Epstein—Barr Virus and Malignant Lymphomas

  • Alfred S. Evans
  • Nancy E. Mueller


Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a versatile DNA herpesvirus associated with a wide variety of clinical syndromes. It has been called a “virus for all seasons” because of this varying role in so many conditions.(66) Primary infection is characterized by infectious mononucleosis (IM) (Chapter 10), and reactivated infections are associated with a wide variety of malignant conditions involving both epithelial and lymphoproliferative disorders. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the major epithelial tumor and is discussed in Chapter 31. This chapter will deal primarily with Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL), the first and most extensively evaluated EBV-related malignant lymphoma. In addition, other EBV-associated lymphomas will be briefly discussed. These include Hodgkin’s disease (HD), and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), either de novo or occurring in immunosuppressed states including post-organ transplantation, the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome, and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). EBV plays differing pathogenetic roles in these malignancies, and the molecular events responsible for these differences are just being unraveled. The epidemiologic criteria on which the virus—cancer relationships are based have been recently reviewed,(10) and Zur Hau- sen(312) has summarized knowledge at the molecular level.


Malignant Lymphoma Infectious Mononucleosis Nodular Sclerosis Holoendemic Malaria 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ambinder, R. A., Browning, P. J., Lorenzana, I., Leventhal, B. G., Cosenza, H., Mann, R. B., Macmahon, E. M. E., Medina, R., Cardona, V., Grufferman, S., Olshan, A., LeVin, A., Petersen, E. A., Blattner, W., And Levine, P. H., Epstein-Barr virus and childhood Hodgkin's disease in Honduras and the United States, Blood 81: 462 - 467 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anagnostopoulos, I., Herbst, H., Niedobitek, G., And Stein, H., Demonstration of monoclonal Ebv genomes in Hodgkin's disease and KI-1-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma by combined southern blot and in situ hybridization, Blood 74: 810-816 (1989).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anonymous, Cancer vaccine slated for tests, Science 259: 753 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anvret, M., Karlsson, A., And Bjursell, G, Evidence for integration of Ebv genome in Raji cellular Dna, Nucleic Acids Res. 12: 1149 - 1161 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Armenian, H. K., And Lilienfield, A. M., The distribution of incubation periods of neoplastic disease, Am. J. Epidemiol. 99: 92 - 101 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Armstrong, J. A., Evans, A. S., Rao, N., And Ho, M., Viral infections in renal transplant recipients, Infect. Immun. 14: 970 - 975 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Audouin, J., Diebold, J., And Pallesen, G., Frequent expression of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 in tumour cells of Hodgkin's disease in Hiv-positive patients, J. Pathol. 167: 381 - 384 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Beral, V., Peterman, T., Berkelman, R., And Jaffe, H., Aids-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Lancet 337: 805 - 809 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Berard, C. W., Morphological definition of Burkitt's tumor: Historical review and present status, in: Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Human Cancer Model (G. M. Lenoir, G. T. O'Conor, And C. L. M. Olweny, Eds.), pp. 31-35, Iarc, Lyon, 1985.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Berard, C. W., O'CoNoR, G. T., Thomas, L. B., And Torloni, H. (Eus.), Histological definition of Burkitt's tumor, Bull. Who 41: 601 - 607 (1969).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bhagat, S. K. M., Medeiros, L. J., Weiss, L. M., Wang, J., Raffeld, M., And Stetler-Stevenson, M., bc1-2 expression in Hodgkin's disease: Correlation with the t(14,18) translocation and Epstein-Barr virus, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 99: 604 - 608 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bhatia, K. G., Gutierrez, M., Huppi, K., Siwarski, D., And Magrath, I. T., The spectrum of p53 mutations in Burkitt's lymphoma differs from that in solid tumors, Cancer Res. 52: 4273 - 4276 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Biggar, R. J., Cancer in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: An epidemiological assessment, Semin. Oncol. 17: 251 - 260 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Biggar, R. J., Henle, W., Fleisher, G., Procker, J., Len-Nette, E. T., And Henle, G., Primary Epstein-Barr virus infections in African infants I. Decline of maternal antibodies and time of infection, Int. J. Cancer 22: 239 - 243 (1978).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Biggar, R. J., Henle, G., Bocher, J., Lennette, E. T., Fleisher, G., And Henle, W., II, Clinical and serological observations during seroconversion, Int. J. Cancer 22: 244 - 250 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bignon, Y-J., Bernard, D., CurÉ, H., Fonck, Y., Pauchard, J., Travade, P., Legros, M., Dastugue, B., And Plagne, R., Detection of Epstein-Barr viral genomes in lymph nodes of Hodgkin's disease patients, MoL Carting. 3: 9 - 11 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bogger-Goren, S., Zaizov, R., Vogel, R., Leventon-Kriss, S., Sayar, Y., And Gotlieb-Stematsky, T., Clinical and virological observations in childhood Hodgkin's disease in Israel, Isr. J. Med. Sci. 19: 989 - 991 (1983).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Boiocchi, M., Carbone, A., DE RE, V., And Dolcetti, R., Is the Epstein-Barr virus involved in Hodgkin's disease? Tumori 75: 345 - 350 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Boiocchi, M., DE RE, V., Gloghini, A., Vaccher, E., Dolcetti, R., Marzotto, A., Bertola, G., And Carbone, A., High incidence of monoclonal Ebv episomes in Hodgkin's disease and anaplastic large-cell KI-1-positive lymphomas in Hiv-1-positive patients, Int J. Cancer 54: 53 - 59 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Borisch Chappuis, B., MÜLler, H., Stu'rrE, J., Hey, M. M., HiügNer, K., And Muller-Hermelink, H. K., Identification of Ebv-Dna in lymph nodes from patients with lymphadenopathy and lymphomas associated with Aids, Virchows Arch. B 58: 199205 (1990).Google Scholar
  21. 21., Borisch, B., Finke, J., Hennig, I., DelacrÉTaz, E, Schneider, J., Heitz, PH. U., And Laissue, J. A., Distribution and localization of Epstein-Barr virus subtypes A and B in Aids-related lymphomas and lymphatic tissue of Hiv-positive patients, J. Pathol. 168: 229 - 236 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bornkamm, G., Hudewentz, J., Freese, U. K., And Zimber, U., Deletion of the nontransforming Epstein-Barr virus strain P3HR-1 causes fusion of large internal repeat to the Dsl region, J. Virol. 43: 952 - 968 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bornkamm, G., Stein, H., Lennart, K., Ruggelberg, F., Bar-Tels, H. E, And ZuR Hausen, H., Attempts to demonstrate virus-specific sequences in human tumors. IV. EB viral Dna in European Burkitt lymphoma and in immunoblastic lymphadenopathy with excessive plasmacytosis, Int. J. Cancer 17: 177 - 181 (1976).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Boyle, M. J., Sewell, W. A., Sculley, T. B., Apolloni, A., Turner, J. J., Swanson, C. E., Penny, R., And Cooper, D. A., Subtypes of Epstein-Barr virus in human immunodeficiency virus-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Blood 78: 3004 - 3011 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Boyle, M. J., Vasak, E., Tschuchnigg, M., Turner, J. J., Sculley, T., Penny, R., Cooper, D. A., Tindall, B., And Sewell, W. A., Subtypes of Epstein-Barr virus (Ebv) in Hodgkin's disease: Association between B-type Ebv and immunocompromise, Blood 81: 468 - 474 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Brichacek, B., Hirsch, I., Sibl, D., Vilikusova, E., And Vonka, V., Presence of Epstein-Barr virus Dna in carcinomas of the palatine tonsil, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 71: 809 - 815 (1984).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brocksmith, D., Angel, C. A., Pringle, J. H., And Lauder, I., Epstein-Barr viral Dna in Hodgkin's disease: Amplification and detection using the polymerase chain reaction, J. Pathol. 165: 1115 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Brousset, P. B., Chittal, S., Schlaifer, D., Icart, J., Payen, C., Rigal-Huguet, F., Voight, J.-J., And Delsol, G., Detection of Epstein-Barr virus messenger Rna in Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin's disease with biotinylated probes on specially processed modified acetone methyl benzoate xylene (ModAMeX) sections, Blood 77: 1781 - 1786 (1991).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    BuRKrrr, D. P., A sarcoma involving the jaws in African children, Br. J. Surg. 46: 218 - 223 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Buiurrr, D. P., A children's cancer dependent on climatic factors, Nature 194: 232 - 234 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Burkttt, D. P., Determining the climatic limitations of a childrens tumor common in Africa, Br. Med J. 2: 1019 - 1023 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    BuRKrrr, D. P., Burkitt's lymphoma outside the known endemic areas of Africa and New Guinea, Int. J. Cancer 2: 562 - 565 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    BuRKrrr, D., And O'Conor, G. T., Malignant lymphoma in African children. I. A clinical syndrome, Cancer 14: 258 - 269 (1961).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    BuRkitt, D., And Wright, D. H., Geographical and tribal distribution of the African lymphoma in Uganda, Br. Med. J. 5487: 569 - 573 (1966).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Byrne, E. B., EvANs, A. S., Fouts, D. W., And Isreal, H. L., A seroepidemiological study of Epstein-Barr virus and other antigens in sarcoidosis, Am. J. Epidemiol. 97: 355 - 363 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Carbone, A., Gloghini, A., Zanetfe, I., Canal, B., Rizzo, A., And Volpe, R., Co-expression of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein and vimentin in "aggressive" histological subtypes of Hodgkin's disease, Virchows Arch. A Pathol. Anat. 422: 39 - 45 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Carter, C. D., Brown, T. M., JR., Herbert, J. T., And Heath, C. W., JR., Cancer incidence following infectious mononucleosis, Am. J. EpidemioL 105: 30 - 36 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Carvalho, R. P. S., Evans, A. S., Frost, P., Dalldorf, G., Camargo, M. F., And Jamra, M., Ebv infections in Brazil, I. Occurrence in normal persons, in lymphomas, and in leukemias, Int. J. Cancer 11:191-201 (1973).