dangel, M.G., Peters, L.C. and Hanna Jr. M.G. 1985. Prospectively randomised trial of adjuvant active-specific immunotherapy for human colorectal cancer. Cancer. 55: 1236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hubay, C. A., Pearson, O.H., Manni, A., Gordon, N.H. and McGuire, W.L. 1985. Adjuvant endocrine therapy, cytotoxic chemotherapy and immunotherapy in Stage II breast cancer: 6-year result. III. Anti-estrogens in combination with chemotherapy in early breast cancer. J.SteroidBiochem. 23: 1147.Google Scholar
  63. Hudson, C.N., McHardy, J.E., Curling, O.M., English, P.E., Levin, L., Poulton, T.A., Crowther, M. and Leighton, M. 1976. Active specific immunotherapy for ovarian cancer. Lancet. 2: 877.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ikonopisov, R.L., Lewis, M.G., Hunter-Craig, I.D., Bodenham, D.C., Phillips, T.M., Cooling, C.I., Proctor, J., Fairley, G.H. and Alexander, P. 1970. Autoimmunization with irradiated tumour cells in human malignant melanoma. Br.Med.J. 2: 752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Imperato, S., Rossi, R., Ermiglia, G., De Marini, M. and Cassolino, A. 1974. Active specific immunotherapy with immunological monitoring in late stage ovarian cancers. Acta Eur.Fertil. 5: 25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Jones, P.C., Sze, L.L., Liu, P.Y., Morton, D.L. and Irie, R.F. 1981. Prolonged survival for melanoma patients with elevated IgM antibody to oncofetal antigen. J.Natl. Cancer Inst. 66: 249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kan-Mitchell, J., Huang, X.Q., Steinamn, L., Oksenberg, J.R., Harel, W., Parker, J.W., Goedegebuure, P.S. and Darrow, T.L. 1993. Clonal analysis of in vivo activated CD8+ cytotoxic T Lymphocytes from melanoma patient responsive to active specific immunotherapy. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 37: 15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Livingstone, P.O. 1993a. Approaches to augmenting the IgG antibody response to melanoma ganglioside vaccines. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 690: 204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Livingstone, P.O. 1993b. Approaches to augmenting the IgG antibody response to melanoma ganglioside vaccines. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 690: 204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Livingstone, P.O., Albino, A.P., Chung, T.J.C., Real, F.X., Houghton, A.N., Oettgen, H.F. and Old, L.H. 1985. Serological response of melanoma patients to vaccines prepared from VSV lysates of autologous and allogeneic cultured melanoma cells. Cancer. 55: 713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Livingstone, P.O., Calves, M.J. and Natoli, E.J. 1987. Approaches to augmenting the immunogenicity of the ganglioside GM2 is superior to whole cells. J.Immunol. 138: 1524.Google Scholar
  72. Livingstone, P.O., Kaelin, K., Pinsky, C.M., Oettgen, H.R. and Old, L.J. 1985. The serological response of patients with stage II melanoma to allogeneic melnoma cell vaccines. Cancer. 56: 713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Livingstone, P.O., Natoli, E.J., Calves, M.J., Stocken, E., Oettgen, H.F. and Old, L.J. 1987. Vaccines containing purified GM2 ganglioside elicit GM2 antibodies in melanoma patients. Proc.Natl.Ac. Aci USA. 84: 2911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lukacs, K.V., Lowrie, D.B., Stokes, R.W. and Colston, M.J. 1993. Tumor cells transfected with a bacterial heat-shock gene lose tumorigenicity and induce protection against tumors. J. Exp.Med. 178: 343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. MacLean, G.D., Reddish, M., Koganty, R.R., Wong, T., Gandhi, S., Smolenski, M., Samuel, J., Nabholtz, J.M. and Longenecker, B.M. 1993. Immunization of breast cancer patients using a synthetic sialyl-Tn glycoconjugate plus detox adjuvant. 36: 215–222.Google Scholar
