Vaccine Design pp 129-146 | Cite as

Active Immunotherapy for Solid Tumours

  • A. Maraveyas
  • A. G. Dalgleish
Chapter
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 293)

Abstract

Although the concept of treating human cancer with vaccines has been explored for several decades, it is only in the last 10–15 years that a concerted effort has started to be made to prove or disprove the possibility that “therapeutic vaccines” may have more than just anecdotal efficacy against cancer. The recognition that the immune system could be stimulated into rejecting established tumour came from the work of Coley (1893/1894) who refined earlier observations of a number of workers, such as Fehleisen (1882) and Bruns (1887–1888), that infectious empyemas occasionally led to the resolution of an established tumour. This led him to develop a heat-killed pool of bacteria that came to be known as Coley’s toxins. Therapy with tumour cell vaccines per se was first described in 1902 by von Leyden and Blumenthal (1902). From the start however similar procedures were to yield conflicting results at the hands of different researchers; for example Coca and colleagues reported tumour regression in some patients while Risley found no response in his cancer patients using Coca’s “vaccine emulsion” (Coca et al, 1912; Coca and Gilman, 1909; Risley, 1911). Both researchers administered autologous or allogeneic tumour cell extracts at 14 day intervals. Experimentation continued for example with intraperitoneal administration of tumour extracts by Vaughan (1914) or the investigation of combination treatments with radiotherapy by Graham and Graham (1962) who reported that the administration of a tumour cell vaccine to patients from whom tumour had been removed appeared to radiosensitize the residual disease. These therapeutic “blends” with or without live bacteria fell into disuse and disrepute following the discovery of mustard based chemotherapy and radiotherapy which became popular after the 2nd world war.

Keywords

Renal Cell Carcinoma Melanoma Cell Newcastle Disease Virus Cell Vaccine Active Immunotherapy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Maraveyas
    • 1
  • A. G. Dalgleish
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of OncologySt George’s Hospital Medical SchoolLondonUK

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