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chang, K. L., Albgjar, P. E, Chen, Y-Y., Johnson, R. M., And Weiss, L. M., High prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus in the Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin's disease occurring in Peru, Blood 81: 496 - 501 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chang, R. S., Lewis, J. S., Reynolds, R. D., Sullivan, M. J., And Neuman, J., Oropharyngeal excretion of Epstein-Barr virus by patients with lymphproliferative disorders and by recipients of renal homografts, Ann. Intern. Med. 88: 111 - 123 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Coates, P. J., Slavin, G., And D'Ardenne, A. J., Persistence of Epstein-Barr virus in Reed-Sternberg cells throughout the course of Hodgkin's disease, J. Pathol. 164: 291 - 297 (1991).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Collected reports of cases of Burkitt's lymphoma from countries outside the endemic area, Int. J. Cancer, 2: 550 - 609 (1969).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Connelly, R. R., And Christine, B. W., A cohort study of cancer following infectious mononucleosis, Cancer Res. 34: 1172 - 1178 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Correa, P., And O'Connor, G. T., Epidemiologic patterns of Hodgkin's disease, Int. J. Cancer 8: 192 - 201 (1971).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Crawford, D. H., Epstein-Barr virus: Does it cause cancer? J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 95: 229 - 238 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Croce, C. M., Chromosome translocations and human cancer, Cancer Res. 46: 6019 - 6023 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Dalldorf, G., Linsell, C A, Barnhart, F. C., And Martyn, R., An epidemiologic approach to the lymphomas of African children and Burkitt's sarcoma of the jaws, Perspect. Biol. Med. 7: 435 - 449 (1964).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dambaugh, T., Nkrumrah, E K., Biggar, R. J., And Kieff, E., Epstein-Barr virus Rna in Burkitt tumor tissue, Cell 16: 313 - 322 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Davies, J. N., Elmes, S., Hutt, M. S. R., Mtimavalze, L A. R., Owor, R., And Sharper, L., Cancer in an African community, 1897-1956: An analysis of the records of the Mengo Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, Part 2, Br. Med. J. 1: 336 - 341 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    DE-THÉ, G., Epidemiology of Epstein-Barr virus and associated diseases in man, in: The Herpesviruses, Vol. 1 (B. Roizman, ED.), pp. 25 - 103, Plenum Press, New York, 1978.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    DE-THÉ, G., Epstein-Barr virus and Burkitt's lymphoma worldwide. The causal relationship revisited, in: Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Human Cancer Model (G. M. Lenoir, G. T. O'Conor, And C. L. M. Olweny, Eds.), pp. 165 - 176, Iarc, Lyon, France, 1985.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    DE-THÉ, G., Day, N. E., Geser, A., And Lavoue, M. F., Seroepidemiological of the Epstein-Barr virus: Preliminary analysis of an international study-A review, in: Oncogenesis and Herpesviruses, 11 (G. DE-THÉ, M. A. Epstein, And H. Zur Hausen, Eds.), pp. 3 - 16, Iarc, Lyon, France, 1975.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    DE-THÉ, G., Geser, A., Day, N. E., Tuber, P. M., Williams, E. H., Beir, D. P., Smith, P. G., Dean, A., Bornkamm, G. W., Feorino, P., And Henle, W., Epidemiological evidence for causal relationship between Epstein-Barr virus and Burkitt's lymphoma from Ugandan prospective study, Nature 274: 756 - 761 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Deacon, E. M., Pallesen, G., Niedobitek, G., Crocker, J., Brooks, L., Rickinson, A. B., And Young, L. S., Epstein-Barr virus and Hodgkin's disease: Transcriptional analysis of virus latency in the malignant cells, J. Exp. Med. 177: 339 - 349 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Delsol, G., Brousset, P, Chittal, S., And Rigal-Huguet, F., Correlation of the expression of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein and in situ hybridization with biotinylated Bam Hiw probes in Hodgkin's disease, Am. J. Pathol. 140: 247 - 253 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Deschryver, A., Klein, G., Henle, G., Henle, W., Cameron, H. M., Santessa, L., And Clifford, P., EB-virus associated serology in malignant diseases. Antibody levels to viral capsid antigens (Vca), membrane antigens (MA), and early antigens (EA) in patients with various neoplastic disease, Int. J. Cancer 9: 353 - 364 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Drexler, H. G., Recent results on the biology of Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells. I. Biopsy material, Leuk Lymphoma 8: 283 - 313 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Drexler, H. G. And Leber, B. F., The nature of the Hodgkin cell. Report of the First International Symposium on Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Kohl, Frg, October 2-3, 1987, Blut 56: 135 - 137 (1987).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Epstein, M. A., Epstein-Barr virus-is it time to develop a vaccine program? J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 56: 697 - 700 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Epstein, M. A., And Barr, Y. M., Cultivation in vitro of human lymphoblasts from Burkitt's malignant lymphoma, Lancet 1: 252 - 253 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Epstein, M. A., Achong, B. G., And Barr, Y. M., Virus particles in cultured lymphoblasts from Burkitt's lymphoma, Lancet 1: 702 - 703 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Epstein, M. A., And Achong, B. G. S., (Ens.), The Epstein-Barr Virus: Recent Advances, Wiley Medical Publication, New York, 1986.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Epstein, M. A., And Morgan, A. J., Prevention of endemic Burkitt's lymphoma, in: Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Human Cancer Model (G. M. Lenoir, G. T. O'Conor, And C. L. M. Olweny, Eds.), pp. 293-302, Iarc, Lyon, France, 1985.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Epstein, M. A., Hunt, R. D., And Rabin, H., Pilot experiments with EB virus in owl monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus). 1. Reticuloproliferative disease in an inoculated animal, Int. J. Cancer 12: 309 - 318 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Evans, A. S., Epidemiology of Burkitt's lymphoma: Other factors, in: Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Human Cancer Model (G. M. Lenoir, G. T. O'Conor, And C. L. M. Olweny, Eds.), pp. 197 - 204, Iarc, Lyon, France, 1985.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Evans, A. S., Epstein-Barr virus: An organism for all seasons, in: Medical Virology Vii New York (L. M. D. L. Maza And E. M. Peterson, Eds.), pp. 57 - 97, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1988.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Evans, A. S., Ebv vaccine: Use in infectious mononucleosis, in: Vth International Symposium on Epstein-Barr Virus and Associated Diseases, (T. Tursz, J. S. Pagano, D. V. Ablashi, G. DE THÉ, G. Lenoir, And G. R. Pearson, Eds.) pp. 593 - 598, Annecy, France; John Libby Eurotext, London, 1992.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Evans, A. S., And DE-THÉ, G., Burkitt's lymphoma, in: Viral Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control, 3rd ed. (A. S. Evans, ED.), pp. 713 - 735, Plenum Press, New York, 1989.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Evans, A. S., And Gutensohn, N. M., A population-based case-control study of Ebv and other viral antibodies among persons with Hodgkin's disease and their siblings, Int. J. Cancer 34: 149 - 157 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Evans, A. S., And Mueller, N., Viruses and cancer. Causal associations, Ann. Epidemiol. 1: 71 - 92 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Evans, A. S., Carvalho, R. P. S., Frost, P., Jamra, M., And Pozzl, D. H. B., Epstein-Barr virus infections in Brazil. II. Hodgkin's disease, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 61: 19 - 26 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Evans, A. S., Kirchhoff, L. V., Panutti, C. S., Carvalho, R. P. S., And Mcclelland, K. E., A case control study of Hodgkin's disease in Brazil. II. Seroepidemiological studies in cases and family members, Am. J. Epidemiol. 112: 609 - 618 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Falk, L., Wolfe, L., Deinhardt, F., Paciga, J., Dombos, L., Klein, G., Henle, W., And Henle, G., Epstein-Barr virus: Transformation of non-human lymphocytes in vitro, Int. J. Cancer 13: 353 - 376 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Fellbaum, C., Hansmann, M.-L., Niedermeyer, H., Kraus, I., Alavaikko, M. J., Blanco, G., Aine, R., Busch, R., PÜTZ, B., Fischer, R., And Hofler, H., Influence of Epstein-Barr virus genomes on patient survival in Hodgkin's disease, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 98: 319 - 323 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Finerty, S., Tarlton, J., Machett, M., Conway, M., Arrand, J. R., Watkins, P. E., And Morgan, A. J., Protective immunization against Epstein-Barr virus induced disease in cotton top marmosets using virus envelope gp340 produced from bovine papilloma virus expression vector, J. Gen. Virol. 3: 449 - 453 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fingerdroth, J. D., Weir, J. J., Tedder, T. F., Strominger, J. L., Biro, P. A., And Fearson, D. T., Epstein-Barr virus receptor of human B lymphocytes is the C3d receptor CR2, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Usa 81: 4510 - 4514 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Fleisher, G., Henle, W., Henle, G., Lennette, E. T., And Biggar, R. J., Primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus in infants in the United States: Clinical and serological observations, J. Infect. Dis. 139: 553 - 558 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Further in the Hodgkin's maze, Lancet 1: 1053 - 1054 (1971).Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gerber, P., Activation of Epstein-Barr virus by 5-bromodeoxyuridine in virus free human cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Usa 69: 83 - 85 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gerber, P., And Hoyer, B. H., Induction of cellular Dna synthesis in human leucocytes by Epstein-Barr virus, Nature 231: 46 - 47 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Geser, A., DE-THÉ, G., Lenoir, G., Day, N. E., And Williams, E. H., Final case reporting from the Ugandan prospective study of the relationship between Ebv and Burkitt's lymphoma, Int. J. Cancer 29: 397 - 400 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Geser, S., And Brubaker, G., A preliminary report of epidemiological studies of Burkitt lymphoma, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and malaria in North Mara, Tanzania, in: Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Human Cancer Model (G. M. Lenoir, G. T. O'CoNoR, And C. L. M. Olweny, Eds.), pp. 205 - 216, Iarc, Lyon, France, 1985.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Glaser, S., And Swartz, W. G., Time trends in Hodgkin's disease incidence: The role of diagnostic accuracy, Cancer 66: 2196 - 2204 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gledhill, S., Gallagher, A., Jones, D. B., Krajewski, A. S., Alexander, F. E., Klee, E., Wright, D. H., O'Brien, C., Onions, D. E., And Jarrett, R. F., Viral involvement in Hodgkin's disease: Detection of clonal type A Epstein-Barr virus genomes in tumour samples, Br. J. Cancer 64: 227 - 232 (1991).Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Goldman, J. M., And Aisenberg, A. C., Incidence of antibody to EB virus, herpes simplex, and cytomegalovirus in Hodgkin's disease, Cancer 26: 327 - 331 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Gotlieb-Stematsky, T., Vonsover, A., Ramot, B., Zaizov, R., Nordan, U., Aghai, E., Kende, G., And Modan, M., Antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus in patients with Hodgkin's disease and leukemia, Cancer 36: 1640 - 1645 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gratama, J. W., Zutter, M. M., Minarovits, J., Oosterveer, M. A. P., Thomas, E. D., Klein, G., And Ernberg, I., Expression of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded growth-transformationassociated proteins in lymphoproliferations of bone-marrow transplant recipients, Int. J. Cancer 47: 188 - 192 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Greenspan, J. S., Greenspan, D., Lennette, E. T., Abrams, D. T., Conant, M. A., Peterson, V., And Freese, U. K., Replication of Epstein-Barr virus within the epithelial cells of oral "hairy" leukoplakia, an Aids-associated lesion, N. Engl. J. Med. 313: 1564 - 1571 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Greenwood, B. M., And VIcK, R., Evidence for a malaria antigen in human malaria, Nature 257: 592 - 594 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Grufferman, S., Hodgkin's disease, in Cancer Etiology and Prevention (D. Schottenfeld And J. F. Fraumeni, JR., Eds.), pp. 739 - 753, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1982.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    GU, S., Huang, T., Miao, Y., Ruan, L., Zhao, Y., Han, C., 'Ciao, Y., Zno, J., And Wolf, H., A preliminary study of the immunogenicity in rabbits and human volunteers of a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing Epstein-Barr membrane antigen, Chin. Med. Sci. J. 6: 241 - 243 (1991).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Gutensohn (Mueller), N., Social class and age at diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease: New epidemiologic evidence on the "two-disease" hypothesis, Cancer Treat. Rep. 66: 689 - 695 (1982).Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gutensohn (Mueller), N., And Cole, P., Epidemiology of Hodgkin's disease in the young, Int. J. Cancer 19: 595 - 604 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gutensohn (Mueller), N., And Cole, P., Epidemiology of Hodgkin's disease, Semin. Oncol. 7: 92 - 102 (1980).Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Gutensohn (Mueller), N., And Cole, P., Childhood social environment and Hodgkin's disease, N. Engl. J. Med. 292: 135140 (1981).Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Gutensohn (Mueller), N., And Shapiro, D. S., Social class factors among children with Hodgkin's disease, Int. J. Cancer 30: 433 - 435 (1982).Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Gutierrez, M., Bhatia, K., Barriga, F., Dies, B., Muriel, F. S., DE Andreas, M.-L., Epelman, S., Risueno, C. And Magrath, I., Molecular epidemiology of Burkitt's lymphoma from South America: Differences in breakpoint location and Epstein-Barr virus association from tumors in other world regions, Blood 79: 3261 - 3266 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Haddow, A. J., Epidemiological evidence suggesting an infective element in the etiology, in: Burkitt's Lymphoma (D. P. BurkrrT And D. H. Wright, Eds.), pp. 198 - 209, E. S. Livingston, Edinburgh, 1970.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hallee, T J, Evans, A. S., Niederman, J. C., Brooks, C. M., And Voegtly, J. H., Infectious mononucleosis at the US Military Academy: A prospective study of a single class over four years, Yale J. Biol. Med. 47: 182 - 195 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hamilton-Dutoit, S. J., Pallesen, G., Franzmann, M. B., Karkov, J., Black, E, Skinhoj, P., And Pedersen, C., Aids-related lymphoma: Histopathology, immunophenotype, and as- sociation with Epstein-Barr virus as demonstrated by in situ nucleic acid hybridization, Am. J. Pathol. 138: 149 - 163 (1991).Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hamilton-Dutoit, S. J., Pallesen, G., A survey of Epstein-Barr virus gene expression in sporadic non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: Detection of Epstein-Barr virus in a subset of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, Am. J. Pathol. 140: 1315 - 1325 (1992).Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hamilton-Dutoit, S. J., Raphael, M., Audouin, J., Diebold, J., Lisse, I., Pedersen, C., Oksenhendler, E., Marelle, L., And Pallesen, G., In situ demonstration of Epstein-Barr virus small Rnas (Eber 1) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphomas: Correlation with tumor morphology and primary site, Blood 82: 619 - 624 (1993).Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hampar, B., Derge, J. G., Martos, L. M., And Walker, J. L., Synthesis of Epstein-Barr virus after the reactivation of the viral genome in a virus-negative human lymphoblastoid cell (Raji) made resistant to five bromodeooxyuridine, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Usa 60: 78 - 82 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Henderson, B. E., Dworsky, R., Menck, H., Alena, B., Henle, W., Henle, G., And Terasaki, P., Case-control study of Hodgkin's disease. II. Herpesvirus group antibody titers and HL-A type, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 51: 1443 - 1447 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Henderson, E., Robinson, J., Frank, A., And Miller, G., Epstein-Barr virus: Transformation of lymphocytes separated by size or exposed to bromodeoxyuridine and light, Virology 82: 196 - 205 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Henle, G., And Henle, W., Immunofluorescence in cells derived from Burkitt's lymphoma, J. Bacteriol. 91: 1248 - 1256 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Henle, G., Henle, W., Cliford, P., Diehl, V., Kafuko, G. W., Kirya, B. G., Klein, G., Morrow, R. H., Minube, G. M., Pike, M. C., Tukei, P. M., And Ziegler, J. L., Antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus in Burkitt's lymphoma and control groups, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 43: 1147 - 1157 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Henle, W., And Henle, G., Epstein-Barr virus-related serology in Hodgkin's disease, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 36: 79 - 84 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Henle, W., Henle, G., Andersson, J., Ernberg, I., Klein, G., Horwitz, C. A., Marklund, G., Rymo, L., Wellinder, C., And Strauss, S. E., Antibody responses to Epstein-Barr virus-determined nuclear antigen (Ebna-1 and Ebna-2) in acute and chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Usa 83: 570 - 574 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Hennekens, C. H., And Buring, J. E., Epidemiology in Medicine, Little Brown and Company, Boston, MA, 1987.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Henness, K., Heller, M., Van Santen, V., And Kieff, E., Simple repeat array in Epstein-Barr virus Dna encoded part of the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen, Science 220: 1396 - 1398 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Herbst, H., And Niedobitek, G., Epstein-Barr virus and Hodgkin's disease, Int. J. Clin. Lab. Res. 23: 13 - 16 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Herbst, H., Dallenbach, E, Hummel, K., Niedobitek, G., Pileri, S., MÜLler-Lantzsch, N., And Stein, H., Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein expression in Hodgkin and Reed- Sternberg cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Usa 88: 4766 - 4770 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Herbst, H., Niedobitek, G., Kneba, M., Hummel, M., Finn, T., Anagnostopoulos, I., Bergholz, M., Krieger, G., And Stein, H., High incidence of Epstein-Barr virus genomes in Hodgkin's disease, Am. J. Pathol. 137: 13 - 18 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Herbst, H., Steinbrecher, E., Niedobitek, G., Young, L. S., Brooks, L., MÜLler-Lantzsch, N., And Stein, H., Distribution and phenotype of Epstein-Barr virus-harboring cells in Hodgkin's disease, Blood 80: 484 - 491 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Herbst, H., Tippelmann, G., Anagnostopoulos, I., Gerdes, J., Schwarting, R., Boehm, T., Pileri, S., Jones, D. B., And Stein, H., Immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements in Hodgkin's disease and Ki-l-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma: Dissociation between phenotype and genotype, Leuk. Res. 13: 103 - 116 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Hesse, J., Levine, P. H., Ebbesen, P., Connelly, R. R., And Mordhorst, C. H., A case-control study on immunity to two Epstein-Barr virus-associated antigens and to herpes simplex virus and adenovirus in a population-based group of patients with Hodgkin's disease in Denmark, 1971-1973, Int. J. Cancer 19: 4558 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hessol, N. A., Katz, M. H., Liu, J. Y., Buchbinder, S. P., Rubino, C. J., And Holmberg, S. D., Increased incidence of Hodgkin disease in homosexual men with Hiv infection, Ann. Intern. Med. 117: 309 - 311 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Hilgers, J., Dean, A. G., And DE-THÉ, G. B., Elevated immunofluorescence titers to several herpes viruses in Burkitt's lymphoma patients. Are high titers unique? J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 54: 49 - 51 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Hilgers, F., And Hilgers, J., An immunofluorescence technique with counterstain on fixed cells for the detection of antibodies to human herpesviruses; Antibody patterns in patients with Hodgkin's disease and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Intervirology 7: 309 - 327 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Hirshaut, Y., Reagan, R. I., Perry, S., Devita, V., JR., And Barile, M. F., The search for a viral agent in Hodgkin's disease, Cancer 34: 1080 - 1089 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Ho, M., Miller, G., Atchison, R. W., Breinig, M. K., Dummer, J. S., Andiman, W., Starzl, T. E., Eastman, R., Griffith, B. P., Hardesty, R. L., Bahnson, H. T., Hakala, T. R., And Rosenthal, J. T., Epstein-Barr virus infections and Dna hybridization studies in posttransplant lymphoma and lymphoproliferative lesions: The role of primary infection, J. Infect. Dis. 152: 876 - 886 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Horwitz, C. A., Henle, W., Henle, G., Rudnick, H., And Latts, E., Long-term serological follow-up of patients for Epstein-Barr virus after recovery from infectious mononucleosis, J. Infect. Dis. 151: 1150 - 1153 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Ito, Y., Kawanishi, M., Hiirayama, T., And Takabagashi, S., Combined effects of the extracts from Croton tiglium, Euphobia lathyres or Euphorbia tizucalle and N-butyrate on Epstein-Barr virus expression in human lymphoblastoid P3HR-1 and Raji cells, Cancer Lett. 12: 175 - 180 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Jarrett, R. F., Gallagher, A., Jones, D. B., Alexander, F. E., Krajewski, A. S., Kelsey, A., Adams, J., Angus, B., Gledhill, S., Wright, D. H., Cartwright, R. A., And Onions, D. E., Detection of Epstein-Barr virus genomes in Hodgkin's disease: Relation to age, J. Clin. Pathol. 