Surveillance and Seroepidemiology

  • Richard A. Kaslow
  • Alfred S. Evans


Surveillance has been described as the systematic collection of data pertaining to the occurrence of specific diseases, the analysis and interpretation of these data, and the dissemination of consolidated and processed information to contributors to the program and other interested persons.


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Immunization Program Infectious Mononucleosis Public Health Practice 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Anderson, R. M., and May, R. M., Vaccination against rubella and measles: Quantitative investigations of different policies, J. Hyg. (Camb.) 90: 259–325 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Andrews, C. H., Laidlaw, P. P., and Smith, W., Influenza: Observations on the recovery of virus from man on the antibody content of human sera, Br. J. Pathol. 16: 566–582 (1935).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ashton, L. J., Learmont, J., Luo, K., Wylie, B., and Stewart, G., HIV infections in recipients of blood products from donors with known duration of infection, Lancet 344: 718–720 (1994).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aycock, W. L., and Kramer, S. D., Immunity to poliomyelitis in normal individuals in urban and rural communities as indicated by the neutralization test, J. Prey. Med. 4: 189–200 (1930).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baker, H., Infectious disease information and preparedness, presented at meeting of the Society of Medical Consultants to the Armed Forces, Washington, DC, 1973.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Beasley, R. P., and Hwang, L-Y., Overview of the epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma, in: Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease (F. B. Hollinger, S. M. Lemon, and H. S. Margolis, eds.), pp. 532–535, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1991.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bell, J. A., Huebner, R. J., Rosen, L., RowE, W. P., Cole, R. M., Mastrot, E M., Floyd, T. M., Ciianock, R. M., and Shoedoff, R. A., Illness and microbial experiences of nursery children at Junior Village, Am. J. Hyg. 74: 267–292 (1961).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Berkelman, R. L., Bryan, R. T., Osterholm, M. T., LeDuc, J. W., and Hughes, J. M., Infectious disease surveillance: A crumbling infrastructure, Science 264: 368–370 (1994).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Birkhead, G., Chorba, T. L., Root, S., Klaucke, D. N., and Gums, N. J., Timeliness of national reporting of communicable diseases: The experience of the National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance, Am. J. Public Health 81: 1313–1315 (1991).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Black, R. E., Brown, K. H., Becker, S., Abdul Alins, A. R. M., and Huq, I., Longitudinal studies of infectious diseases and physical growth of children in rural Bangladeshi, Am. J. Epidemiol. 115: 315–324 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Black R. E., Lopez DE Romana, G., Brown, K. H., Bravo, N., Balazar, O. G., and Kanasi-Tiro, H. C., Incidence and etiology of infantile diarrhea and major routes of transmission in Huascar, Peru, Am. J. Epidemiol. 129: 785–799 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Blumberg, B. S., Alter, H. J., and Vismch, S., A “new” antigen in leukemia sera, J.A.M.A. 191: 541–546 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Blumberg B. S., Gerstey, B. J. S., Hungerford, D. A., London, W. T., and Sutnik, A. I., A serum antigen (Australia antigen) in Down’s syndrome, leukemia, and hepatitis, Ann. Intern. Med. 66: 924–931 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brachman, P. S., Surveillance, in: Bacterial Infections of Humans Epidemiology and Control,3rd ed. (P. S. Brachman and A. S. Evnrts, eds.). Plenum Press, New York, in press.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brogan, D., Flagg E. W., Deming, M., and Waldmann, R., Increasing the accuracy of the Expanded Immunization Programme’s cluster survey design, Ann. Epidemiol. 4: 302–311 (1994).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brookmeyer, R., and Gail M. H. (eds.), AIDS Epidemiology: A Quantitative Approach, Oxford University Press, New York, 1994.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brown, H. W., The occurrence of neutralizing antibodies for human influenza virus in the sera of persons with various histories of influenza, Am. J. Hyg. 24: 361–380 (1936).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Buehler, J. W., Berkelman, R. L., and Stehr-Green, J. K., The completeness of AIDS surveillance, J. Acquir. Immune Dis. Syndr. 5: 257–264 (1992).