  76. Mahaley, Jr. M.S., Bigner, D.D., Dudka, L.F., Wilds, P.R., Williams, D.H., Bouldin, T.W., Whitaker, J.N. and Bynum, J.M. 1983. Immunobiology of primary intracranial tumors part 7: Active immunization of patients with anaplastic human glioma cells: a pilot study. J.Neurosurg. 59: 201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mitchell, M. S., Harel, W., Kan-Mitchell, J., LeMay, L.G., Goedegebuure, P., Huang, X.Q., Hofman, F. and Groshen, S. 1993. Active specific immunotherapy of melanoma with allogeneic cell lysates. Rationale, results and possible mechanisms of action. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 690: 153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mitchell, M. S., Kan-Mithcell, J., Kempf, R.A., Harel, W., Shau, H. and Lind, S. 1988, Active specific immunotherapy for melanoma: Phase I trial of allogeneic lysates and a novel adjuvant. Cancer Res. 48, 5883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Mittelman, A., Chen, Z.J., Yang, H., Wong, G.Y. and Ferrane, S. 1992. Human high molecular weight melanoma associated antigen (HMW-MAA) mimicry by mouse anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody MK2-23: induction of humoral anti-HMW-MAA immunity and prolongation of survival in patients with Stage IV melanoma. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci. USA. 89: 466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Morrissey, P. J., Bressler L., Park L. S., Alpert, A. and Gillis, S. 1987, Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor augments the primary antibody response by enhancing the function of antigen-presenting cells. J.Immunol. 139, 1113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Morton, D. L. 1972. Immunotherapy of human melanomas and sarcomas. J.Natl. Cancer Inst. 35: 375.Google Scholar
  82. Morton, D. L., Eilber, F.R., Holmes, E.C., Hunt, E.C., Ketcham, A.S., Silverstein, M.J. and Sparks, F.C. 1974. BCG immunotherapy of malignant melanoma: summary of a seven year experience. Ann.Surg. 180: 635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Morton, D. L., Foshag, L.J., Hoon, D.S.B., Nizze, J.A., Famatiga, E., Wanek, L.A., Chang, C., Davtyan, D.G., Gupta, R.K. and Elashoff, R. 1992. Prolongation of survival in metastatic melanoma after specific immunotherapy with a new polyvalent melanoma vaccine. Ann.Surg. 216: 465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Morton, D. L., Hoon, D.S.B., Nizze, J., Foshag, L.J., Famatiga, E., Wanek, L.A., Chang, C., Irie, R.F., Gupta, R.K. and Elashoff, R. 1993. Polyvalent melanoma vaccine improves survival of patients with metastatic melanoma. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 690: 120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Neidhart, J. A., Murphy, S.G., Hennick, L.A. and Wise, H.A. 1980. Active specific immunotherapy of Stage IV renal cell carcinoma with aggregated tumor antigen adjuvant. Cancer. 46: 1126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Nowell, P.C. 1986. Mechanisms of tumor progression. Cancer Res. 46: 2203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Oaks, M. K., Hanson Jr. J.P. and O’Malley, D.P. 1994. Molecular cytogenetic mapping of the human melanoma antigen (MAGE) family to chromosome region Xq27-qter: implications for MAGE immunotherapy. Cancer Res. 54: 1627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Oettgen, H.F. and Old, L.J., 1991. The history of cancer immunotherapy. Biologic Therapy of Cancer. Philadelphia, Lippincott.Google Scholar
  89. Partridge, D.H. 1979. Chemotherapy of Stage III breast carcinoma with BCG and a live allogeneic tumor cell vaccine. Cancer Immunol.Immunother. 5: 217.Google Scholar
  90. Patel, P.M., Flemming, C.L., Russell, S.J., McKay, I.A., MacLennan, K.A., Box, G.M., Eccles, S.A. and Collins, M.K.I. 1993. Comparison of the potential therapeutic effects of interleukin-2 or interleukin-4 secretion by tumours. Br.J. Cancer. 68: 295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Patel, P. M., Flemming, C.L., Fisher, C., Porter, C.D., Thomas, J.M., Gore, M.E. and Collins, M.K. 1994. Generation of IL-2 secreting melanoma cell populations from resected metastatic tumours. Hum. Gene Ther. 5: 577.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Perlin, E., Oldham, R.K., Weese, J.L., Heim, W., Reid, J., Mills, M., Miller, C., Blom, J., Green, D., Bellinger, Jr. S., Cannon, G.B., Law, I., Connor, R. and Herberman, R.B. 1980. Carcinoma of the lung: immunotherapy with interdermal BCG and allogeneic tumor cells. Int.J.Radiat.Oncol.Biol.Phys. 6: 1033.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Porador, A., Tzehoval, E., Katz, A., Vadai, E., Revel, M., Feldham, M. and Eisenbach, L. 1992. Interleukin-6 transfection into Lewis lung carcinoma tumour cells suppresses the malignant phenotype and confers immunotherapeutic competence against parental metastatic cells. Cancer Res. 53: 3679.Google Scholar
  94. Prager, M. D., Baechtel, F.S., Peters, P.C., Brown, G.L. and Greene, C.L. 1981. Specific immunotherapy of human metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Proc.Am.Assoc. Cancer Res. 22: 163.Google Scholar
  95. Radrizzani, M., Benedetti, B., Castelli, C., Longo, A., Ferrara, G.B., Herlyn, M., Parmiani, G. and Fossati, G. 1991. Human allogeneic melanoma-reactive T helper lymphocyte clones: functional analysis of lymphocyte-melanoma interactions. Int J. Cancer. 49: 823.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Ravindranath, M.H. and Irie, R.F. 1988. Gangliosides as antigens of human melanoma. Malignant Melanoma: Biology, Diagnosis and Therapy. Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  97. Ravindranath, M. H., Morton, D.L. and Irie, R.F. 1989. An epitope common to gangliosides O-acetyl-GD3 and GD3 recognized by antibodies in melanoma patients after active specific immunotherapy. Cancer Res. 49: 3891.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Reid, J. W., Perlin, E., Oldham, R.K., Weese, J.L., Heim, W., Mills, M., Miller, C., Blom, J., Green, D., Ballinger, S., Cannon, G.B., Law, I., Connor, R. and Heberman, R.B. 1982. Immunotherapy of carcinoma of the lung with intradermal BCG and allogeneic tumor cells. Immunotherapy of Human Cancer. New York, Excerpta Medica..Google Scholar
  99. Riethmuller, G., Schneider-Gadicke, E., Schlimok, G., Schmiegel, W., Raab, R., Hoffken, K., Gruber, R., Pichlmaier, H., Hirche, H., Pichlmayr, R. 1994 Randomised trial of monoclonal antibody for adjuvant therapy of Duke’s C colorectal carcinoma. German Cancer Aid 17-1A study group. 343(8907): 1177.Google Scholar
  100. Risley, E.H. 1911. The Gilman-Coca vaccine emulsion treatment of cancer. Boston Med.Surg.J. 165: 784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Rosenberg, S. A., Lotze, M.T., Yang, J.C., Topalian, S.L., Chang, A.E., Schwartzerntruber, D.J., Aebersold, P., Leitman, S., Linehan, W.M. and Seipp, C.A. 1993. Prospective randomized trial of high-dose interleukin-2 alone or in conjunction with lymphokine-activated killer cells for the treatment of patients with advanced cancer. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 85: 622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rosenberg, S. A., Packard, B.S., Aebersold, P.M., Solomon, D., Topalian, S.L., Toy, S.T., Simon, P., Lotze, M.T., Yang, J.C. and Seipp, C.A. 1988. Use of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and interleukin-2 in the immunotherapy of patients with metastatic melanoma: preliminary report. N.Engl.J.Med. 319: 1676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sahasrabudhi, D. M., de Kernion, J.B., Pontes, J.E., Ryan, D.M., O’Donnell, R.W., Marquis, D.M., Mudholkar, G.S. and McCune, C.S. 1986. Specific immunotherapy with suppressor function inhibition for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. J.Biol.Resp.Mod. 5: 581.Google Scholar
  104. Sato, T., McCue, P., Masuoka, K., Salwen, S., Lattime, E.C., Mastrangelo, M.J. and Berd, D. 1996. Interleukin 10 production by human melanoma. Cl. Cancer Res. 2: 1383.Google Scholar
  105. Savage, H. E., Rossen, R.D., Hersh, E.M., Freedman, R.S., Bowen, J.M. and Plager, C. 1986. Antibody development to viral and allogeneic tumor cell-associated antigens in patients with malignant melanoma and ovarian carcinoma treated with lysates of virus infected cells. Cancer Res. 46: 2127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Schulof, R. S., Mai, D., Nelson, M.A., Paxton, H.M., Cox, Jr.J.W., Turner, MX., Mills, M., Hix, W.R., Nochomovitz, L.E. and Peters, L.C. 1988. Active specific immunotherapy with an autologous tumor cell vaccine in patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer. Mol.Biother. 1: 30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Seiger, H. F., Shingleton, W.W., Metzgar, R.S. and Buckley, C.E. 3rd. 1973. Immunotherapy in patients with melanoma. Annals of Surgery. 178(3): 352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Simmons, R.L. and Rios, A. 1971. Combined use of BCG and neuraminidase in experimental tumor immunotherapy. Surg. Forum. 22: 99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Smith, G.V., Morse, P.A., Deraps, G.D., Raju, S. and Hardy, J.D. 1973. Immunotherapy of patients with cancer. Surgery. 74: 59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Souberbielle, B.E., Knight, B.C., Morrow, W.J.W., Darling, D., Fraziano, M., Marriott, J.B., Cookson, S., Farzaneh, F. and Dalgleish, A.G. 1996, Comparison of IL-2 and IL-4 transfected B16-F10 cells with a novel oil-microemulsion adjuvant for B16-F10 whole cell tumour vaccine. Gene Ther. 3, 853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Sparks, F.C., Wile, A.G., Ramming, K.P., Silver, H.K., Wolk, R.W. and Morton, D.L. 1976. Immunology and adjuvant chemoimmunotherapy of breast cancer. Arch.Surg. 3: 1057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Srivastava, P.K., Udono, H., Blachere, N.E. and Li, Z. 1994. Heat shock protein transfer peptides during antigen processing and CTL priming. Immunogenetics. 39: 93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Stewart, T.H.M., Hollinshead, A.C., Harris, J.A. and Raman, S. 1982. Specific active immunotherapy of Stage II lung cancer patients. Immunotherapy of cancer. New york. Exerpta Medica..Google Scholar
  114. Stone, H.B. 1951. Can resistance to cancer be induced? Ann. Surg. 134: 519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Suto, R. and Srivastava, P.K. 1995. A mechanism for the specific immunogenicity of heat shock protein-haperoned peptides. Science. 269: 1585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Takita, H., Hollionshead, A.C., Bhayana, J.N., Edgerton, F., Conway, D., Moskowitz, R.M., Adler, R.H., Ramundo, M., Han, T., Rao, U., Vincent, R.G., Federico, A., Takita., L. and Smith, R. 1982. Specific active immunotherapy of squamous cell lung carcinoma. In: Immunotherapy of Human Cancer. New York, Excerpta Medica.Google Scholar
  117. Takita, H., Takada, M., Minowada, J., Han, T. and Edgerton, F. 1978. Adjuvant immunotherapy of stage III lung carcinoma, In: Immunotherapy of Cancer: Present status of Trials in Man. New York, Raven Press.Google Scholar
  118. Tallberg, T., Kalimo, T., Halttunen, P., Tykka, H., Mahlberg, K., Matous, B. and Sandell, B. 1986. Post-operative active specific immunotherapy with supportive measures in patients suffering from reccurent metastasized melanoma: Case report of six patients. J.Surg.Oncol. 33: 115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Taylor, S.G., Bytell, D.E., Sisson, G.A., Nisius, S. and DeWys, W.D. 1977. Methotrexate-leucovorin with immunotherapy as adjuvant to surgery and radiotherapy in Stage III–IV head and neck squamous cancer patients. In: Adjuvant Therapy of Cancer. Amsterdam, Elsevier.Google Scholar
  120. Townsend, C.M., Eilber, F.R. and Morton, D.L. 1976. Skeletal and soft tissue sarcomas. J.A.M.A. 236: 2187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Townsend, S. E. and Allison, J.P. 1993. Tumour rejection after direct costimulation by B7-transfected melanoma cells. Science. 259: 368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Treurniet-Donker, A.D., Meischke-de Jongh, M.L. and van Putten, W.L. 1987. Levamisole as adjuvant immunotherapy in breast cancer. Cancer. 59: 1590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Tykka, H. 1981. Active specific immunotherapy with supportive measures in the treatment of advanced palliatively nephrectomised renal adenocarcinoma. A controlled clinical study. Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol. 63: 1.Google Scholar
  124. Udono, H., Levey, D.L. and Srivastava, P.K. 1994. Cellular requirements for tumor-specific immunity elicited by heat shock proteins. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci. USA., 91: 3077.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Van Den Brenk, H.A.S. 1969. Autoimmunization in human malignant melanoma. B.M.J. 4: 171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Van Der Bruggen, P. 1991. A gene encoding an antigen recognised by cytolytic T lymphocytes on a human melanoma. Science. 254: 1643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Vaughan, J.W. 1914. Cancer vaccine and anti-cancer globulin as an aid in the surgical treatment of malignancy. J.A.M.A. 63: 1258.Google Scholar
  128. Vogelstein, B., Fearon, E.R., Hamilton, S.R., Kern, S.E., Preisinger, A.C., Leppert, M., Nakamura, Y., White, R., Smits, A.M. and Boss, J.L. 1988. Genetic alterations during colorectal tumor development. N.Engl J.Med. 319: 525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Volk, B.W. 1975. The gangliosidoses. Hum. Pathol. 6: 555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Von Leyden, V.E. and Blumenthal, F. 1902. Vorlautige Mitteilungen ubber einige Ergebnisse der Krebsforschung auf der 1. medizinischen klinik. Dt. Med. Wschr. 28: 637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wallack, M.K., McNally, K.R., Leftheriotis, E., Seigier, H., Balch, C., Wanebo, H., Bartolucci, A.A. and Bash, J.A. 1986. A southeastern cancer study group Phase I/II trial with vaccinia melanoma oncolysates. Cancer. 57: 649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Wallack, M. K. and Michaelides, M. 1984. Serologic response to human melanoma lines from patients with melanoma undergoing treatment with vaccinia melanoma oncolysates. Surgery. 96: 791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Wallack, M. K. and Sivanandham, M. 1993. Clinical trials with VMO for melanoma. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 690: 178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Wallack, M. K., Sivanandham, M., Balch, C.M., Urist, M.M., Bland, K.I., Murray, D., Robinson, W.A., Flaherty, L.E., Richards, J.M. and Bartolucci, A.A. 1995. A Phase III randomised, double blind, multiinstitutional trial of vaccinia melanoma oncolysate-active specific immunotherapy for patients with Stage II melanoma. Cancer. 75: 34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Wallack, M. K., Steplewski, Z., Koprowski, H., Rosato, E., George, J., Hulihan, B. and Johnson, J. 1977. A new approach in specific, active immunotherapy. Cancer. 39: 560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Welt, S., Carswell, E.A., Vogel, C.W., Oettgen, H.F. and Old, L.J. 1987. Immune and non-immune effector functions of IgG3 mouse monoclonal antibody R24 detecting the disialganglioside GD3 on the surface of melanoma cells. Clin.Irnmunol.Immunopathol. 45: 214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Wollina, U., Kilina, U., Henkel, U., Schaarschmidt, H. and Knopf, B. 1991. The initial steps of tumour progression in melanocytic lineage: a histochemical approach. Anticancer Res. 11: 1405.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Maraveyas
    • 1
  • A. G. Dalgleish
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of OncologySt George’s Hospital Medical SchoolLondonUK

Personalised recommendations