44: 844 - 848 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Jiwa, N. M., Kanavaros, P., Van Der Valk, P., Walboomers, J. M. M., Horstman, A., Vos, W., Mullink, H., And Meijer, C. J. L. M., Expression of c-myc and bd-2 oncogene products in Reed-Sternberg cells independent of presence of Epstein-Barr virus, J. Clin. Pathol. 46: 211 - 217 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Johansson, B., Klein, G., Henle, W., And Henle, G., Epstein-Barr virus (Ebv)-associated antibody patterns in malignant lymphoma and leukemia, Int. J. Cancer 6: 450 - 462 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Jondal, M., And Klein, G., Surface markers on human B and T lymphocytes. II. Presence of Epstein-Barr virus receptors on B lymphocytes, J. Exp. Med. 138: 1365 - 1378 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Judson, S. C., Werner, W., And Henle, G., A cluster of Epstein-Barr-virus-associated Burkitt's lymphoma, N. Engl. J. Med. 297: 464 - 468 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    KafjKo, G. W., And Burkitt, D. P., Burkitt lymphoma and malaria, Int. J. Cancer 6: 1 - 9 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Kafuko, G. W., Henderson, B. E., Kirya, B. G., Manube, G. M. R., Tukei, P. M., Day, N. E., Henle, G., Henle, W., Mor- Row, R. H., Pike, M. C., Smith, P. G., And Williams, E. H., Epstein-Barr virus antibody levels in children from the West Nile District of Uganda, Lancet 1: 706 - 709 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Kallin, B., Dillner, J., Ernberg, I., Ehlin-Henriksson, B., Rosen, A., Henle, W., Henle, G., And Klein, G., Four virally determined nuclear antigens are expressed in Epstein-Barr virus- transformed cells, Pmc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Usa 83: 1499 - 1503 (1986).Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Kaplan, H. S., Hodgkin's Disease, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1980.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Kaschuka-Dierich, C., Adams, A., Lindahl, T., Bornkamm, G., Bjursell, G., Klein, G., Giovanella, B., And Sing, S., Intracellular forms of Epstein-Barr virus Dna in human tumor cells in vivo, Nature 260: 302 - 306 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Kasule, O., The epidemiology of childhood Epstein-Barr virus infection in Uganda in relation to the risk of Burkitt's lymphoma, doctoral thesis, School of Public Health, Harvard University, 1988.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Katz, B. Z., Raab-Traub, N., And Miller, G., Latent and replicating forms of Epstein-Barr virus Dna in lymphoma and lymphoproliferative diseases, J. Infect. Dis. 160: 589 - 598 (1989).Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Khan, G., Coates, P. J., Gupta, R. K., Kangro, H. O., And Slavin, G., Presence of Epstein-Barr virus in Hodgkin's disease is not exclusive to Reed-Sternberg cells, Am. J. Pathol. 140: 757 - 762 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Khan, G., Norton, A. J., And Slavin, G., Epstein-Barr virus in Hodgkin disease: Relation to age and subtype, Cancer 71: 3124 - 3129 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Khanna, R., Burrows, S. R., Kurilla, M. G., Jacob, C. A., Misko, I. S., Sculley, T. B., Kieff, E., And Moss, D. J., Localization of Epstein-Barr virus cytotoxic T-cell epitopes using recombinant vaccinia: Implications for vaccine development, J. Exp. Med. 176: 169 - 176 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Kieff, E., Dambaugh, T., Heller, M., King, W., Cheung, A., Van Santen, V., Hummel, M., Beisel, C., Fennewald, S., Hennessy, K., And Heineman, T., The biology and chemistry of Epstein-Barr virus, J. Infect. Dis. 146: 506 - 517 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Kieff, E., And Liebowitz, D., Epstein-Barr virus and its replication, in: Virology, 2nd ed. (B. Fields And D. M. Knipe, Eds.), pp. 1889 - 1920, Raven Press, New York, 1990.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Klein, E., Klein, G., Nadkarm, J. S., Wigzill, H., And Clifford, P., Surface IgM-kappa specificity on cells derived from a Burkitt's lymphoma, Lancet 2: 1068 - 1070 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Klein, G., Epstein-Barr virus, malaria, and Burkitt's lymphoma, Scand. J. Infect. Dis. Suppl. 36: 15 - 23 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Klein, G., Epstein-Barr virus and its association with human disease: An overview, in: Epstein-Barr Virus and Human Disease-1988, (D. V. Ablashi, A. Faggioni, And G. R. F. Kruegeret, Eds.), pp. xvii-xxvii, Humana Press, Clifton, NJ, 1988.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Klein, G., The paradoxical coexistence of Ebv and the human species, Epstein-Barr Virus Rep. 1: 1 - 5 (1994).Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Klein, G., Lindahl, T., Jondal, W., Menezes, J., Nilsson, K., And Sundstrom, C., Continuous lymphoblastoid cell lines with characteristics of B cells (bone marrow derived) lacking the Ebv genome and derived from 3 human lymphomas, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Usa 71: 3283 - 3286 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Knecht, H., Odermatt, B. F., Bachmann, E., Teixeira, S., Sahli, R., Hayoz, D., Heitz, P, And Bachmann, F., Frequent detection of Epstein-Barr virus Dna by the polymerase chain reaction in lymph node biopsies from patients with Hodgkin's disease without genomic evidence of B- or T-cell clonality, Blood 78: 760 - 767 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    KvAle, G., HoIby, E. A., And Pedersen, E., Hodgkin's disease in patients with previous infectious mononucleosis, Int. J. Cancer 23: 593 - 597 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Lange, B., Arbeter, A., Hervetson, J., And Henle, W., Longitudinal study of Epstein-Barr virus antibody titers and excretion in pediatric patients with Hodgkin's disease, Int. J. Cancer 22: 521 - 527 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Langenhuysen, M. M., Cazemier, T., Houwen, B., BrouwErs, T. M., Halle, M. R., The, T. H., And Nieweg, H. O., Antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and Australia antigen in Hodgkin's disease, Cancer 34: 262 - 267 (1974).Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Leder, P., The state and prospect for molecular genetics in Burkitt's lymphoma, in: Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Human Cancer Model, (G. M. Lenoir, G. T. O'Conor, And C. L. M. Olweny, EDs.), pp. 465 - 468, Iarc, Lyon, France, 1985.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Leder, P., Translocations among antibody genes in human cancer, in: Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Human Cancer Model, (G. M. Lenoir, G. T. O'Conor, And C. L. M. Olweny, Eds.), pp. 341-358, Iarc, Lyon (1985).Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Lehtinen, T., Lumto, J., Dillner, J., Hakama, M., Knekt, P., Lehtinen, M., Teppo, L., And Leinikki, P., Increased risk of malignant lymphoma indicated by elevated Epstein-Barr virus antibodies-a prospective study, Cancer Causes Control 4: 187193 (1993).Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Lenoir, G. M., Role of the virus, chromosomal translocations and cellular oncogenes in the aetiology of Burkitt's lymphoma, in: The Epstein-Barr Virus: Recent Advances (M. A. Epstein And B. G. Achong, Eds.), pp. 184 - 205, Wiley Medical Publication, New York, 1986.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Lenoir, G. M., O'Conor, G., And Olweny, C. L. M., (Eds.), Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Human Cancer Model, Iarc, Lyon, France, 1985.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Lenoir, G. M., Philip T., And Sohier, R., Burkitt-type lymphoma: Ebv association and cytogenetic markers in cases from various geographic locations, in: Pathogenesis of Leukemias and Lymphomas (I. T. Mcgrath, G. T. O'Conor, And B. Ramot, Eds.), pp. 283 - 295, Raven Press, New York (1984).Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Levine, A. M., Aids-related malignancies: The emerging epidemic, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 85: 1382 - 1397 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Levine, P. H., Ablashi, D. V., And Berard, C. W., Elevated antibody titers to Epstein-Barr virus in Hodgkin's disease, Cancer 27: 416 - 421 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Levine, P. H., And Blattner, W. A., The epidemiology of human virus-associated hematologic malignancies, Leukemia 6 (Suppl. 3): 54s - 59s (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Levine, P. H., Connelly, R. R., And Mckay, F. W., Burkitt's lymphoma cases reported to the American Burkitt's Lymphoma Registry compared with population-based incidence and mortality data, in: Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Human Cancer Model (G. M. Lenoir, G. T. O'Connor, And C. L. M. Olweny, Eds.), pp. 217 - 224, Iarc, Lyon, France, 1985.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Levine, P., Kamaraju, L. S., Connelly, R. R., Berard, C. W., Dorfman, R. E, Macgrath, I., And Easton, J. M., The American Burkitt's Lymphoma Registry. Eight years experience, Cancer 49: 1016 - 1022 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Levine, P., Pallesen, G., Ebbesen, P., Harris, N., Mueller, N., And Evans, A., An evaluation of Epstein-Barr virus antibody patterns and the detection of viral markers in the biopsies of patients with Hodgkin's disease, Int. J. Cancer 59: 48 - 50 (1994).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Leyvraz, S., Henle, W., Chahinian, A. P., Perlmann, C., Klein, G., Gordon, R. E., Rosenblum, M., And Holland, J. F., Association of Epstein-Barr virus with thymic carcinoma, N. Engl. J. Med. 312: 1296 - 1299 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Libetta, C. M., Pringle, J. H., Angel, C. A., Craft, A. W., Malcolm, A. J., And Lauder, I., Demonstration of Epstein-Barr viral Dna in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of Hodgkin's disease, J. Pathol. 161: 255 - 260 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Lin, J.-C., Lin, S.-C., DE, B. K., Chan, W. R, And Evatt, B. L., Precision of genotyping of Epstein-Barr virus by polymerase chain reaction using three gene loci (Ebna-2, Ebna-3C, and Eber): Predominance of type A virus associated with Hodgkin's disease, Blood 81: 3372 - 3381 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Lindahl, T., Klein, G., Reedman, B. M., Johanson, B., And Singh, S., Relationship between Epstein-Barr virus (Ebv) Dna and Ebv-determined nuclear antigen (Ebna) in Burkitt lymphoma biopsies and other lymphoproliferative malignancies, Int. J. Cancer 13: 764 - 772 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Lipsomb, H., Tatsumi, E., Harada, S., Sonnabend, J., Wallace, J., Yetz, J., Davis, J., Mcclain, K., Metro/CA, C., Tubbs, R., And Purtilo, D., Epstein-Ban virus, chronic lymphadenopathy, and lymphomas in male homosexuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (Aids), Aids Res. 1: 59 - 83 (1983).Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    List, A. F., Greco, A., And Vogler, L. B., Lymphoproliferative diseases in immunocompromised hosts: The role of Epstein-Barr virus, J. Clin. Oncol. 5: 1673 - 1689 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Lombardi, L., Newcomb, E., And Dalla-Favea, R., Pathogenesis of Burkitt's lymphoma: Expression of an activated c-myc oncogene cancer tumorgenic conversion of Ebv infected human B lymphocytes, Cell 49: 161 - 170 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Luka, J., Lindahl, T., And Klein, G., Purification of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen from transformed human lymphoid cell lines, J. V irol. 27: 604 - 611 (1978).Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Macmahon, B., Epidemiologic evidence on the nature of Hodgkin's disease, Cancer 10: 1045 - 1054 (1957).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Macmahon, B., Epidemiology of Hodgkin's disease, Cancer Res. 26: 1189 - 1200 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Macmahon, E. M. E., Glass, J. D., Hayward, S. D., Mann, R. B., Becker, R. S., Charache, P., Mcarthur, J. C., And Ambinder, R. F., Epstein-Barr virus in Aids-related primary central nervous system lymphoma, Lancet 338: 969 - 973 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Madej, M., Conway, M. J., Morgan, A. J., Sweet, J., Wallace, L., Qualtiere, L. F., Arrand, J. R., And Mackett, M., Purification and characterization of Epstein-Barr virus GP340/220 produced by a bovine papillomavirus virus expression vector system, Vaccine 10: 777 - 782 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Maggi, E., Parronchi, P., Macchia, D., Piccinni, M.-P., Simonelli, C., And Romagnani, S., Role of T cells in the pathogenesis of Hodgkin's disease, Int. Rev. Exp. Pathol. 33: 141 - 164 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Magrath, I., Molecular basis of lymphogenesis, Cancer Res. 52 (Suppl. 19): 5529s - 5540s (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Magrath, I. T., The pathogenesis of Burkitt's lymphoma, Adv. Cancer Res. 55: 133 - 270 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Magrath, I., Barriga, F., Mcmanaway, M., And Shiramizu, B., The molecular analysis of chromosomal translocations as a diagnostic, epidemiological and potentially prognostic tool in lymphoid neoplasia, J. V irol. Methods 21: 275 - 289 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Magrath, I., Jain, V., And Bhat!A, K., The molecular epidemiology of Burkitt's lymphoma, in: Epstein-Barr Virus and Associated Diseases, Vol. 25 (T. Tursz, J. S. Pagano, D. V. Ablashi, G. DE-The, G. Lenoir, And G. R. Pearson, Eds.), pp. 337 - 396, London, Colloque Insermuohn Libbey, 1993.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Magrath, I. T., And Sariban, E., Clinical features of Burkitt's lymphoma in the Usa, in: Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Human Cancer Model (G. M. Lenoir, G. T. O'Conor, And C. L. M. Olweny, Eds.), pp. 119 - 127, Iarc, Lyon, France, 1985.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Magrath, I. T, African Burkitt's lymphoma. History, biology, clinical features, and treatment, Am. J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 13: 222 - 246 (1991).Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Manolov, G., And Manlova, Y., Experiments with fluorescent chromosome staining in Burkitt tumors, Heriditas 68: 235 - 244 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Masih, A., Weisenburger, D., Duggan, M., Armitage, J., Bashir, R., Mitchell, D., Wickert, R., And Purtilo, D. T., Epstein-Barr viral genome in lymph nodes from patients with Hodgkin's disease may not be specific to Reed-Stemberg cells, Am. J. Pathol. 139: 37 - 43 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Matsuo, T., Heller, M., Petit, L., O'Shiro, E., And Keif, E., Persistance of the entire Epstein-Barr virus genome integrated with human lymphocyte Dna, Science 226: 1322 - 1325 (1984).Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Meeker, T. C., Shiramizu, B., Kaplan, L., Herndier, B., Sanchez, H., Grimaldi, J. C., Baumgartner, J., Rachlin, J., Feigal, E., Rosenblum, M., And Mcgrath, M.S., Evidence for molecular subtypes of Hiv-associated lymphoma: Division into peripheral monoclonal, polyclonal and central nervous system lymphoma, Aids 5: 669 - 674 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Miller, B. A., Ries, L. A. G., Hankey, B. F., Kosary, C. L., And Edwards, B. K. (Eds.), Cancer Statistics Review: 1973-1989, Nih Pub. No. 92-2789, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, 1992.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Miller, B. A., Ries, L. A. G., Hankey, B. F., Kosary, C. L., Haaras, A., Devesa, S. S., And Edwards, B. K. (Eds.), Seer Cancer Statistics Review: 1973-1990, Nih Pub. No. 93-2789, Bethesda, MD, 1993.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Miller, G., Burkitt lymphoma, in: Viral Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control, 2nd ed. (A. S. Evans, ED.), pp. 599619, Plenum Press, New York, 1982.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Miller, G., Epstein-Barr virus, in: Field's Virology, (B. N. Field, ED.), pp. 563 - 589, Raven Press, New York, 1985.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Miller, G., Epstein-Barr virus: Biology, pathogenesis and medical aspects, in: Virology, 2nd ed. (B. Fields And D. M. Knipe, Eds.), pp. 1921 - 1958, Raven Press, New York (1990).Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Miller, G., And Coop, D., Epstein-Barr viral nuclear antigen (Ebna) in tumor cell imprints of experimental lymphoma of marmosets, Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians 87: 205 - 218 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Miller, G., Enders, J. F., Lisco, L., And Kohn, H. I., Establishment of lines from normal blood leukocytes by cocultivation with a leukocyte line derived from a leukemic line, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 132: 247 - 252 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Miller, G., Grogan, E., Fischer, D. K., Niederman, J. C., Schooley, R. T., Henle, W., Lenoir, G., And Lui, C. R., Antibody responses to two Epstein-Barr nuclear antigens defined by gene transfer, N. Engl. J. Med. 312: 750 - 755 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Miller, G., Grogan, E., Rowe, D., Rooney, C., Heston, L., Eastman, R., Andiman, W., Niederman, J., Lenoir, G., Henle, W., Sullivan, J., Schooley, R., Vosser, J., Strauss, S., And Issekutz, T., Selective lack of antibody to a component of EB nuclear antigen in patients with chronic Epstein-Barr infection virus, J. Infect. Dis. 156: 26 - 35 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Miller, G., Katz, B. Z., And Niederman, J. C., Some recent developments in the molecular epidemiology of Epstein-Barr virus infections, Yale J. Biol. Med. 60: 307 - 316 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Miller, G., Robinson, J., HÉSton, L., And Lipman, M., Differences between laboratory strains of Epstein-Barr virus based on immortalization, abortive infection, and interference, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Usa /1: 4006 - 4010 (1974).Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Miller, G., Shope, T., Coope, D., Walters, L., Pagano, J., Bornkamm, G. W., And Henle, W., Lymphoma in cotton-top marmosets after inoculation with Epstein-Barr virus: Tumor incidence, histologic spectrum, antibody responses, demonstration of viral Dna, and characterization of viruses, J. Exp. Med. 145: 948 - 967 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Miller, G., Shope, T., LIsco, H., Stitt, D., And Lipman, M., Epstein-Barr virus: Transformation, cytopathogenic changes, and viral antigens in squirrel monkeys and marmoset leukocytes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Usa 69: 383 - 387 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Miller, M. H., Stitt, D., And Miller, G., Epstein-Barr viral antigen in single cell clones of two human leukocyte lines, J. Virol. 6: 699 - 701 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Miller, R. W., And Beebe, G. W., Infectious mononucleosis and the empirical risk of cancer, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 50: 315 - 321 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Mitelman, F., And Levan, G., Clustering of aberrations to specific chromosomes in human neoplasms. II. A survey of 287 neoplasms, Heriditas 82: 167 - 174 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    MocHanko, K., Fetes, M., Breazavscek, D. M., Suarez, A., And Bachmann, A. E., The relation between Epstein-Barr virus antibodies and clinical symptomatology and immuno-deficiency in patients with Hodgkin's disease, Cancer 44: 2067 - 2070 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Mohar, A., Romo, J., Salido, E, Jessurun, J., Ponce DE Leon, S., Reyes, E., Volkow, P., Larraza, O., Peredo, M. A., Cano, C., Gomez, G., Sepulveda, J., And Mueller, N., The spectrum of clinical and pathological manifestations of Aids in a consecutive series of autopsied patients in Mexico, Aids 6: 467 - 473 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Montagnier, L., Gruest, J., Chamaret, S., Daugnet, C., Axler, C., Guetaad, D., Nugeyre, M. T., Barresimoussi, E, Chermann, T. C., Brunet, J. B., Klatzman, D., And Gluckman, J. C., Adaptation of the lymphadenopathy virus (Lav) to replication in Ebv-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines, Science 225: 63 - 66 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Morgan, A. J., Epstein-Barr virus vaccines, Vaccine 10: 563 - 571 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Morrow, R. H., Burkitt's lymphoma, in: Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention (D. Schottenfeld And J. Fraumeni, Eds.), pp. 779 - 794, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1982.Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Morrow, R. H., Pike, M. C., Smith, P. G., Ziegler, J. L., And Kisuule, A., Burkitt lymphoma: A time-space cluster of cases in Bwamba county of Uganda, Br. Med. J. 2: 491 - 492 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Morrow, R. H., Pike, M. C., And Smith, P. G., Further studies of space-time clustering in Uganda, 1957-1968, Br. Cancer J. 35: 668 - 673 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Morrow, R. H., JR., Epidemiological evidence for a role of falciparum malaria in the pathogenesis of Burkitt's lymphoma, in: Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Human Cancer Model, (G. M. Lenoir, G. T. O'CoNoR, And C. L. M. Olweny, Eds.), pp. 177 - 186, Iarc, Lyon, France, 1985.Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Moss, D. J., Burrows, S. R., Castelino, D. J., Kase, G., Pope, J. H., Rickenson, A. B., Alpers, M. P., And Heywood, P. F., A comparison of Epstein-Barr virus-specific T-cell immunity in malaria endemic and non-endemic regions of Papua, New Guinea, Int. J. Cancer 31: 727 - 732 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Mueller, N., An epidemiologist's view of the new molecular biology findings in Hodgkin's disease, Ann. Oncol. 2 (Suppl. 2): 23 - 28 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Mueller, N., Epidemiologic studies assessing the role of Epstein-Barr virus in Hodgkin's disease, Yale J. Biol. Med. 60: 321 - 328 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Mueller, N., Hodgkin's disease, in: Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, 2nd ed. (D. Schottenfeld And J. F. Fraumeni, JR., Eds.), pp. 893 - 919, Oxford University Press, New York, 1996.Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Mueller, N., Evans, A., Harris, N. L., Comstock, G. W., Jellum, E., Magnus, K., Orentreich, N., Polk, B. E, And Vogelman, J., Hodgkin's disease and the Ebv: Altered antibody patterns before diagnosis, N. Engl. J. Med. 320: 696 - 701 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Muir, C., Waterhouse, T., Powell, M. J., And Whelan, S. (Eds.), Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. 5, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, 1987.Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Munoz, N., Davidson, R. J. L., Witthoff, B., Ericsson, J. E., And DE-THÉ, G., Infectious mononucleosis and Hodgkin's disease, Int. J. Cancer 22: 10 - 13 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Murray, P. G., Young, L. S., Rowe, M., And Crocker, J., Immunohistochemical demonstration of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein in paraffin sections of Hodgkin's disease, J. Pathol. 166: 1 - 5 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Niederman, J. C., And Miller, G., Kinetics of the antibody responses to Barn HI-K nuclear antigen in uncomplicated infectious mononucleosis, J. Infect. Dis. 154: 346 - 349 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Niederman, J. C., Miller, G., Pearson, H. A., Pagano, J. S., And Dowaliby, J. M., EB virus shedding in saliva and the oropharynx, N. Engl. J. Med. 294: 1335 - 1359 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Niedobitek, G., Herbst, H., Young, L. S., Brooks, L., Masucci, M. G., Crocker, J., Rickinson, A. B., And Stein, H., Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus infection in non-neoplastic lymphoid tissue, Blood 79: 2520 - 2526 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Niedobitek, G., Rowlands, D. C., Young, L. S., Herbst, H., Williams, A., Hall, R, Padfield, J., Rooney, N., And Jones, E. L., Overexpression of p53 in Hodgkin's disease: Lack of correlation with Epstein-Barr virus infection, J. Pathol. 169: 207 - 212 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Nilsson, K., And Klein, G., Phenotypic and cytogenetic characteristics of human B lymphoid cell lines and their relevance for the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma, Adv. Cancer Res. 37: 319 - 380 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Nkrumah, A K., And Olweny, C. L. M., Clinical features of Burkitt's lymphoma: The African experience, in: Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Human Cancer Model (G. M. Lenoir, G. T. O'Conor, And C. L. M. Olweny, Eds.), pp. 87 - 95, Iarc, Lyon, France, 1985.Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Nonoyama, M., Huang, C. H., Pagano, J. S., Klein, G., And Singh, S., Dna of Epstein-Barr virus detected in tissue of Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Usa 70: 3265 - 3268 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    O'CoNoR, G. T., Malignant tumors in African children. II. A pathological entity, Cancer 14: 270 - 283 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    O'CoNoR, G. T., And Davies, J. N. R, Malignant tumors in African children with special reference to malignant lymphoma, J. Pediatr. 56: 526 - 535 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Obrams, G. I., And Grufferman, S., Epidemiology of Hiv associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Cancer Sun. 10: 91 - 102 (1991).Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Ohshima, K., Kikuchi, M., Eguchi, E, Masuda, Y., Sumiyoshi, Y., Mohtaj, H., Takeshita, M., And Kimura, N., Analysis of Epstein-Barr viral genomes in lymphoid malignancy using Southern blotting, polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization, Virchows Arch. B 59: 383 - 390 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Olweny, C. M., Katungole-Mbidde, E., Otim, D., Lwanga S. K., Magrath, I., And Ziegler, J. L., Long term experience with Burkitt's lymphoma in Uganda, Int. J. Cancer 26: 261 - 267 (1980).Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Opeiz, G., And Henderson, R., For The Collaborative Transplant Study, Incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in kidney and heart transplant recipients, Lancet 342: 1514 - 1516 (1993).Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    Orlowski, R., And Miller, G., Topological effect of Ebna-1 on oriP, in: Immunobiology and Prophylaxis of Human Herpes-virus Infections (C. Lopez, R. Mori, B. Roizman, And R. J. Whitley, Eds.), pp. 115 - 124, Plenum Press, New York, 1990.Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Osmond, D. G., Priddle, S., And Rico-Vargas, S., Proliferation of B cell precursors in bone marrow of pristane-conditioned and malaria infected mice: Implications for B cell oncogenesis, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 166: 149 - 157 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Ott, G., Ott, M. M., And Muller-Hermelink, H. K., Ebv Dna in nodal and extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: Impact of cell lineage, morphology, and site of origin, Toxicol. Lett. 67: 341 - 351 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Pagano, J. S., Detection of Epstein-Barr virus with molecular hybridization techniques, J. Infect. Dis. 13 (Suppl.): 123s - 128s (1991).Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    Pallesen, G., Hamilton-Dutoit, S. J., Rowe, M., Lisse, I., Ralfkiaer, E., Sandvej, K., And Young, L. S., Expression of Epstein-Barr virus replicative proteins in Aids-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cells, J. Pathol. 165: 289 - 299 (1991).Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Pallesen, G., Hamilton-Dutoit, S. J., Rowe, M., And Young, L. S., Expression of Epstein-Barr virus latent gene products in tumour cells of Hodgkin's disease, Lancet 337: 320 - 322 (1991).Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Pallesen, G., Sandvej, K., Hamilton-Dutoit, S. J., Rowe, M., And Young, L. S., Activation of Epstein-Barr virus replication in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells, Blood 78: 1162 - 1165 (1991).Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    Pallesen, G., Hamilton-Dutoit, S. J., And Sandvej, K., Ebvrelated lymphomas and Hodgkin's disease, in: Vth International Symposium on Epstein-Barr Virus and Associated Diseases (T. Tursz, J. S. Pagano, D. V. Ablashi, G. DE-THÉ, G. Lenoir, And G. R. Pearson, Eds.), pp. 419 - 423, Annency, France, John Libby Eurotext, London, 1992.Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Parkin, D. M., Sohier, R., And O'CoNoR, G. T., Geographic distribution of Burkitt's lymphoma, in: Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Human Cancer Model (G. M. Lenoir, G. T. O'CoNoR, And C. L. M. Olweny, Eds.), pp. 155 - 164, Iarc, Lyon, France, 1985.Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    Pearson, G. R., And Luka, J., Characteristics of the virus-determined antigens, in: The Epstein-Barr Virus: Recent Advances (M. A. Epstein, And B. G. Achong, Eds.), pp. 48 - 73, Wiley Medical, New York (1986).Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    Pearson, G. R., Vroman, B., Chase, B., Sculley, T., Hummel, M., And Kief, E., Identification of polypeptide components of the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen complex with monoclonal antibodies, J. Virol. 47: 193 - 201 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Philip, T., Burkitt's lymphoma in Europe, in: Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Human Cancer Model (G. M. Lenoir, G. T. O'CoNoR, And C. L. M. Olweny, Eds.), pp. 107 - 118, Iarc, Lyon, France, 1985.Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    Pike, M. C., Morrow, R. H., Kisuule, A., And Mafigiri, J., Burkitt's lymphoma and sickle cell trait, Br. J. Prey. Soc. Med. 24: 39 - 41 (1970).Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    Pluda, J. M., Venson, D. J., Tosato, G., Lietzau, J., Wyvill, K., Nelson, D. L., Jaffe, E. S., Karp, J. E., Broder, S., And Yarchoan, R., Parameters affecting the development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in patients with severe human immunodeficiency virus infection receiving antiretroviral therapy, J. Clin. Oncol. 11: 1099 - 1107 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Pluda, J. M., Yarchoan, R., Jaffe, E. S., Feurstein, I. M., Soloman, D., Steinberg, S. M., Wyvill, K. M., Raubitschek, A., Katz, D., And Broder, S., Development of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in a cohort of patients with severe immunodeficiency disease (Hiv) infection of long term antiretroviral therapy, Ann. Intern. Med. 113: 276 - 282 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Poppema, S., Kaiserling, E., And Lennert, K., Hodgkin's disease with lymphocyte predominance, nodular type (nodular paragranuloma) and progressively transformed germinal centres: A cytohistological study, Histopathology 3: 295 - 308 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Preud'Homme, J. L., Flandrin, G., Daniel, M. T., And Bronet, J. C., Burkitt's tumor cells in acute leukemia, Blood 46: 990 - 992 (1975).Google Scholar
  248. 248.
    Pulvertaft, R. J. V., Cytology of Burkitt's tumor (African lymphoma), Lancet 1: 238 - 240 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Purtilo, D. T. (ED.), Immune Deficiency and Cancer: Epstein-Barr Virus and Lymphoproliferative Malignancies, Plenum Press, New York, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Purtilo, D. T., And Klein, G., Introduction to Epstein-Barr virus and lymphoproliferative diseases in immunodeficient individuals, Cancer Res. 41: 4209 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Purtilo, D. T., And Lai, P. K., Clinical and immunopathological manifestations and detection of Epstein-Barr virus infection in immune deficient patients, in: Medical Virology VI (L. M. D. L. Maza, And E. M. Peterson, Eds.), pp. 121 - 167, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987.Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    Purtilo, D. T., Bhawan, J., Hutt, L. M., DE Nicoea, L., Szymanski, I., Yang, J. P. S., Boto, W., Marer, R., And Thorley-Lawson, D., Epstein-Barr virus infection in the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome, Lancet 1: 798 - 801 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Purtilo, D. T., Manolov, G., Manlova, Y., Harada, S., Lips-Comb, H., And Tatsulmi, E., Role of Epstein-Barr virus in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma, in: Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Human Cancer Model (G. M. Lenoir, G. T. O'Conor, And C. L. M. Olweny, Eds.), pp. 231 - 248, Iarc, Lyon, France, 1985.Google Scholar
  254. 254.
    Purtilo, D. T., Okano, M., And Grierson, H. L., Immune deficiency as a risk factor in Epstein-Barr virus-induced malignant diseases, Environ. Health Perspect. 88: 225 - 230 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Purtilo, D. T., Strobach, R. S., Okano, M., And Davis, J. R., Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorders, Lab. Invest. 67: 5 - 23 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Purtilo, D. T., Yasuda, N., Grierson, H. L., Okano, M., Brichacek, B., And Davis, J., X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome provides clues to the pathogenesis of Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphomagenesis, in: Unusual Occurrences as Clues to Cancer Etiology (R. W. Miller, S. Watanabe, J. F. Fraumeni, JR., T. Sugimura, S. Takayama, And H. Sugano, Eds.), pp. 149-158, Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo, 1988.Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    Raab-Traub, N., And Pagano, J. S., Epstein-Barr virus and its antigens, Immunol. Ser. 43: 477 - 498 (1989).Google Scholar
  258. 258.
    Rabkin, C. S., Biggar, R. J., And HoRM, J. W., Increasing incidence of cancers associated with the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic, Int. J. Cancer 47: 692 - 696 (1991).Google Scholar
  259. 259.
    Reedman, B. M., And Klein, G., Cellular localization of an Epstein-Barr virus (Ebv) associated complement-fixing antigen in producer and non-producer lymphoblastoid cell lines, Int. J. Cancer 11: 499 - 520 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Reynolds, P., Saunders, L. D., Layefsky, M. E., And Lemp, G. F., The spectrum of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (Aids)-associated malignancies in San Francisco, 1980-1987, Am. J. Epidemiol. 137: 19 - 30 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Rickinson, A. B., On the biology of Epstein-Barr virus persistence: A reappraisal, in: Immunobiology and Prophylaxis of Human Herpesvirus Infections (C. Lopez, R. Mori, B. RoIzman, And R. J. Whitley, Eds.), pp. 137 - 146, Plenum Press, New York, 1990.Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    Rickinson, A. B., Yao, Q. Y., And Wallace, L. E., The Epstein-Barr virus as a model of virus-host interaction, Br. Med. J. 41: 75 - 79 (1985).Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    Robinson, J., And Miller, G., Assay for Epstein-Barr virus based on stimulation of Dna synthesis in mixed leukocytes from human umbilical cord blood, J. Virol. 15: 1065 - 1072 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Rocchi, G., Tosato, G., Papa, G., And Ragona, G., Antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus-associated nuclear antigen and to other viral and non-viral antigens in Hodgkin's disese, Int. J. Cancer 16: 323 - 328 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Roithmann, S., Tourani, J.-M., And Andrieu, J.-M., Hodgkin's disease in Hiv-infected intravenous drug abusers, N. Engl. J. Med. 323: 275 - 276 (1990).Google Scholar
  266. 266.
    Romagnani, S., Del Prete, G. F., Maggi, E., Bosi, A., Bernardi, F., Ponticelli, P., DI Lollo, S., And Ricci, M., Displacement of T lymphocytes with the "helper/inducer" phenotype from peripheral blood to lymphoid organs in untreated patients with Hodgkin's disease, Scand. J. Haematol. 31: 305314 (1983).Google Scholar
  267. 267.
    Romagnani, S., Ferrini, P. L. S., And Ricci, M., The immune derangement in Hodgkin's disease, Semin. Hematol. 22: 41 - 55 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Rosdahl, N., Larsen, S. O., And Clemmesen, J., Hodgkin's disease in patients with previous infectious mononucleosis: 30 years' experience, Br. Med. J. 2: 253 - 256 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Rosenberg, S. A. (Chairman), National Cancer Institute sponsored study of classification of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Summary and description of a working formulation for clinical usage, Cancer 49: 2112 - 2135 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Rothfield, N. F., Evans, A. S., And Niederman, J. C., Clinical and laboratory studies of raised antibody titers in systemic lupus erythematosus, Ann. Rheum. Dis. 32: 238 - 246 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Rowe, M., Young, L. S., Caldwallader, K., Petti, L., Kieff, E., And Rickinson, A. B., Distinction between Epstein-Barr virus type A (Ebna 2A) and type B (Ebna 2B) isolates extends to Ebna 3 family of nuclear proteins, J. Virol. 63: 1031 - 1039 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Rowley, J. D., Chromosomes in Hodgkin's disease, Cancer Treat. Rep. 66: 639 - 643 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Sample, J., Henson, E. B., And Sample, C., The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein 1 promoter in type I latency is autoregulated, J. Virol. 66: 4654 - 4661 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Sandvei, K. B., Hamilton-Dutoit, S. J., And Pallesen, G., Influence of Epstein-Barr virus encoded latent membrane protein 1 on the expression of CD23 antigen, Icam-1 and Lfa-3 in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells: A morphometric analysis, Leuk Lymphoma 9: 95 - 101 (1993).Google Scholar
  275. 275.
    Scully, T. B., Apppololloni, A., HuRren, L., Moss, D. J., And Cooper, D. A., Coinfection with A- and B-type Epstein-Barr virus in human immunodeficiency virus-positive subjects, J. Infect. Dis. 162: 643 - 648 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Shiramizu, B., Barriga, F., Neequaye, J., Jafri, A., Dallafavera, R., Guittierez, M., Levine, P., And Magrath, I., Patterns of chromosomal breakpoint locations in Burkitt's lymphoma: Relevance to geography and Ebv association, Blood 77: 1516 - 1526 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Shope, R., Dechairo, D., And Miller, G., Malignant lymphoma in cotton-top marmosets following inoculation of Epstein-Barr virus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Usa 70: 2487 - 2491 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Shope, T. C., Khalifa, S., Smith, S. T., And Cushing, B., Epstein-Barr virus antibody in childhood Hodgkin's disease, Am. J. Dis. Child. 136: 701 - 703 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Sigaux, F., Berger, R., Bernheim, A., Valensi, F., Daniel, M. T., And Flandrin, G., Malignant lymphoma with band 8q14 chromosome abnormality: A morphologic continuum extending from Burkitt's lymphoma to immunoblastic lymphoma, Br. Med. J. 57: 393 - 405 (1984).Google Scholar
  280. 280.
    Sixbey, J. W., Davis, D. S., Young, L. S., Huit-Fletcher, L., Teddar, T. E, And Rickinson, A. B., Human epithelial expression of an Epstein-Barr virus receptor, J. Viral. 68:805-811(1987).Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    Sixbey, J. W., Nedrud, J. G., Raab-Traub, N., Hanes, R. A., And Pagano, J. S., Epstein-Barr vin's replication in oropharyngeal epithelial cells, N. Engl. J. Med. 310: 1225 - 1230 (1984).Google Scholar
  282. 282.
    Sixbey, J. W., Shirley, P., Chesney, P. J., Buntin, D. M., And Resnick, L., Detection of a second widespread strain of Epstein-Barr virus, Lancet 2: 761 - 765 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Sixbey, J. W., Vesterinen, E. H., Nedrud, J. G., Raab-Traub, N., Walton, L. A., And Pagano, J. S., Replication of Epstein-Barr virus in human epithelial cells infected in vitro, Nature 306: 480 - 483 (1983).Google Scholar
  284. 284.
    Slivnick, D. J., Ellis, T. M., Nawrocki, J. F., And Fisher, R. I., The impact of Hodgkin's disease on the immune system, Semin. Oncol. 17: 673 - 682 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Smithers, D., On some general concepts in oncology with special references to Hodgkin's disease, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 9: 731 - 738, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Staal, S. P, Ambinder, R., Beschorner, W. E., Hayward, G. S., And Mann, R., A survey of Epstein-Barr virus Dna in lymphoid tissue, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 91: 1 - 5 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Steel, C. M., Morten, J. E. N., And Foster, E., The cyto genetics of human lymphoid malignancy: Studies in Burkitt's lymphoma and Epstein-Barr virus transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines, in: Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Human Cancer Model (G. M. Lenoir, G. T. O'Conor, And C. L. M. Olweny, Eds.), pp. 265 - 292, Iarc, Lyon, France, 1985.Google Scholar
  288. 288.
    Strauch, B., Siegel, N., Andrews, L., And Miller, G., Oro-pharyngeal excretion of Epstein-Barr virus by renal transplant recipients and other patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs, Lancet 1: 234 - 237 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Sugden, B., Comparison of Epstein-Barr viral Dna's in Burkitt lymphoma biopsy cells and in cells clonally transformed in vitro, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Usa 74: 4651 - 4655 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Sugden, B., The molecular biology of Epstein-Barr virus, in: Vth International Symposium on Epstein-Barr Virus and Associated Diseases (T. Tursz, J. S. Pagano, D. V. Ablashi, G. DE- The, G. Lenoir, And G. R. Pearson, Eds.), p. 57, Annency, France, John Libby Eurotext, 1992.Google Scholar
  291. 291.
    Ten Napel, H. H., The, T. H., Van Egten-BuKEts, J., Degast, G. C., Halie, M. R., And Langenhuysen, M. M., Discordance of the Epstein-Barr virus (Ebv) specific humoral and cellular immunity in patients with malignant lymphomas: Elevated antibody titers and lowered in vitro lymphocyte reactivity, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 34: 338 - 346 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Uccini, S., Monardo, E, Ruco, L. P., Baroni, C. D., Faggioni, A., Agliano, A. M., Gradilone, A., Manzari, V., Vago, L., Costanzi, G., Carbone, A., And Boiocchi, M., DE RE V., High frequency of Epstein-Barr virus genome in Hiv-positive patients with Hodgkin's disease, Lancet 333: 1458 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Uccini, S., Monardo, F., Stoppacciaro, A., Gradilone, A., Agliano, A. M., Faggioni, A., Manzari, V., Vago, L., Costanzi, G., Ruco, L. P., And Baroni, C. D., High frequency of Epstein-Barr virus genome detection in Hodgkin's disease of Hiv-positive patients, Int. J. Cancer 46: 581 - 585 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Uhara, H., Sato, Y., Mukai, K., Aka, I., Matsuno, Y., FuRuya, S., Hoshikawa, T., Shimosato, Y., And Saida, T., Detection of Epstein-Barr virus Dna in Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin's disease using the polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 81: 272 - 278 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Variakojis, M. D., And Anastasi, J., Unresolved issues concerning Hodgkin's disease and its relationship to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 99: 436 - 444 (1993).Google Scholar
  296. 296.
    Vestlev, P. M., Pallesen, G., Sandvej, K., Hamilton-DuToit, S. J., And Bendtzen, S. M., Prognosis of Hodgkin's disease is not influenced by Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein, Int. J. Cancer 50: 670 - 671 (1992).Google Scholar
  297. 297.
    Weiss, L. M., Chen, Y.-Y., Liu, X.-E, And Shibata, P., Epstein-Barr virus and Hodgkin's disease: A correlative in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction study, Am. J. Pathol. 139: 1259 - 1265 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    WEiss, L. M., Movahed, L. A., Warnke, R. A., And Sklar, J., Detection of Epstein-Barr viral genomes in Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin's disease, N. Engl. J. Med. 320: 502 - 506 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Weiss, L. M., Strickler, J. G., Warnke, R. A., Purtilo, D. T., And Sklar, J., Epstein-Barr viral Dna in tissues of Hodgkin's disease, Am. J. Pathol. 129: 86 - 91 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Werner, G., Henle, G., Pinto, C. A., Haff, R. E, And Henle, W., Establishment of continuous lymphoblast cultures from leukocytes of gibbons (Hylobates lar.), Int. J. Cancer 10: 557 - 567 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Wolf, H., Haus, M., And Wilmes, E., Persistence of Epstein-Barr virus in the parotid gland, J. Vim!. 51: 795 - 798 (1984).Google Scholar
  302. 302.
    Wright, B. H., Cytology and histochemistry of the Burkitt lymphoma, Br. J. Cancer 17: 50 - 55 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Wu, T.-C., Mann, R. B., Charache, P., Hayward, S. D., Staal, S., Lambe, B. C., And Ambinder, R. F., Detection of Ebv gene expression in Reed—Sternberg cells of Hodgkin's disease, Int. J. Cancer 46: 801 - 804 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Wutzler, P., FÄRber, I., SprÖSsig, M., Sauerbrei, A., Wutke, K., HÖChe, D., Rodiger, K.-D., WÖCkel, W., And Scheibner, K., Antibodies against herpesviruses in patients with Hodgkin's disease, Arch. Geschwulstforsch 53: 417 - 422 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Young, L., Alfieri, C., Hennessy, K., Evans, H., O'Hara, C., Anderson, K. C., Ritz, J., Shapiro, R. S., Rickinson, A., Kieff, E., And Cohen, J. I., Expression of Epstein—Barr virus transformation-associated genes in tissues of patients with Ebv lymphoproliferative disease, N. Engl. J. Med. 321: 1080 - 1085 (1989).Google Scholar
  306. 306.
    YouNG, L. S., Ludwig/Crc Rev meeting, Epstein—Barr Virus Rep. 1: 10 - 12 (1994).Google Scholar
  307. 307.
    Yunis, J. J., Oken, M. M., Kaplan, M. E., Ensrud, K. M., HowE, R. R., And Theologides, A., Distinctive chromosomal abnormalities in histologic subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, N. Engl. J. Med. 317: 1231 - 1236 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Zech, L., Haglund, A. N., Nilsson, K., And Klein, G., Characteristic chromosomal abnormalities in biopsies and lymphoid cell lines from patients with Burkitt and non-Burkitt lymphoma, Int. J. Cancer 17: 47 - 56 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Ziegler, J. L., Andersson, M., Klein, G., And Henle, W., Detection of Epstein—Barr virus in American Burkitt's lymphoma, Int. J. Cancer 17: 701 - 706 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Ziegler, J. L, Miner, R. C., Rosenbaum, E., Lenette, E. T., Shilletoe, E., Casavant, C., Dew, W. L., Mintz, L., Gershow, J., Greenspan, J., Beckstead, J., And Yamamoto, K., Outbreak of Burkitt's-like lymphoma in homosexual men, Lancet 2: 631 - 633 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Zur Hausen, H., Papilloma virus/host cell interaction in the pathogenesis of anorectal cancer, in: Origins of Human Cancer: A Comprehensive Review (H. H. Hiatt, J. D. Watson, And J. A. Winsted, Eds.), pp. 685 - 688, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, 1991.Google Scholar
  312. 312.
    Zur Hausen, H., Viruses in human cancers, Science 254: 1167 - 1173 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Zur Hausen, H., O'Neill, F. J., Freese, U. K., And Hecker, E., Persisting oncogenic herpesvirus by tumor promoter, Tpa, Nature 272: 373 - 375 (1978).Google Scholar
  314. 314.
    Zur Hausen, H., Schulte-Holthausen, H., Klein, G., Henle, W., Henle, G., Clifford, P., And Santesson, L., EB-virus Dna in biopsies of Burkitt tumors and anaplastic carcinomas of the nasopharynx, Nature 228: 1056 - 1057 (1970).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alfred S. Evans
    • 1
  • Nancy E. Mueller
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and Public HealthYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Department of EpidemiologyHarvard School of Public HealthBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations