The Role of Cytokines in the Action of Immunological Adjuvants
Three classes of adjuvants - mineral oil emulsions, aluminium salts, and saponin - have long been used to augment immune responses in vaccination. Each has its own advantages and limitations, and during the last decade new adjuvants have been developed. These complement a new group of antigens, including proteins produced by recombinant technology and synthetic peptides, which require adjuvants to elicit protective immune responses. Some of the recently developed adjuvant formulations are already approved for use in human and veterinary vaccines. This paper describes immunomodulating bacterial products and synthetic derivatives, as well as two-phase (lipid in water) vehicles for antigens. It also reviews briefly what adjuvants are required to do and what is known of their mode of action, with special reference to the role of cytokines.
KeywordsFollicular Dendritic Cell Adjuvant Activity Muramyl Dipeptide IgG2a Antibody IgG2a Isotype
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