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Canada (Health and Welfare Canada), Establishing goals, techniques and priorities for rational communicable disease surveillance, Can. Dis. Week Rep. 17: 79–84 (1991).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Canada (Health and Welfare Canada), Changing patterns of acquired immunodeficiency disease in hemophilia patients-United States, Morbid. Mortal. Week Rep. 34: 241–243 (1985).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Canada (Health and Welfare Canada), Comprehensive Plan for Epidemiologic Surveillance,Atlanta, 1986Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Canada (Health and Welfare Canada), Revision of the CDC surveillance case definition for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, Morbid. Mortal. Week Rep. 36 (15): 3S - 15S (1987).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Canada (Health and Welfare Canada), Guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems, Morbid. Mortal. Week. Rep. 37 (1988).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Canada (Health and Welfare Canada), Update: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the San Francisco cohort study, 1978–1985. Morb. Mortal. Week Rep. 34: 573–575 (1985).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Canada (Health and Welfare Canada), Addressing Emerging Infectious Disease Threats: A Prevention Strategy for the United States,US Dhhs, Public Health Service, Atlanta, GA, 1994.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Canada (Health and Welfare Canada), Update: Changes in notifiable disease surveillance data-United States, 1992–1993, Morbid. Mortal. Week Rep. 42: 824–836 (1993).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Canada (Health and Welfare Canada), Monthly immunization table, Morbid. Mortal. Week Rep. 43: 226 (1994).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Canada (Health and Welfare Canada), Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication-Egypt, 1993, Morbid. Mortal. Week. Rep. 43: 223–226 (1994).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Canada (Health and Welfare Canada), Reported vaccine-preventable diseases-United States, 1993, and the Childhood Immunization Initiative, Morbid. Mortal. Week. Rep. 43: 57–60 (1994).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Canada (Health and Welfare Canada), Vaccination coverage of 2-year-old children-United States, 1992–93, Morbid. Mortal. Week. Rep. 43: 282–284 (1994).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Canada (Health and Welfare Canada), Availability of electronical Mmwr on Internet, Morbid. Mortal. Week. Rep. 44: 48–50 (1995).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chamberland, M. E., Allen, J R, Monroe, J. M., Garcia, N., Morgan, C., Reiss, R., Stephens, H., Walker, J., and Friedman, S. M., Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in New York City: Evaluation of an active surveillance system. J.A.M.A. 254: 383–387 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Choi, K., and Thacker, S. B., An evaluation of influenza mortality surveillance, 1962–79. I. Time series forecasts of expected pneumonia and influenza deaths, Am. J. Epidemiol. 113: 215–226 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chu, S. Y., Buehler, J. W., and Berkelman, R. L., Impact of the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic on mortality in women of reproductive age, United States, J.A.M.A. 264: 225–229 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cook, G. T., and Payne, A. M., Epidemiological control of infectious diseases, Br. Med. Bull. 7: 185–187 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cooney, M. K., Hall, C. E., and Fox, J. P., The Seattle Virus Watch Program. I. Infection and illness experience of Virus Watch Families during a community-wide epidemic of echovirus 30 aseptic meningitis. Am. J. Public Health 60: 1456–1465 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cutrs, E T., Waldman, R. J., and Zoffman, H. M. D., Surveillance for the Expanded Programme on Immunization, Bull. WHO 71: 633–639 (1993).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dethe, G., Gesser, A., Day, N., Inkel, P. M., Williams, E. H., Bert, D. P., Smith, P. G., Dean, A. G., Bornkamm, G. W., Feorino, P., and Henle, W., Epidemiological evidence for casual relationship between Epstein-Barr virus and Burkitt’s lymphoma from Ugandan prospective study, Nature 274: 756–766 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Declich, S., and Carter, A. O., Public health surveillance: Historical origins, methods and evaluation, Bull. WHO 72: 285–304 (1994)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Desenclos, J-C., Bijkerk, H., and Huisman, J., Variations in national infectious diseases surveillance in Europe, Lancet 341: 1003–1006 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dingle, J. H., Badger, G. F., and Jordan, W. S., Illness in the Home: A Study of 25, 000 Illnesses in Group of Cleveland Families, Press of Western Reserve University, Cleveland, 1964.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dobbins, J. G., and Stewart, J. A., Surveillance of congenital cytomegalovirus disease, 1990–91, Morbid. Mortal. Week. Rep. 41 (1992).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dolk, H., and Lechat, M. F., Health surveillance in Europe: Lessons from Eurocat and Chernobyl, Int. J. Epidemiol. 22: 363–368 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dowdle, W. R., Surveillance and control of infectious diseases: Progress toward the 1990 objectives, Public Health Rep. 98: 210221 (1985).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Downs, A. M., Ancelle-Park, R., and Brunet, J. B., Surveillance of AIDS in the European Community: Recent trends and predictions to 1991, AIDS 4: 1117–1124 (1990).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Downs, A. M., Ancelle-Park, R., Costagliola, D., Rigaut, J. P., and Brunet, J. B., Transfusion associated AIDS cases in Europe: Estimation of the incubation period distribution and prediction of future cases, J. Acquir. Immune Dis. Syndr. 4: 805–813 (1991).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Esrey, S. S., Feachem, R. G., and Hughes, J. M., Intervention for the control of diarrheal diseases among young children: Improving water supplies and excreta disposal facilities, Bull. WHO 63: 757–772 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Evans, A. S., Epidemiology and the public health laboratory, Am. J. Public Health 57: 1041–1052 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Evans, A. S., Serological techniques, in: Serological Epidemiology (J. R. Paul and C. White, eds.), pp. 42–54, Academic Press, New York, 1973.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Evans, A. S., The history of infectious mononucleosis, Am. J. Med. Sci. 267: 189–195 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Evans, A. S., New discoveries in infectious mononucleosis, Mod. Med. 42: 18–24 (1974).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Evans, A. S., Serologic studies of acute respiratory infections in military personnel, Yale J. Biol. Med. 48: 201–209 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Evans, A. S., The need for serologic evaluation of immunization programs, Am. J. Epidemiol. 112: 725–731 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Evans, A. S., Criteria for assessing accomplishment of poliomyelitis control, J. Infect. Dis. 6 (Suppl 2): 5571–5576 (1984).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Evans, A. S., Criteria for control of infectious diseases with poliomyelitis as an example, Prog. Med. Virol. 29: 141–165 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Evans, A. S., The eradication of communicable disease: Myth or reality ? Am. J. Epidemiol. 122: 199–207 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Evans, A. S., Subclinical epidemiology. The first Harry A. Feldman Memorial Lecture, Am. J. Epidemiol. 125: 545–555 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Evans, A. S., and Brachman, P. S., Emerging issues in infectious disease epidemiology. J. Chron. Dis. 39: 1105–1124 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Evans, A. S., Carvalho, R. P. S., Frost, P., Jamra, M., and Pozzl, D. H. B., Epstein-Barr virus infection in Brazil. II. Hodgkin’s disease, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 61: 19–26 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Evans, A. S., Casals, J., Opton, E. M., Borman, E. K., Levine, L., and Cuadrado, R., A nationwide survey of Colombian military recruits, 1966. 1. Description of sample and antibody patterns with arboviruses, polioviruses, respiratory viruses, tet- anus, and treponematosis, Am. J. Epidemiol. 90: 292–303 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Evans, A. S., Cabals, J., Orron, E. M., Borman, E. K., Levine, L., and Cuadrado, R., A nationwide survey of Argentine military recruits, 1965–1966. I. Description of sample and antibody patterns with arboviruses, polioviruses, respiratory viruses, tetanus, and treponematosis, Am. J. Epidemiol. 93: 111–121 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Evans, A. S., Cook, J. A., Kapikian, A. Z., Nankervis, G., Smith, A. L., and West, B., Serological survey of St. Lucia, Int. J. Epidemiol. 8: 327–332 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Evans, A. S., Cox, F., Nankervis, G., Ovron, E., Shope, R., Wells, A. V., and West B., A health and seroepidemiological survey of a community in Barbados, Int. J. Epidemiol. 3: 167–175 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Evans, A. S., and Mueller, N. E., The past is prologue: Use of serum banks in cancer research, Cancer Res. 52 (Suppl.): 5557–5560 (1992).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Evans, A. S., Niederman, J. C., and Mccollum, R. W., Seroepidemiologic studies of infectious mononucleosis with EB virus, N. Engl. J. Med. 279: 1121–1127 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Evans, A. S., Niederman, J. C., and Sawyer, R. N., Prospective studies of a group of Yale University freshman. II. Occurence of acute respiratory infections and rubella, J. Infect. Dis. 123: 271–278 (1971).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Evans, A. S., Wells, A. V., Ramsey, F., Drabkin, P., and Plamer, K., Poliomyelitis, rubella, and dengue antibody survey in Barbados: A follow-up study, Inst. J. Epidemiol. 8: 235–241 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Expanded Programme on Immunization, Diphtheria and measles control, World Health Stat. Quart. 38: 65–75 (1985).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Expanded Programme on Immunization, Training for Mid-Level Managers: The EPI Coverage Survey,WHO/Epijmlm/91.10.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Eylenbosch, W. J., and Noah, N. D. (eds.), Surveillance in Health and Disease, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1988.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Florey, C. Duv., Cuadrado, R. R., Henderson, J. R., and Degoes, P., A nationwide survey of Brazilian military recruits, 1964: Method and sampling results, Am. J. Epidemiol. 86: 314–318 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Fowler, K. B., Stagno, S., and Pass, R. F., Maternal age and congenital cytomegalovirus infection: Screening of two diverse newborn populations 1980–90, J. Infect. Dis. 168: 552–556 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Fox, J., Elveback, L. R., Spigland, I., Frothingham, T. E., Stevens, D. A., and Huger, M., The Virus Watch Program: A continuing surveillance of viral infections in metropolitan New York families. 1. Overall plan, methods of collecting and handling information and a summary report of specimens collected and illnesses observed, Am. J. Epidemiol. 83: 389–412 (1966).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Foy, A. M., Cooney, M. K., Mcmahan, R., Bor, R., and Grayston, J. T., Single-dose monovalent A2/Hong Kong influenza vaccine-Efficacy 14 months after immunization, J.A.M.A. 217: 1067–1071 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Francis, T. F., and Magill, T. P., The incidence of neutralizing antibody for human influenza virus in the serum of human individuals of different ages, J. Exp. Med. 63: 655–668 (1936).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Glezen, W. P., and Couch, R. B., Interpandemic influenza in the Houston area, 1974–1976, N. Engl. J. Med. 298: 587–592 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Glezen, W. P., Falcao, O., Cate, T. R., and Mintz, A. A., Nosocomial influenza in a general hospital for indigent patients, Can. J. Infect. Control 6: 65–67 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gold, E., Fevrier, A., Hatch, M. H., Hermann, K. L., Jones, W. L., Krugman, R. D., and Parkman, P. D., Immune status of urban children determined by antibody measurement, N. Engl. J. Med. 289: 231–234 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Graitcer, P. L., and Burton, A. H. The epidemiology surveillance project: A computer-based system for disease surveillance, Am. J. Prey. Med. 3: 123–127 (1987)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Guthe, T., Ridet, J., Vorst, F., Dcosta, J., and Grab, B., Methods for the surveillance of endemic treponematosis and seroimmunological investigations of “disappearing” disease, Bull. WHO 46: 1–14 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Haber, M., Longini, I. M., JR., and Halloran, M. E., Estimation of vaccine efficacy in outbreaks of acute infectious diseases, Stat. Med. 10: 1773–1784 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Halloran, M. E., Haber, M., Longini, I. M., JR., and Struchiner, C. J., Direct and indirect effects in vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, Am. J. Epidemiol. 133: 323–331 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Halperin, W., Baker, E. L., and Monson, R. R., Public Health Surveillance, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1992.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Healthy People 2000, National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives,Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC, 1990.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Henderson, R. H., The Expanded Programme of the World Health Organization, Rev. Infect. Dis. 6 (Suppl. 2): S475 - S479 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Henderson, R. H., and Sundaresan, T., Cluster sampling to assess immunization coverage: A review of experience with a simplified sampling method, Bull. WHO 60: 253–260 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Henle, G., and Henle, W., Immunofluorescence in cells derived from Burkitt’s lymphoma, J. Bacteriol. 91: 1248–1256 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Henle, G., Henle, W., and Diehl, V., Relationship of Burkitt’s tumor-associated herpes-type virus to infectious mononucleosis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 59: 94–101 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hessol, N. A., Koblin, B. A., Van Griensven, G. J. P., Bachetti, P., Liu, J. Y., Stevens, C. E., Coutinho, R. A., Buchbinder, S. P., and Katz, M. H., Progression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection among homosexual men in hepatitis B vaccine trial cohorts in Arpsterdam, New York City, and San Francisco, 1978–1991, Am. J. Epidemiol. 139: 1077–1087 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hethcote, H. W., Measles and rubella in the United States, Am. J. Epidemiol. 117: 2–13 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    HoFF, R., Berardi, V P, Weiblen, B. J., Mahoney-Trout, L., Mitchell, M. L., and Grady, G. F., Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus among childbearing women: Estimation by testing samples of blood from newborns, N. Engl. J. Med. 318: 525–530 (1988).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hook, E. B., and Regal, R. R., The value of capture-recapture methods even for apparent exhaustive surveys, Am. J. Epidemiol. 135: 1060–1067 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Horstmann, D. M., Need for monitoring vaccinated populations for immunity levels, Prog. Med. Virol. 16: 215–240 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Horstmann, D. M., Liebhaber, H., Lebouvier, G. L., Rosenberg, D. A., and Halstead, S. G., Rubella: Reinfection of vaccinated and naturally immune persons exposed in an epidemic, N. Engl. J. Med. 283: 771–778 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hubert, B., and Desenclos, J. C., Evaluation the exhaustiveness and representativeness of a surveillance system using the capture-recapture methods, Rev. Epidemiol. Sante Publique 41: 241–249 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Institute of Medicine, Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1992.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kaslow, R. A., Ostrow, D. G., Detels, R., Phair, J. P., Polk, B. F., and Rinaldo, C. R., JR., The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study: Rationale, organization, and selected characteristics of the participants, Am. J. Epidemiol. 126: 310–318 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kelley, P. W., Petrucelli, B P., Stehrgreen, P, Erickson, R. L., and Mason, C. J., The susceptibility of young adult Americans to vaccine preventable diseases. National serosurvey of U.S. Army recruits, J.A.M.A. 266: 2724–2729 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kingsley, L. A., Zhou, S. Y. J., Bacellar, H., Rinaldo, C. R., JR., Chmiel, J., Detels, R., Saah, A., Vanraden, M., HO, M., and Munoz, A. Temporal trends in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconversion 1984–1989. A report from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), Am. J. Epidemiol. 134: 331–339 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kopec-Schader, E., Tindall, B., Learmont, J., Wylie, B., and Kaldor, J. M., Development of AIDS in people with transfusion-acquired HIV infection, AIDS 7: 1009–1013 (1993).Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Krause, R. M., The restless tide: The persistent challenge of the microbial world, National Foundation for Infectious Diseases, Washington, DC, 1981.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Lamb, G. A., and Feldman, H. A., Rubella vaccine response and other viral antibodies in Syracuse children, Am. J. Dis. Child. 122: 117–121 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Langmuir, A. D., The surveillance of communicable diseases of national importance, N. Engl. J. Med. 268: 182–192 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Lemeshow, S., and Robinson, D., Surveys to measure program coverage and impact: A review of the methodology used by the Expanded Programme on Immunization, World Health Stat. Q. 63: 225–267 (1988).Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Longini, I. M., Fine, P. E. M., and Thacker, S. B., Predicting the global spread of new infectious agents, Am. J. Epidemiol. 123: 383–391 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Marier, R., The reporting of communicable diseases, Am. J. Epidemiol. 105: 587–590 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Mastro, T., Kitayaporn, D., Weniger, B. G., Vanichseni, S., Laosunthorn, V., Uneklabh, T., Uneklabh, C., Choopanya, K., and Limpakannjanarat, K., Estimating the number of HIV-infected injection drug users in Bangkok: A capture-recapture method, Am. J. Public Health 84: 1094–1099 (1994).Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Maynard, A., Frederickson, D., Garattini, S., Makela, H., Mattheis, R., and Papadimitriou, M., Evaluation of the fourth Medical and Health Research Programme (1987–1991) (EUR 13001 ), Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 1990.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Mcdonald, A. M., Gertig, D. M., Crofts, N., and Kaldor, J.M., for the National HIV Surveillance Committee, A national surveillance system for newly acquired HIV infection in Australia, Am. J. Public Health 84: 1923–1928 (1994).Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    McQuillan, G. M., TowNsend, T. R., Fields, H. A., Carroll, M., Leahy M., and Polk, B. F., Seroepidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States, Am. J. Med. 87 (Suppl. 3A): 5S - 8S (1989).Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Melnick, J. L., Burkhardt, M., Taber, L. T., and Erckman, P. N., Developing gap in immunity to poliomyelitis in an urban area, J.A.M.A. 209: 1181–1185 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Millar, J. D., Theoretical and practical problems in measles control, CDC Smallpox Eradication Program Report 4: 165–176 (1970).Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Monto, A. S., and Ullman, B. M., Acute respiratory illnesses in an American community, J.A.M.A. 227: 164–169 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Mueller, N., Epidemiologic studies assessing the role of Epstein-Barr virus in Hodgkin’s disease, Yale J. Biol. Med. 60: 321–327 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Nahdo (National Association of Health Data Organizations). Report to Congress: The Feasibility of Linking Research-Related Data Bases to Federal Medical Administrative Data Bases. Rockville. MD. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Public Health Service. AHCPR, Public Health Service, AHCPR Pub. No. 91–0003. April 1991.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    National Academy of Sciences. Rapid epidemiological assessment and evaluation. Conclusions from March 15, 1982 meeting. Memorandum dated March 28. 1982. National Academy of Sciences. Washington. DC.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    National Disease and Therapeutic Index. Lea Associates, Ambler. PA. 1969.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Nicolosi. A. (ed.). HIV Epidemiology: Models and Methods, Raven Press. New York. 1994.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Niederman, J. C. Mccollum. R. W. Henle, G., and Henle, W. Infectious mononucleosis in relation to EB virus antibodies, J.A.M.A. 203: 205–209 (1968).Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Novick, L. F. Berns, D. Stricof, R. Stevens, R., Pass, K., and Wethers. J. HIV seroprevalence in newboms in New York State, J.A.M.A. 261: 1745–1750 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Onorato, I. M. Gwinn, M. Dondero, T. J. Applications of data from the CDC Family of Surveys, Public Health Rep. 109: 204–211 (1994).Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Orenstein, W. A. and Bernier, R. H., Surveillance in the control of vaccine-preventable diseases, in: Public Health Surveillance. ( W. Halperin, E. L. Baker, and R. R. Monson, eds.). Van Nostrand Reinhold, New Yorlç. 1992.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Oxford Universal Dictionary. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1955.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Paul, J. R. The story to be learned from blood samples: Its value to the epidemiologist. J.A.M.A. 175: 601–605 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Paul, J. R. Aims, purposes and method of the World Health Organization Serum Banks. Yale J. Biol. Med. 36: 2–4 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Paul, J. R. Clinical Epidemiology, rev. ed. University of Chicago Press. Chicago. 1966.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Paul, J. R. Niederman, J. C., Pearson, R. J. C., and Florey, C. DU V. A nationwide serum survey of United States military recruits. 1. General considerations, Am. J. Hyg. 80: 286–292 (1964).Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Paul. J. R., and Riordan, J. T., Observations on serological epidemiology. Antibodies to the Lansing strain of poliomyelitis virus in sera from Alaskan Eskimos, Am. J. Hyg. 52: 202–212 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Paul, J. R., and Trask, J. E., Neutralization test in poliomyelitis, comparative results with four strains of the virus, J. Exp. Med. 61: 447–464 (1935).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Paul, J. R., and White, C. (eds.), Serological Epidemiology, Academic Press. New York, 1973.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Raska, K., National and international surveillance of communicable diseases, WHO Chron. 20: 313–321 (1966).Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Raska, K., Epidemiological surveillance in the control of infectious diseases, Rev: Infect. Dis. 6: 1112–1117 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Reidel, D. A., Evans, A. S., Saxinger, C., and Blattner, W. A., A historical study of human T lymphotropic virus type I transmission in Barbados, J. Infect. Dis. 159: 603–609 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Rubin, R. J., and Gregg, M. B., A national influenza surveillance system: Methods and results, 1972–1974, Am. J. Epidemiol. 100: 516–517 (1974).Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Rushworth, R. L., Bell, S. M., Rubin, G. L., Hunter, R. M., and Ferson, M. J., Improving surveillance of infectious diseases in New South Wales, Med. J. Aust. 154: 828–831 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Ryachev, L. A., and Longini, I. M., A mathematical model for the global spread of influenza, Math. Biosci. 75: 3–22 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Ryder, R. W., Oxtoby, M. J., Mvula, M., Battwr, V., Baende, E., Nsa, W., Davachi, E, Hassig, S., Onorato, I., Deforest, A., Kashamuka, M., and Hayward, W. L., Safety and immunogenicity of bacille Calmette-Guérin, diphtheria-tetanuspertussis, and oral polio vaccines in newborn children in Zaire infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1, J. Pediatr. 122: 697–702 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Sawyer, R. N., Evans, A. S., Niederman, J. C., and Mccollum, R. W., Prospective studies of a group of Yale University freshman. 1. Occurrence of infectious mononucleosis, J. Infect. Dis. 123: 263–270 (1971).Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Sejda, J., Control of measles in Czechoslovakia (Cssr), Rev. Infect. Dis. 5: 564–567 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Sever, J. L., Applications of a microtechnique to viral serologic investigations, J. Immunol. 88: 320–329 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Shapiro, C. N., Coleman, P. J., Mcquillan, G. M., Alter, M. J., and Margolis, H. S., Epidemiology of hepatitis A: Seroepidemiology and risk groups in the USA, Vaccine 10 (Suppl. 1): S59 - S62 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Shope, R. E., Swine influenza. 1. Experimental transmission and pathology, J. Exp. Med. 54: 349–359 (1931).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Smith, E., Rix, B. A., Melbye, M., Mandatory anonymous HIV surveillance in Denmark: The first results of a new system, Am. J. Public Health 84: 1929–1932 (1994).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Smith, W., Andrews, C. H., and Laidlaw, P. O., A virus obtained from influenza patients, Lancet 2: 66–68 (1933).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Soper, F. L., Penna, H., Cardosa, E., Serafim, J., Frosbisher, M., and Pinhiero, J., Yellow fever without Aedes aegypti: Study of a rural epidemic in the Valle do Chanaan, Espirito Santo, Brazil, Am. J. Hyg. 18: 555–587 (1932).Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Stevens, C. E., Taylor, P. E., and Zang, E. A., Human T-cell lymphotropic virus infection in a cohort of homosexual men in New York City, J.A.M.A. 255: 2167–2172 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Stroup, D. E, Wharton, M., Kafadar, K., and Dean, A. G., An evaluation of a method for detecting aberrations in public health surveillance data, Am. J. Epidemiol. 137: 373–380 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Struewing, J. P., Hyams, K. C., Tueller, J. E., and Gray, G. C., The risk of measles, mumps, and varicella among young adults: A serosurvey of U.S. Navy and Marine recruits, Am. J. Public Health 83: 1717–1720 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Task Force for Child Survival and Development, Status Report on Polio Eradication, Child Survival World Dev. 10: 15 (1994).Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Thacker, S. B., Choi, K., and Brachman, P. S., The surveillance of infectious disease, J.A.M.A. 249: 1181–1185 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Thacrcer, S. B., and Berkelman, R. L., Public health surveillance in the United States, Epidemiol. Rev. 10: 164–190 (1988).Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Thompson, W. H., and Evans, A. S., California virus encephalitis studies in Wisconsin, Am. J. Epidemiol. 81: 230–244 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Valleron, A.-J., Bouvet, E., Garnerin, P., Menares, J., Heard, I., Letrait, S., and Lefaucheux, J., A computer net-work for surveillance of communicable diseases: The French experiment, Am. J. Public Health 76: 1289–1292 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Watkins, M., Lapham, S., and Hoy, W., Use of a medical center’s computerized health care database for notifiable disease surveillance, Am. J. Pub. Health 81: 637–639 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Weinstein, P., Worswick, D., Macintyre, A., and Cameron, S., Human sentinels for arbovirus surveillance and regional risk classification in South Australia, Med. J. Aust. 160: 494–499 (1994).Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Wharton, M., Chorba, T. L., Vogt, R. L., Morse, D. L., and Buehler, J. W., Case definitions for public health surveillance, Morbid. Mortal. Week. Rep. 39 (RR13) (1990).Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Widelock, D., Klein, S., Peizer, L. R., and Simonovic, O., Laboratory analyses of 1957–1958 influenza outbreak (A/Japan) in New York City. I. Preliminary report on seroepidemiologic investigation and variant A/Japan isolate, J.A.M.A. 167: 541–543 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Williams, J. W., The value of the Wassermann reaction in obstetrics, based upon the study of 4547 consecutive cases, Johns Hopkins Hosp. Bull. 31: 335–342 (1920).Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    World Health Organization, Immunological and hematological surveys, WHO Tech. Rep. Ser. 181: 1–95 (1959).Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    World Health Organization, Proceedings of the Twenty-first World Health Assembly, WHO, Geneva, 1968.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    World Health Organization, Multipurpose serological surveys and WHO Serum Reference Banks, WHO Tech. Rep. Ser. 454: 1–95 (1970).Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    World Health Organization, Improving routine systems for surveillance of infectious diseases including EPI target diseases: Guidelines for national programme managers, unpublished document WHO/EPI/TRAM/93.1, 1993.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Yamanishi, K., Okuno, T., Shiraki, K., Takahashi, M., Kondo, T., Asano, Y., and Kurata, T., Identification of a human herpesvirus-6 as a casual agent for exanthem subitum, Lancet 1: 1065–1067 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Yolken, R. H., Enzyme immunoassays for the detection of infectious agents in body fluids: Current limitations and future prospects, Rev. Infect. Dis. 4: 35–67 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Yorke, J. A., Nathanson, N., Pianigiani, G., and Martin, J., Seasonality and requirements for perpetuation and eradication of viruses in populations, Am. J. Epidemiol. 109: 103–123 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Suggested Reading

  1. Canada (Health and Welfare Canada), Addressing Emerg ing Infectious Disease Threats: A Prevention Strategy for the United States, U.S. DHHS, Public Health Service, Atlanta, GA, 1994.Google Scholar
  2. Cutts, E. T., Waldman, R. J., and Zoffman, H. M. D., Surveillance for the Expanded Programme on Immunization, Bull. WHO 71: 633–639 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Declich, S., and Carter, A. O., Public health surveillance: Historical origins, methods and evaluation, Bull. WHO 72: 285–304 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Desenclos, J.-C., Bukerk, H., and Huisman, J., Variations in national infectious diseases surveillance in Europe, Lancet 341: 1003–1006 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Eylenbosch, W. J., and Noah, N. D. (Eds.), Surveillance in Health and Disease, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1988.Google Scholar
  6. Halperin, W., Baker, E. L., JR., and Monson, R. R., Public Health, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1992.Google Scholar
  7. Institute of Medicine, Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1992.Google Scholar
  8. Schulte, P. A., and Perera, F. P. (Eds.), Molecular Epidemiology: Principles and Practice, Academic Press, New York, 1993.Google Scholar
  9. Thacker, S. B., and Berkelman, R. L., Public health surveillance in the United States, Epidemiol. Rev. 10: 164–190 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard A. Kaslow
    • 1
  • Alfred S. Evans
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology, School of Public HealthUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology and Public HealthYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations