Retroviruses—Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus

  • Nancy E. Mueller
  • William A. Blattner


Retroviruses comprise a class of enveloped RNA viruses that have been long postulated to be a cause of various human diseases based on numerous animal models. These animal retroviruses were described by Rous and colleagues in the first decade of this century as the cause of sarcomatous neoplasms in chickens. Subsequently, mammalian retroviruses were discovered first in mice by Gross and colleagues, and subsequently in many species including cats, ungulates, and nonhuman primates. The range of diseases observed in animals includes malignancies, particularly leukemias and lymphomas, but also sarcomas, brain tumors, and breast cancers, as well as diseases of the immunologic system.(215) Despite the many examples of retrovirus-associated disease in animals, intensive laboratory-based studies, particularly in the late 1950s through mid-1970s, failed to identify a candidate human retrovirus. By then, most investigators had abandoned the search and had focused their attention instead on the transforming genes, termed oncogenes, which were essentially transduced host genes incorporated in some acutely transforming retroviruses. However, with the report in 1980 by Poiesz in Gallo’s laboratory of the first human retrovirus—human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV I), also known as T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I—a major new chapter in human virology was opened.(212)) A second HTLV (HTLV-II) was identified in 1982,(113) and understanding of its epidemiology is slowly evolving. Understanding of the virology and immunology of both of these viruses has been substantially fostered by the explosion of research following the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).


Long Terminal Repeat Hairy Cell Leukemia Acute Viral Infection Abnormal Lymphocyte Tropical Spastic Paraparesis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Akagi, T., Hoshida, Y., Yoshino, T., Teramoto, N., Kondo, E., Hayashi, K., Takahashi, K., Infectivity of human T-lymphotropic virus type I to human nervous tissue cells in vitro, Acta Neuropathol. 84: 147–152 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Allain, J. P., Hodges, W., Einstein, M. H., Geisler, J., Neilly, C., Delaney, S., Hodges, B., Lee, A., Antibody to Hiv-I, HTLV-I, and Hcv in three populations of rural Haitians, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 5: 1230–1236 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anonymous, HTLV I-A screen too many? Lancet 336: 1161 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aoki, T., Miyakoshi, H., Koide, H., Yoshida, T., Ishikawa, H., Sugisaki, Y., Mizukoshi, M., Tamura, K., Misawa, H., Hamada, C., Ting, R. C., Robert-Auroff, M., and Gallo, R. C., Seroepidemiology of human T-lymphotropic retrovirus type 1 (HTLV-1) in residents of Nigata prefectur, Japan. Comparative studies by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Int. J. Cancer 35: 301–306 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Asou, N., Kumagai, T., Uekihara, S., Ishii, M., Sato, M., Sakai, K., Nishimura, H., Yamaguchi, K., Takatsuki, K., HTLV-I seroprevalence in patients with malignancy, Cancer 58: 903–907 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Babu, P. G., Gnanamuthu, C., Saraswathi, N. K., Nerurkar, V. R., Yanagihara, R., John, T. J., HTLV I-associated myelopathy in South India, AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 9: 499–500 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Baltimore, D., Rna-dependent Dna polymerase in virions of Rna tumour viruses, Nature 226: 1209–1211 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bartholomew, C., Charles, W., Saxinger, C., Blattner, W., Robert-Guroff, M., Ran, C., Ratan, P., Ince, W., Quamina, D., Basdeo-Maharaj, K., and Gallo, R. C., Racial and other characteristics of human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (HTLV-I) and AIDS (HTLV-Iii) in Trinidad, Br. Med. J. 290: 1243–1246 (1985).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bartholomew, C., Edwards, J., Jack, N., Corbin, D., Murphy, J., Cleghorn, F., White, F., Blattner, W., Studies on maternal transmission of HTLV-I in patients with adult T-cell leukaemia (Atl) in Trinidad and Tobago, Sixth International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV, May 14–19, 1994 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bartholomew, C., Saxinger, W. C., Clark, J. W., Gail, M., Dudgeon, A., Mahabir, B., Hyll-Drysdale, B., Cleghorn, E, Gallo, R. C., and Blattner, W. A., Transmission of HTLV-I and Hiv among homosexuals in Trinidad, J.A.M.A. 257: 2604–2608 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bastian, I., Gardner, J., Webb, D., and Gardner, I., Isolation of a human T-lymphotropic virus type I strain from Australian Aboriginae, J. Virol. 67: 843–851 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Batsuuri, J., Dashnyam, B., Maidar, J., Battulga, D., Dorjsuren, D., and Ishida, T., Absence of human T lymphotropic retrovirus type-1 (HTLV-I) in different populations of Mongolia, Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 25: 398–399 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Benveniste, R. E., The contributors of retroviruses to the study of mammalian evolution, in: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics (R. J. Macintyre, ED.), pp. 359–417, Plenum Press, New York, 1985.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Berneman, Z. N., Gartenhaus, R. B., Rurrz, M. S., JR., Blattner, W. A., Manns, A., Hanchard, B., Ikehara, O., Gallo, R. C., and Klotman, M. E., Expression of alternatively spliced human T-lymphotropic virus type I pX mRna in infected cell lines and in primary uncultured cells from patients with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and healthy carriers, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 3005–3009 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Biggar, R. J., Saxinger, C., Gardiner, C., Collins, W. E., Levine, P. H., Clark, J. W., Nkrumah, F. K., Gallo, R. C., and Blattner, W. A., Type I HTLV antibody in urban and rural Ghana, West Africa, I. J. Cancer 34: 215–219 (1984).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Biggar, R. J., Neequaye, J. E., Neequaye, A. R., Ankrabadu, G. A., Levine, P. H., Manns, A., Taylor, M., Drum-Mond, J., and Waters, D., The prevalence of antibodies to the human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) in Ghana, West Africa, AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 9: 505–511 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Biggar, R. J., Buskell-Bales, Z., Yakshe, P. N., Caussy, D., Gridley, G., and Seeff, L., Antibody to human retroviruses among drug users in the East Coast American cities, 1972–1976, J. Infect. Dis. 163: 57–63 (1991).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Biglione, M., Gessain, A., Quiruelas, S., Fay, O., Taborda, M. A., and Fernandez, E., Endemic HTLV-II infection among Tobas and Matacos Amerindians from North Argentina, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 6 (6): 631–633 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Blattner, W. A., Nomura, A., Clark, J. W., Ho, G. E. Y., Nakao, Y., Gallo, R., and Robert-Guroff, M., Modes of transmission and evidence for viral latency from studies of HTLV-I in Japanese migrant populations in Hawaii, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83: 4895–4898 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Blattner, W. A., Human T-lymphotropic viruses: HTLV-I and HTLV-II, in: Textbook of AIDS Medicine (S. Broder, T. C., Merigan, JR., and D. Bolognesi, Eds.), pp. 887–908, Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1994.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Blattner, W. A., Blayney, D. W., Robert-Guroff, M., Sarngadharan, M. G., Kalyanaraman, V. S., Sarin, P., Jai-1.E,, E. S., and Gallo, R. C., Epidemiology of human T-cell leukemia/ lymphoma virus (HTLV), J. Infect. Dis. 147: 406–416 (1983).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Blattner, W. A., Saxinger, C., Riedel, D., Hull, B., Taylor, G., Cleghorn, E, Gallo, R., Blumberg, B., and Bartholomew, C., A study of HTLV-I and its associated risk factors in Trinidad and Tobago, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 3: 1102–1108 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Blattner, W. A., Kalyanaraman, V. S., Robert-Guroff, M., Lister, T. A., Galton, D. A. G., Sarin, P. S., Crawford, D., Greaves, M., and Gallo, R. C., The human type-C retrovirus, HTLV in blacks from the Caribbean region, and relationship to adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, Int. J. Cancer 30: 257–264 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Blattner, W. A., Epidemiology of HTLV-1 and associated diseases, in: Human Retrovirology: HTLV (W. A. Blattner, ED.), pp. 251–265, Raven Press, New York, 1990.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Blomberg, J., Robert-Guroff, M., Blattner, W. A., and Pipkorn, R., Type-and group-specific continuous antigenic determinants of synthetic peptides for serotyping of HTLV-I and -II infection, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 5 (3): 294–302 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Brabin, L., Brabin, B. J., Doherty, R. R., Gust, I. D., Alpers, M. P., Fujino, R., Imai, J., and Hinuna, Y., Patterns of migration indicate sexual transmission of HTLV-I infection in non-pregnant women in Papua, New Guinea, Int. J. Cancer 44: 59–62 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brodine, S. K., Gldfield, E. C., Iii, Corwin, A. L., Thomas, R. J., Ryan, A. B., Holmberg, J., Malgaard, C. A., Golbeck, A. L., Ryden, L. A., Benenson, A. S., Roberts, C. R., and Blatt-Ner, W. A., HTLV-I among U.S. marines stationed in a hyper-endemic area: Evidence for female-to-male sexual transmission, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 5: 158–162 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Busch, M. P., Laycock, M., Kleinman, S. H., Wages, JR., J. W., Calabro, M., Kaplan, J. E., Khabbaz, R. A, and Hollings-Worth, C. G., Accuracy of supplementary serologic testing for human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II in US blood donors. Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study, Blood 83: 1143–1148 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Calendar, A., Gessain, A., Essex, M., and DE-THÉ, G., Seroepidemiology of HTLV in the French West Indies: Antibodies in blood donors and lymphoproliferative diseases who do not have AIDS, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 437: 175–176 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cann, A. J., and Chen, I. S. Y., Human T-cell leukemia viruses type I and II, in: Fields Virology (3rd ed.) (N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley, Eds.), pp. 1849–1880, Raven Press, New York, 1995.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cantor, K. P., Weiss, S. H., Goedert, J. J., and Battjes, R. J., HTLV-1/II seroprevalence and Hiv/HTLV coinfection among U.S. intravenous drug users, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 4 (5): 460–467 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Catovsky, D., Greaves, M. F., Rose, M., Rose, M., Galton, D. A., Goolden, A. W., Mccluskey, D. R., White, J. M., Lam-Pert, I., Bourikas, G., Ireland, R., Brownell, A. I., Bridges, J. M., Blattner, W. A., and Gallo, R. C., Adult T-cell lymphoma-leukaemia in Blacks from the West Indies, Lancet 1: 639–643 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Centers For Disease Control, Guidelines for counseling persons infected with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) and type II (HTLV-II), Ann. Intern. Med. 118 (6): 448–454 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Centers For Disease Control, Licensure of screening tests for antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus type I, Morbid. Mortal. Week. Rep. 37:736, 740, 745, 747 (1988).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cesarman, E., Chadburn, A., Inghirami, G., Gaidano, G., and Knowles, D. M., Structural and functional analysis of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in adult T-cell leukemia/ lymphoma shows frequent p53 mutations, Blood 80: 3205–3216 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 35a.
    Chen, Y.-M., Gomez-Lucia, E., Okayama, A., Tachibana, N., Lee, T.-H., Mueller, N., and Essex, M., Antibody profile of early HTLV-I infection, Lancet 336: 1214–1216 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 36.
    Chen, Y.-M., Okayama, A., Lee, T.-H., Tachibana, N., Mueller, N., and Essex, M., Sexual transmission of HTLV-I associated with the presence of the anti-tax antibody, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 1182–1186 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 37.
    Chen, Y. M. A., Lee, T. H., Wiktor, S. Z., Shaw, G. M., Murphy, E. L., Blattner, W. A., and Essex, M., Type-specific antigens for serological discrimination of HTLV-I and HTLV-II infection, Lancet 336: 1153–1155 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 38.
    Ciminale, V., Pavlakis, G. N., Derse, D., Cunningham, C. R, and Felber, B. K., Complex splicing in the human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) family of retrovirus: Novel mRnas and proteins produced by HTLV type I, J. Urol. 66: 1737–1745 (1992).Google Scholar
  40. 39.
    Clark, J. W., Robert-Guroff, M., Ikehara, O., Henzan, E., and Blattner, W. A., The human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type-I (HTLV-I) in Okinawa, Cancer Res. 45: 2849–2852 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 40.
    Cleghorn, F. R., Charles, W., Blattner, W., and Bar-Tholomew, C., Adult T-cell leukemia in Trinidad and Tobago, in: Human Retrovirology: HTLV (W. A. Blattner, ED.), pp. 185–190, Raven Press, New York, 1990.Google Scholar
  42. 41.
    Cortes, E., Detels, R., Aboulafaia, D., LI, X. L., Moudgil, T., Alain, M., Bonecker, C., Gonzaga, A., Oyafuso, L., Tondo, M., Boite, C., Hammershlak, N., Capitani, C., Slamon, D. J., and Ho, D. D., Hiv-I, Hiv-2, and HTLV-I infection in high-risk groups in Brazil, N. Engl. J. Med. 320: 953–958 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 42.
    Cossen, C., Hagens, S., Fukuchi, R., Forghani, B., Gallo, D., and Ascher, M., Comparison of six commercial human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) enzyme immunoassay kits for detection of antibody to HTLV-I and -II, J. Clin. Microbiol. 30 (3): 724–725 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 43.
    Daenke, S., Nightingale, S., Cruickshank, J. K., and Bang-Ham, C. R. M., Sequence variants of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I from patients with tropical spastic paraparesis and adult T-cell leukemia do not distinguish neurological from leukemic isolates, J. Virol. 64 (3): 1278–1282 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 44.
    DE-THÉ, G., Gessain, A., Robert-Guroff, M., ET AL, Comparative seroepidemiology of HTLV-I and HTLV-Iii in French West Indies and some African countries, Cancer Res. 45: 4633s - 4636s (1985).Google Scholar
  46. 45.
    Delaport, E., Dupont, A., Peeters, M., Josse, R., Merlin, M., Schruvers, D., Hamono, B., Bedjabaga, L., Cheringou, H., Boyer, F., Brun-VÉZinet, F., and LarouzÉ, B., Epidemiology of HTLV-1 in Gabon (western equatorial Africa), Int. J. Cancer 42: 687–689 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 46.
    Delaport, E., Peeters, M., Durand, J.-P., Dupont, A., Schrijvers, D., Bedjabaga, L., HonorÉ, C., Ossari, S., Trebucq, A., JossE, R., and Merlin, M., Seroepidemiological survey of HTLV-1 infection among randomized populations of western central African countries, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 2: 410–413 (1989).Google Scholar
  48. 47.
    Delaport, E., Monplaisir, N., Louwagie, J., Peeters, M., Martin-PRÉVel, Y., Louis, J.-P., Trebucq, A., Bedjabaga, L., Ossari, S., HonorÉ, C., LarouzÉ, B., Auriol, L., Van Der Google Scholar
  49. Groen, G., and Piot, R, Prevalence of HTLV-I and HTLV-II infection in Gabon, Africa: Comparison of the serological and Pcr results, Int. J. Cancer 49: 373–376 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 48.
    Doll, R., An epidemiologic perspective of the biology of cancer, Cancer Res. 38: 3573–3583 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 49.
    Donegan, E., Busch, M. P., Galleshaw, J. A., Shaw, G. M., and Mosley, J. W., Transfusion Safety Study Group: Transfusion of blood components from a donor with human T-lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) infection, Ann. Intern. Med. 113: 555–556 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 50.
    Dumas, M., Houinato, D., Verdier, M., Zohoun, T., Josse, R., Bonis, J., Zohoun, I., Massongbodji, A., and Denis, F., Seroepidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus in Benin (West Africa), AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 7: 447–451 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 51.
    Eguchi, K., Matsuoka, N., Ida, H., Nakashima, M., Sakai, M., Sakito, S., Kawakami, A., Terada, K., Shimada, H., Kawabe, Y, Fukuda, T., Sawada, T., and Nagataki, S., Primary Sjögren’s syndrome with antibodies to HTLV-I: Clinical and laboratory features, Ann. Rheum. Dis. 51: 769–776 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 52.
    Ehrlich, G. D., Andrews, J., Sherman, M. R, Greenberg, S. J., and Poiesz, ft. J., Dna sequence analysis of the gene encoding the HTLV-I P21E transmembrane protein reveals inter-and intraisolate genetic heterogeneity, Virology 186: 619–627 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 53.
    Ehrlich, G. D., Glaser, J. B., Lavigne, K., Quan, D., Mild-Van, D., Sninsky, J. J., Kwok, S., Papsidero, L., and Poiesz, B. J., Prevalence of human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus (HTLV) type II infection among high-risk individuals: Typespecific identification of HTLVs by polymerase chain reaction, Blood 74 (5): 1658–1664 (1989).Google Scholar
  56. 54.
    Essex, M., and Gutensohn (Mueller) N., A comparison of the pathobiology and epidemiology of cancers associated with viruses in humans and animals, Prog. Med. Viral. 27: 114–126 (1981).Google Scholar
  57. 55.
    Essex, M., Mclane, M., Tachibana, N., Francis, D. R, and Lee, T.-H., Seroepidemiology of human T-cell leukemia virus in relation to immunosuppression and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, in: Human T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma Virus (R. C. Gallo, M. Essex, and L. Gross, Eds.), pp. 355–362, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, 1984.Google Scholar
  58. 56.
    Estebanez, R, Sarasqueta, C., Najera, R., Contreras, G., Perez, L., Fitch, K., and Nicente, A., Prevalence of Hiv-1, Hiv-2, and HTLV-I/II in Spanish seamen, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 5 (3): 316–317 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 57.
    Francis, D. P., Essex, M., and Maynard, J. E., Feline leukemia virus and hepatitis B virus: A comparison of late manifestations, Prog. Med. Viral. 27: 127–132 (1981).Google Scholar
  60. 58.
    Fujii, M., Sassone-Corsi, P., and Verma, I. M., C-fos promoter trans-activation by the tax, protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type I, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85: 8526–8530 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 59.
    Fujino, R., Kawato, K., Ikeda, M., Miyakoshi, H., Mizukoshi, M., and Imai, J., Improvement of gelatin particle agglutination test for detection of anti-HTLV-I antibody, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 82: 367–370 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 60.
    Gallo, R. C., DE-THÉ, G. B., and Iro, Y., Kyoto workshop on some specific recent advances in human tumor virology, Cancer Res. 41: 4738–4739 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 61.
    Gessain, A., Barin, F., Vernant, J. C., Gout, O., Maurs, L., Calender, A., and DE-THÉ, G., Antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus type-I in patients with tropical spastic paraparesis, Lancet 2: 407–410 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 62.
    Gessain, A., Saal, E, and Gout, O., High human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I proviral Dna load with polyclonal integration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of French West Indian, Guinean and African patients with tropical spastic paraparesis, Blood 75: 428–433 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 63.
    Gessain, A., Fretz, C., Koulibaly, M., ET AL, Evidence of HTLV-II infection in Guinea, West Africa, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 6 (3): 324–325 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 64.
    Gessain, A., Tuppin, R, Kazanji, M., Mariclere, R, Manieux, R., Garcia-Calleja, J. M., Salla, R., Tekara, E, Millan, J., DE-THÉ, G., and Gessain, A., A new HTLV type II subtype A isolate in an Hiv type 1-infected prostitute from Cameroon, Central Africa, AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 11: 989–993 (1995).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 65.
    Gessain, A., Yanagihara, R., Franchini, G., Garruto, R. M., Jenkins, C. L., Ajdukiewicz, A. B., Gallo, R. C., and Gajdusek, D. C., Highly divergent molecular variant of human T-lymphotropic virus type I from isolated populations in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 7694–7698 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 66.
    Gessain, A., HervÉ, V., Jeannel, D., Garin, B., Mathiot, C., and DE-THÉ, G., HTLV-I but not HTLV-II found in pygmies from Central African Republic, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 6: 1373–1375 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 67.
    Gessain, A., Gallo, R. C., and Franchini, G., Low degree of human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I genetic drift in vivo as a means of monitoring viral transmission and movement of ancient human populations, J. Viral. 66: 2288–2295 (1992).Google Scholar
  70. 68.
    Gotuzzo, E., Sanchez, J., Escamilla, J., Carrillo, C., Phil- Lips, I. A., Moreyra, L., Stamm, W., Ashley, R., Roggen, E. L., Kreiss, J., Piot, R, and Holmes, K. K., Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I infection among female sex workers in Peru, J. Infect. Dis. 169: 754–759 (1994).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 69.
    Goubau, P., Desmyter, J., Ghesquiere, J., and Kasereka, B., HTLV-II among pygmies, Nature 359: 201 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 70.
    Goubau, R, Desmyter, J., Swanson, R, Reynders, M., Shih, J., Surmount, I., Kazadi, K., and Lee, H., Detection of HTLV-I and HTLV-II infection in Africans using type-specific envelope peptides, J. Med. Viral. 39: 28–32 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 71.
    Gout, O., Baulac, M., Gessain, A., Semah, E, Saal, F., PÉRies, J., Cabral, C., Foucault-Fretz, C., Laplane, D., Sigaux, F., and DE-THÉ, G., Rapid development of myelopathy after HTLV-1 infection acquired by transfusion during cardiac transplantation, N. Engl. J. Med. 322: 383–388 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 72.
    Greene, W. C., Bohnlein, E., and Ballard, D. W., Hiv-1, HTLV-1 and normal T-cell growth: Transcriptional strategies and surprises, Immunol. Today 10: 272–278 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 73.
    Hall, W., Takahashi, H., and Liu, C., Multiple isolates and characteristics of human T-cell leukemia virus type II, J. Viml. 66: 2456–2463 (1992).Google Scholar
  76. 74.
    Hanada, S., Uematsu, T., Iwahashi, M., Nomura, K., Utsunonuya, A., Kodama, M., Ishibashi, K., Terada, A., Saito, T., Makino, T., Uozumi, K., KNwAzUru, Y., Otsuka, M., Harada, R., Hashimoto, S., and Sakurani, T., The prevalence of human T-cell leukemia virus type I infection in patients with hematologic and nonhematologic diseases in an adult T-cell leukemia-endemic area of Japan, Cancer 64: 1290–1295 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 75.
    Hanchard, B., Lagrenade, L., Carberry, C., Fletcher, V., Williams, E., Cranston, B., Blattner, W. A., and Manns, A., Childhood infective dermatitis evolving into adult T-cell leukaemia after 17 years [letter], Lancet 338: 1593–1594 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 76.
    Hattori, T., Ikematsu, S., Chosa, T., Yamamoto, S., Matsuoka, M., Fukutake, K., Robert-Guroff, M., and Takatsuki, K., Anti-HTLV-Iii and anti-HTLV-I antibodies an T-cell subsets in hemophiliacs living in HTLV-I endemic and nonedemic areas of Japan, Acta Haematol. 77: 25–29 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 77.
    Heneine, W., Woods, T., Green, D., Fukoda, K., Giusti, R., Castillo, L., Armien, B., Gracia, F., and Kaplan, J. G., Detection of HTLV-II in breastmilk of HTLV-II infected mothers, Lancet 340: 1157–1158 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 78.
    Heneine, W., Chan, W. C., Lust, J. A., Sinha, S. D., Zaki, S. R., Khabbaz, R. F., and Kaplan, J. E., HTLV-II infection is rare in patients with large granular lymphocyte leukemia, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 7 (7): 736 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 79.
    Heneine, W., Khabbaz, R. F., Lal, R. B., and Kaplan, J. E., Sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction assays for diagnosis of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) and HTLV-II infections in HTLV-Uii-seropositive individuals, J. Clin. Microbial. 30 (6): 1605–1607 (1992).Google Scholar
  82. 80.
    Heneine, W., Kaplan, J. E., Gracia, F., Lal, R., Levine, R. H., and Reeves, W. C., HTLV-II endemicity among Guaymi Indians in Panama, N. Engl. J. Med. 324 (8): 565 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 81.
    Hind, S., Doi, H., Yoshikuni, H., Sugiyama, H., Ishimau, T., Yamabe, T., Tsuji, Y., and Miyanoto, T., HTLV-I carrier mothers with high-titer antibody are at high risk as a source of infection, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 78: 1156–1158 (1987).Google Scholar
  84. 82.
    Hind, S., Katamine, S., Kawase, K., Miyamoto, T., Doi, H., Tsuji, Y., and Yamabe, S.,Intervention of maternal transmission of HTLV-I in Nagasaki, Japan, Leukemia 8 (Suppl. 1): 68s - 70s (1994).Google Scholar
  85. 83.
    Hind, S., Sugiyama, H., Doi, H., Ishimaru, T., Yamabe, T., Tsuyi, Y., and Mujamoto, T., Breaking the cycle of HTLV-1 transmission via carrier mothers’ milk, Lancet 2: 158–159 (1987).Google Scholar
  86. 84.
    Hinuma, Y., Komoda, H., Chosa, T., Kondo, T., Kohakura, M., Takenaka, T., Kikuchi, M., Ichimaru, M., Yunoki, K., Sato, I., Matsuo, R., Takiuchi, Y., Uchino, H., and Hanaoka, M., Antibodies to adult T-cell leukemia-virus-associated antigen (Atla) in sera from patients with Atl and controls in Japan: A nation-wide seroepidemiologic study, Int. J. Cancer 29: 631–635 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 85.
    Hirata, M., Hayashi, J., Noguchi, A., Nakashima, K., Kajiyama, W., Kashiwagi, S., and Sawada, T., The effects of breastfeeding and the presence of antibody to p40tax protein of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I on mother-to-child transmission, Int. J. Epidemiol. 21: 989–994 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 86.
    Hjelle, B., Mills, R., Swenson, S., Mertz, G., Key, C., and Allen, S.,Incidence of hairy cell leukemia, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a first known HTLV-IIendemic population, J. Infect. Dis. 163: 435–440 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 87.
    Hjelle, B., Appenzeller, O., Mills, R., Alexander, S., Torrez-Martinez, N., Jahnke, R., and Ross, G., Chronic neurodegenerative disease associated with HTLV-II infection, Lancet 339: 645–646 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 88.
    Hjelle, B., Mills, R., Mertz, G., and Swenson, S., Transmission of HTLV lI via blood transfusion, Vox Sang. 59: 119–122 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 89.
    Hjelle, B., Cyrus, S., and Swenson, S. G., Evidence for sexual transmission of human T lymphotropic virus type II, Ann. Intern. Med. 116 (1): 90–91 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 90.
    Hjelle, B., Scalf, R., and Swenson, S., High frequency of human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma virus type II infection in New Mexico blood donors: Determination by sequence-specific oligonucleotide hybridization, Blood 76 (3): 450–454 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 91.
    Ho, G. Y., Nomura, A., Nelson, K., Lee, H., Polk, B. E, and Blattner, W., Declining seroprevalence and transmission of HTLV-I in Japanese families who immigrated to Hawaii, Am. J. Epidemiol. 134: 981–987 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 92.
    Ho, M., Miller, G., Atchison, R. W., Breinig, M. K., Dummer, S., Andiman, W., Starzl, T. E., Eastman, R., Griffith, B. P., Hardesty, R. L., Bahnson, H. T., Hakala, T. R., and Rosenthal, J. T., Epstein-Barr virus infections and Dna hybridization studies in post-transplantational lymphoma and lymphoproliferative lesions: The role of primary infection, J. Infect. Dis. 152: 876–886 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 93.
    Llsberg, P., and Halfer, D. A., Pathogenesis of diseases induced by human lymphotropic virus type I infection, Semin. Med. Beth Israel Hosp. (Boston) 328 (16): 1173–1182 (1993).Google Scholar
  96. 94.
    Hunsmann, G., Schneider, J., Schmitt, J., and Yamamoto, N., Detection of serum antibodies to adult T-cell leukemia virus in non-human primates and in people in Africa, Int. J. Cancer 32: 329–332 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 95.
    Hunsmann, G., Bayer, H., Schneider, J., Schmitz, H., Kern, P., Dietrich, M., BÜTtner, D. W., Goudeau, A. M., Kulkarni, G., and Fleming, A. F., Antibodies to Atlv/HTLV 1 in Africa, Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 173: 167–170 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 96.
    Hyams, K. C., Phillips, I. A., Tejada, A., Wignall, E S., Roberts, C. R., and Escamilla, J., Three-year incidence study of retroviral and viral infection in a Peruvian prostitute population, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 6: 1353–1357 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 97.
    IncEn, S., Ramundo, M. B., Takahashi, H., and Hall, W. W., In vivo cellular trophisms of human T-cell leukemia virus type II (HTLV-II), J. Exp. Med. 176: 293–296 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 98.
    Ijichi, S., Zaninovic, V., Leon-S, E.E., Katahira, Y., Sonoda, S., Miura, T., Hayami, M., and Hall, W. W., Identification of human T-cell leukemia virus type Iib infection in the Wayu, an aboriginal population of Colombia, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 84:1215–1218 (1993).Google Scholar
  101. 99.
    Imai, J., and Hinuma, Y., Epstein-Barr virus-specific antibodies in patients with adult T-cell leukemia (An) and healthy Atl virus-carriers, Int. J. Cancer 31: 197–200 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 100.
    Imamura, J., Tsujimoto, A., Ohta, Y., Hirose, S., Shimotohno, K., Miwa, M., and Miyoshi, J., Dna blotting analysis of human retroviruses in cerebrospinal fluid of spastic paraparesis patients: The viruses are identical to human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1), Int. J. Cancer 42: 221–224 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 101.
    Ishida, T., Yamamoto, K., and Omoto, K., A seroepidemiological survey of HTLV 1 in the Philippines, Int. J. Epidemiol. 17: 625–628 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 102.
    Ishida, T., Yamamoto, K., Omoto, K., Iwanaga, M., Osato, T., and Hinuma, Y., Prevalence of a human retrovirus in native Japanese: Evidence for a possible ancient origin, Infection 11: 153–157 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 103.
    Ishihara, S., Okayama, A., Stuver, S., Horinouchi, A., Murai, K., Shion2I, S., Kubota, T., Yamashita, R., Tachibana, N., and Mueller, N, Association of HTLV-I antibody profile of asymptomatic carries with proviral Dna levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 7: 199–203 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 104.
    Ishizaki, J., Okayama, A., Tachibana, N., Yokota, T., Shishime, E., Tsuda, K., and Mueller, N., Comparative diagnostic assay results for detecting antibody to HTLV-I in Japanese blood donor samples: Higher positivity rates by particle agglutination assay, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr 1: 340–345 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 105.
    Iwasaki, Y., Ohara, Y., Kobayashi, I., and Akizuki, S.-I., Infiltration of helper/inducer T-lymphocytes heralds central nervous system damage in human T-cell leukemia virus infection, Am. J. Pathol. 140 (5): 1003–1008 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 105a.
    Iwata, K., Ito, S.-I., Saito, H., Ito, M., Nagatomo, M., Yamosaki, T., Yoshida, S., Suto, H., and Taiima, K., Mortality among inhabitants of an HTLV-I endemic area in Japan, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 25: 231–237 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 106.
    Jacobson, S., Lehky, T., Nishimura, M., Robinson, S., McFarlin, D., and Dhib-Jalbut, S., Isolation of HTLV II from a patient with chronic, progressive neurological disease clinically indistinguishable from HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, Am. Neurol. Assoc. 14: 392–396 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 107.
    Jacobson, S., Mcfarlin, D. E., Robinson, S., Voskuhl, R., Martin, R., Brewah, A., Newell, A. J., and Koenig, S., HTLV-I-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with HTLV-I-associated neurological disease, Ann. Neurol. 32: 651–657 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 108.
    Jaffe, E. S., Blattner, W. A., Blayney, D. W., Bunn, P. A., Cossman, J., Robert-Guroff, M., and Gallo, R. C., The pathologic spectrum of HTLV-associated leukemia/lymphoma in the United States, Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 8: 263–275 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 109.
    Jeang, K-T., Widden, S. G., Semmes, O. J., IV, and Wilson, S. H., HTLV-I trans-activator protein, tax, is a transrepressor of the human ß-polymerase gene, Science 247: 1082–1084 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 110.
    Johnson, R. E., Nahmias, A. J., Magder, L. S., Lee, E J., Brooks, C. A., and Snowden, C. A., A seroepidemiologic survey of the prevalence of herpes simplex virus type I infection in the United States, N. Engl. J. Med. 321: 7–12 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 111.
    Kajiyama, W., Kashiwaga, S., Nomura, H., Ikematsu, H., Hayashi, J., and Ikematsu, W., Seroepidemiologic study of antibody to adult T-cell leukemia virus in Okinawa, Japan, Am. J. Epidemiol. 123: 41–47 (1985).Google Scholar
  115. 112.
    Kajiyama, W., Kashiwagi, S., Ikematsu, H., Hayashi, J., Nomura, H., and Okochi, K., Intrafamilial transmission of adult T-cell leukemia virus, J. Infect. Dis. 154: 851–857 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 113.
    Kalyanaraman, V. S., Sarngadharan, M. G., Robertguroff, M., Blayney, D., Golde, D., and Gallo, R. C., A new subtype of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-II) associated with a T-cell variant of hairy cell leukemia, Science 218 (5): 571–573 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 114.
    Kamada, Y., Iwamasa, T., Miyazato, M., Sunagawa, K., and KuNishima, N., Kaposi sarcoma in Okinawa, Cancer 70 (4): 861–868 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 115.
    Kamihira, S., Nakasima, S., Oyakawa, Y., Moriuti, Y., Ichimaru, M., Okuda, H., Kanamura, M., and Oota, T., Transmission of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I by blood transfusion before and after mass screening of sera from seropositive donors, Vox Sang. 52: 43–44 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 116.
    Kamihira, S., Toriya, K., Amagasaki, T., Momita, S., Ikeda, S., Yamada, Y., Tomonaga, M., Ichimaru, M., Kinoshita, K.I., and Sawada, T., Antibodies against p40t gene product of human T-lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I) under various conditions of HTLV-I infection, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 80: 1066–1071 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 117.
    Kaplan, J. E., Abrams, E., Shaffer, N., Cannier, R. O., Kaul, A., Krasinsky, K., Bamji, M., Hartley, T. M., Roberts, B., Kilbourne, B., Thomas, P., Rogers, M., Heneine, W., and The Nyc Perinatal Hiv Transmission Collaborative Study, Low risk of mother-to-child transmission of human T lymphotropic virus type II in non-breast-fed infants, J. Infect. Dis. 166: 892–895 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 118.
    Kaplan, J. E., Lal, R. B., Davidson, M., Lanier, A. P., and Lairmore, M. D., HTLV-I in Alaska Natives, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 6: 327–328 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 119.
    Kaplan, M. H., Hall, W. W., Susin, M., Pahwa, S., Salahuddin, S. Z., Heilman, C., Fetten, J., Coronesi, M., Farber, B. E, and Smith, S., Syndrome of severe skin disease, eosinophilia and dermatopathic lymphadenopathy in patients with HTLV-II complicating human immunodeficiency virus infection, Am. J. Med. 91: 300–309 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 120.
    Kaplan, J. E., Osame, M., Kubota, H., Igata, A., Nishitani, H., Maeda, Y., Khabbaz, R. E, and Janssen, R. S., The risk of development of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis among persons infected with HTLV-I, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 3: 1096–1101 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 121.
    Kashiwagi, S., Kajiyama, W., Hayashi, J., Noguchi, A., Nakashima, K., Nomura, H., Ikematsu, H., Sawada, T., Kida, S., and Koide, A., Antibody to p400x protein of human T-cell leukemia virus I and infectivity, J. Infect. Dis. 161: 426–429 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 122.
    Kashiwagi, S., Kajiyama, W., Hayashi, J., Nomura, H., and Ikematsu, H., No significant changes in adult T-cell leukemia virus infection in Okinawa, Japan, after intervals of 13 and 15 years, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 77: 452–455 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 123.
    Kawase, K.-I., Katamine, S., Moriuchi, R., Miyamoto, T., Kubota, K., Igarashi, H., Dol, H., Tsuji, Y., Yamabe, T., and Hind, S., Maternal transmission of HTLV-I other than through breast milk: Discrepancy between the polymerase chain reaction of core blood samples for HTLV-I and the subsequent seropositivity of individuals, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 83: 968–977 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 124.
    Kelley, K., Davis, P., Mitsuya, H., Irving, S., Wright, J., Grassman, R., Fleckenstein, B., Wano, Y., Greene, W., and Siebenlist, U., A high proportion of early response genes are constitutively activated in T-cell by HTLV-I, Oncogene 7: 1463–1470 (1992).Google Scholar
  128. 125.
    Khabbaz, R. E, Hartley, T. M., Lairmore, M. D., and Kaplan, J. E., Epidemiologic assessment of screening test for antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I), Am. J. Public Health 30: 190–192 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 126.
    Khabbaz, R. F., Darrow, W. W., Hartley, T. M., Witte, J., Cohen, J., French, J., Gill, R S., Poi Ierat, J., Sikes, R. K., Reich, R., Kaplan, J., and Lairmore, M. D., Seroprevalence and risk factors for HTLV-I/II infection among female prostitutes in the United States, J.A.M.A. 263 (1): 60–64 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 127.
    Kinoshita, T., Imamura, J., Nagai, H., Ito, M., Ito, S.-I., Ikeda, S., Nagatomo, M., Tajima, K., and Shimotohno, K., Absence of HTLV-I infection among seronegative subjects in an endemic area of Japan, Int. J. Cancer 54: 16–19 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 128.
    Kinoshita, K., Amagasaki, T., Hind, S., Doi, H., Yamanouchi, K., Ban, N., Momita, T., Ikeda, S., Kamihira, S., Ichimaru, M., Katamine, S., Miyamoto, T., Tsuji, Y., Ishimaru, T., Yamabe, T., Ito, M., and Kamura, S., Milk-borne transmission of HTLV-1 from carrier mothers to their children, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 78: 674–680 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 129.
    Kinoshita, K., Yamanouchi, K., Ikeda, S., Momita, S., Ama-Gasaki, T., Soda, H., Ichimaru, M., Moriuchi, R., Katamine, S., Miyamoto, T., and Hind, S., Oral infection of a common marmoset with human T-cell leukemia virus type-I (HTLV-I) by inoculating fresh human milk of HTLV-I carrier mother, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 76: 1147–1153 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 130.
    Kinoshita, K., Amagasaki, T., Ikeda, S., Suzuyama, J., Toriya, K., Nishino, K., Tagawa, M., Ichimaru, M., Kamihira, S., Yamada, Y, Momita, S., Kusano, M., Morikawa, S., Fujita, S., Ueda, Y., Ito, N., and Yoshida, M., Preleukemic state of adult T-cell leukemia: Abnormal T-lymphocytosis induced by human adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma virus, Blood 66: 120–127 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 131.
    Kinoshita, T., Tsujimota, A., and Shimotohno, K., Sequence variations in Ltr and env regions of HTLV-I do not discriminate between the virus from patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy and adult T-cell leukemia, Int. J. Cancer 47: 491–495 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 132.
    Kira, J.-I., Itoyama, Y., Koyanagi, Y., Tateishi, J., Kishikawa, M., Akizuki, S.-I., Kobayashi, I., Toki, N., Sueishi, K., Sato, H., Sakaki, Y., Yamamoto, N., and Gam, I., Presence of HTLV-I proviral Dna in central nervous system of patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, Ann. Neurol. 31: 39–45 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 133.
    Kira, J.-I., Nakamura, M., Sawada, T., Koyanagi, Y., Ohori, N., Itoyama, Y., Yamamoto, N., Sakaki, Y., and Goto, I., Antibody titers to HTLV-I-p40t protein and gag-env hybrid protein in HTLV I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic para-paresis: Correlation with increased HTLV-I proviral Dna load, J. Neurol Sci. 107: 98–104 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 134.
    Kobayashi, M., Miyoshi, I., Sonobe, H., Taguchi, H., and Kubonishi, I., Association of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and scabies, J.A.M.A. 248: 1973 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 135.
    Kohakura, M., Nakada, K., Yonahara, M., Komoda, H., Imai, J., and Hinuma, Y., Seroepidemiology of the human retro-virus (HTLV/Atlv) in Okinawa where adult T-cell leukemia is highly endemic, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 77: 21–23 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 136.
    Komurian, E, Pelloquin, E, and DE-THÉ, G., In vivo genomic variability of human T-cell leukemia virus type I depends more upon geography than upon pathologies, J. Virol. 65 (7): 3770–3778 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 137.
    Kondo, T., KoNo, H., Miyamoto, N., Yoshida, R., Tofu, H., Matsumoto, I., Hara, M., Inoue, H., Inatsuki, A., Funatsu, T., Yamano, N., Bando, F., IwAo, E., Miyoshi, I., Hinuma, Y., and Hanaoka, M., Age-and sex-specific cumulative rate and risk of Atll for HTLV-I carriers, Int. J. Cancer 43: 1061–1064 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 138.
    Kondo, S., Mishiro, N., Umeki, K., Kotani, T., Setoguchi, M., Shingu, T., and Ohtaki, S., Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) Dna in an HTLV-I endemic area (Miyazaki, Japan), Transfusion 34: 449–450 (1994).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 139.
    Korber, B., Okayama, A., Donnelly, R., Tachibana, N., and Essex, M., Polymerase chain reaction analysis of defective human T-cell leukemia virus type I proviral genomes in leukemic cells of patients with adult T-cell leukemia, J. Virol. 65 (10): 5471–5476 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 140.
    Kosaka, M., Lishi, Y., HoRiuchi, N., Nakao, K., OkagawA, K., Saito, S., Minami, Y., and Katoh, K., A cluster of human T-lymphotropic virus type-I carriers found in the southern district of Tokushima prefecture, Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol. 19: 30–35 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 141.
    Kramer, A., Jacobson, S., Reuben, J. F., Murphy, E. L., Wiktor, S. Z., Cranston, B., Figueroa, J. P., Hanchard, B., Mcfarlin, D., and Blattner, W. A., Spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation in symptom-free HTLV-I positive Jamaicans, Lancet 2: 923–924 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 142.
    Kuo, T.-T., Chan, H.-L., Su, I.-J., Eimoto, T., Maeda, Y., Kikuchi, M., Chen, M.-J., Kuan, Y.-Z., Chen, W.-J., Sun, C.-F., Shin, L.-Y., Chen, J.-S., and Takeshita, M., Serological survey of antibodies to the adult T-cell leukemia virus-associated antigen (HTLV-A) in Taiwan, Int. J. Cancer 36: 345–348 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 143.
    KuRimura, T., TsUchie, H., Kobayashi, S., Hinuma, Y., Imai, J., Lopez, C. B., Nitiyanant, P, Petchclai, B., Dominguez, C. E., Koiman, I., and Wurydaie, S., Sporadic cases of carriers of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 in southeast Asia, Jpn. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 39: 25–28 (1986).Google Scholar
  147. 144.
    Kushuhara, K., Sonoda, S., Takahashi, K., Tokugawa, K., Fukushigi, J., and Ueda, K., Mother-to-child transmission of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I): A fifteen year follow-up study in Okinawa, Japan, Int. J. Cancer 40: 755–757 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 145.
    Lagrenade, L., Hanchard, B., Fletcher, V., Cranston, B., and Blattner, W., Infective dermatitis of Jamaican children: A marker for HTLV-I infection, Lancet 336: 1345–1347 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 146.
    Lairmore, M. D., Jacobson, S., Gracia, F., DE, B. K., Castillo, L., Larreategui, M., Roberts, B. D., Levine, P. H., Blattner, W. A., and Kaplan, J. E., Isolation of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 from Guaymi indians in Panama, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87: 8840–8844 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 147.
    Lal, R. B., Heneine, W., Rudolph, D. L., Present, W. B., Hofhienz, D., Hartley, T. M., Khabbaz, R. F., and Kaplan, J. E., Synthetic peptide-based immunoassays for distinguishing between human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I and type II infections in seropositive individuals, J. Clin. Microbiol. 29 (10): 2253–2258 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 148.
    Lal, R. B., Owen, S. M., Segurado, A. A. C., and Gongorabiachi, R. A., Mother-to-child transmission of human T-lymphotropic virus type-II (HTLV-II), Ann. Intern. Med. 120 (4): 300–301 (1994).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 149.
    Lal, R. B., Lipka, J. J., Foung, S. K. H., Hadlock, K. G., Reyes, G. R., and Carney, W. P., Human T-lymphotropic virus type I/II in Lake Lindu Valley, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 6: 1067–1070 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 150.
    Lal, R. B., Giam, C.-Z., Coligan, J. E., and Rudolph, D. L., Differential immune responsiveness to the immunodominant epitopes of regulatory proteins (tax and rex) in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy, J. Infect. Dis. 169: 496–503 (1994).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 151.
    Lal, R. B., and Rudolph, D., Constitutive production of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-a from spontaneously proliferating T cells in patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I/1I, Blood 78 (3): 571–574 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 152.
    Lal, R. B., Rudolph, D., Buckner, C., Pardi, D., and Hooper, W. C., Infection with human T-lymphotropic viruses leads to constitutive expression of leukemia inhibitory factor and interleukin-6, Blood 81 (7): 1827–1832 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 153.
    Lavanchy, D., Bovet, P, Hollanda, J., Shamlaye, C. F., Burczak, J. D., and Lee, H., High seroprevalence of HTLV-I in the Seychelles, Lancet 337: 248–249 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 154.
    Lee, H. H., Swanson, P., and Rosenblatt, J. D., Relative prevalence and risk factors of HTLV-I and HTLV-II infection in U.S. blood donors, Lancet 337: 1435–1439 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 155.
    Lee, T. H., Coligan, J. E., Sodrowski, J. G., Haseltine, W. A., Salahuddin, S. Z., Wong-Staal, E, Gallo, R. C., and Essex, M., Antigens encoded by the 3’ terminal region of human T-cell leukemia virus: Evidence for a functional gene, Science 225: 5761 (1984).Google Scholar
  159. 156.
    Lee, T. H., Swanson, P., Shorty, V. S., Zack, J. A., Rosenblatt, J. D., and Chen, I. S., High rate of HTLV II infection in seropositive IV-drug abusers in New Orleans, Science 244: 471–475 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 157.
    Lee, S. Y., Yamaguchi, K., Takatsuki, K., Kim, B. K., Park, S. L., and Lee, M., Seroepidemiology of human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 in the Republic of Korea, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 77: 250–254 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 158.
    Lee, H. H., Weiss, S. H., Brown, L. S., Mild Var, D., Shorty, V., Saravolatz, L., Chu, A., Ginzburg, H. M., Markowitz, N., Desjarlais, D. C., Blattner, W. A., and Allain, J.-P, Patterns of Hiv-1 and HTLV-I/II in intravenous drug abusers from the middle atlantic and central regions of the USA, J. Infect. Dis. 162: 347–352 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 159.
    Levine, P. H., Blattner, W. A., Clark, J., Tarone, R., Maloney, E. M., Murphy, E. M., Gallo, R. C., Robert-Guroff, M., and Saxinger, W. C., Geographic distribution of HTLV 1 and identification of a new high-risk population, Ina. J. Cancer 42: 712 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 160.
    Levine, P. H., Jacobson, S., Elliott, R., Cavallero, A., Colclough, G., Dorry, C., Stephenson, C., Kniggie, R. M., Drummond, J., Nishimura, M., Taylor, M. E., Wiktor, S., and Shaw, G. M., HTLV-ll infection in Florida Indians, AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 9 (2): 123–127 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 161.
    Levine, P. H., Manns, A., Jai-1-E, E. S., Colclough, G., Cavallaro, A., Reddy, G., and Blattner, W. A., The effect of ethnic differences on the pattern of HTLV-I-associated T-cell leukemia/ lymphoma (Hatl) in the United States, Int. J. Cancer 56: 177–181 (1994).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 162.
    Lillehoj, E. P., Alexander, S. S., Dubrule, C. J., Wiktor, S., Adams, R., Tai, C.-C., Manns, A., and Blattner, W. A., Development and evaluation of an HTLV-I leukemia virus type-I serologic confirmatory assay incorporating a recombinant enve- lope polypeptide, J. Clin. Microbiol. 28 (12): 2653–2658 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 163.
    Lillo, F., Varnier, O. E., Sabbatani, S., Ferro, A., and Men-Dez, P., Detection of HTLV-I and not HTLV-II infection in Guinea Bissau (West Africa), J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 4: 541–542 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 164.
    Lipka, J. J., Santiago, P., Chan, L., Reyes, G. R., Samuel, K. P., Blattner, W. A., Shaw, G. M., Hanson, C. V., Sninsky, J. J., and Foung, S. K. H., Modified Western blot assay for confirmation and differentiation of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types I and II, J. Infect. Dis. 164: 400–403 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 165.
    Lipka, J. J., Miyoshi, I., Hadlock, K. G., Reyes, G. R., Chow, T. P., Blattner, W. A., Shaw, G. M., Hanson, C. V., Gallo, D., Chan, L., and Foung, S. K. H., Segregation of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I and II infections by antibody reactivity to unique viral epitopes, J. Infect. Dis. 165: 268–272 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 166.
    Loughran, T. P., JR., Coyle, T., Sherman, M. R, Starkebaum, G., Ehrlich, G. D., Ruscetti, F. W., and Poiesz, B. J., Detection of human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus, type II, in a patient with large granular lymphocyte leukemia, Blood 80 (5): 1116–1119 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 167.
    Macatonia, S. E., Cruickshank, J. K., Rudge, R, and Knight, S. C., Dendritic cells from patients with tropical spastic paraparesis are infected with HTLV-I and stimulate autologous lymphocytes proliferation, AIDS Hum. Res. Retroviruses 8: 1699–1706 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 168.
    Madeleine, M. M., Wiktov, S. Z., Goedert, J. J., Manns, A., Levine, P. H., Biggar, R. J., and Blattner, W. A., HTLV-I and HTLV-II world-wide distribution: Reanalysis of 4,832 immunoblot results, Int. J. Cancer 54: 255–260 (1993).Google Scholar
  172. 169.
    Maeda, Y., Furukawa, M., Takehara, Y., Yoshimura, K., Miyamoto, K., Matsuura, T., Morishima, Y., Tajima, K., Okochi, K., and Hinuma, Y., Prevalence of possible adult T-cell leukemia virus-carriers among volunteer blood donors in Japan: A nation-wide study, Int. J. Cancer 33: 717–720 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 170.
    Maloney, E. M., Biggar, R. J., Neel, J. V., Neel, J. V., Taylor, M. E., Hahn, B. H., Shaw, G. M., and Blattner, W. A., Endemic human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II infection among isolated Brazilian Amerindians, J. Infect. Dis. 166: 100–107 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 171.
    Mann, D. L., Desantis, P, Mark, G., Pfeifer, A., Newman, M., Gibbs, N., Popovic, M., Sarngadharan, M. G., Gallo, R., Clark, J., and Blattner, W., HTLV-I associated B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: Indirect role for retrovirus in leukemogenesis, Science 236: 1103–1106 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 172.
    Manns, A., Wilks, R. J., Murphy, E. L., Haynes, G., Figueroa, J. P., Barnett, M., Hanchard, B., and Blattner, W. A., A prospective study of transmission by transfusion of HTLV-I and risk factors associated with seroconversion, Int. J. Cancer 51: 886–891 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 173.
    Manns, A., Cleghorn, E R., Falk, R. T., Hanchard, B., Jaffe, E. S., Bartholomew, C., Hartge, P, Benichou, J., Blattner, W. A., and The HTLV Lymphoma Study Group, Role of HTLV-I in development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago, Lancet 342: 1447–1450 (1993).Google Scholar
  177. 174.
    Manns, A., Murphy, E. L., Wilks, R. J., Haynes, G., Figueroa, J. P., Hanchard, B., Palker, T. J., and Blattner, W. A., Early antibody profile during HTLV-I seroconversion, Lancet 337: 181–182 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 175.
    Marriott, S. J., Truruh, D., and Brady, J. N., Activation of interleukin-2 receptor alpha expression by extracellular HTLV-I Tax, protein: A potential role in HTLV-I pathogenesis, Oncogene 7: 1749–1755 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 176.
    Matsumoto, C., Mitsunaga, S., Oguchi, T., Mitomi, Y., Shimada, T., Ichikawa, A., Watanbe, J., and Nishioka, K., Detection of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus in an infected cell line and in peripheral mononuclear cells of blood donors by the nested double polymerase chain reaction method: Comparison with HTLV-I antibody test, J. Virol. 64: 5290–5294 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 177.
    Matsumura, M., Kushida, S., Ami, Y., Suga, T., Uchida, K., Kameyama, T., Terano, A., Inoue, Y., Shiraki, H., Okochi, K., Sato, H., and Miwa, M., Quantization of HTLV-I provirus among seropositive blood donors: Relation with antibody profile using synthetic peptide. Int. J. Cancer 55: 220–222 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 178.
    Matutes, E., Robinson, D., O’Brien, M., Haynes, B. F., Zola, H., and Catovsky, D., Candidate counterpart of Sezary cells and adult T-cell lymphoma-leukemia cells in normal peripheral blood: An ultrastructure study with the immunogold method and monoclonal antibodies, Leuk. Res. 7: 787–801 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 179.
    Matutes, E., Dalgleish, A. G., Weiss, R. A., Joseph, A. P., and Catovsky, D., Studies in healthy human T-cell leukemia/ lymphoma virus (HTLV-1) carriers form the Caribbean, Int. J. Cancer 38: 41–45 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 180.
    May, J. P., Stent, G., and Schnagl, R. D., Antibody to human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 in Australian Aborigines, Med. J. Aust. 149: 104 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 181.
    Merino, F., Robert-Guroff, M., Clark, J., Biondo-Bracho, M., Blattner, W., and Gallo, R. C., Natural antibodies to human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus in healthy Venezuelan populations, Int. J. Cancer. 34: 501–506 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 182.
    Meytes, D., Schochat, S., Lee, H., Nadel, G., Sidi, Y., Cerney, M., Swanson, R, Shaklai, M., Kilim, Y., Elgat, M., Chin, E., Danon, Y., and Rosenblatt, J. D., Serological and molecular survey for HTLV-I infection in a high-risk Middle Eastern group, Lancet 336: 1533–1535 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 183.
    Miller, G J, Pegram, S. M., Kirkwood, B. R., Beckles, G. L. A., Byam, N. T. A., Clayden, S. A., Kinlen, L. J., Chan, L. C., Carson, D. C., and Greaves, M. F., Ethnic composition, age and sex, together with location and standard of housing as determinants of HTLV-I infection in an urban Trinidadian community, Int. J. Cancer 38: 801–808 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 184.
    Miura, T., Fukunaga, T., Igarashi, T., Yamashito, M., Ido, E., Funahashi, S.-I., Ishida, T., Washio, K., Ueda, S., Hashimoto, K.-I., Yoshida, M., Osame, M., Singhal, B. S., Zaninovic, V., Cartier, L., Sonoda, S., Tajima, K., Ina, Y., Gojobori, T., and Hayami, M., Phylogenetic subtypes of human T-lymphotropic virus type I and their relations to the anthropological background, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 1124–1127 (1994).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 185.
    Miyazaki, K., Yamaguchi, K., Tohya, T., Ohba, T., Takatsuki, K., and Okamura, H., Human T-cell leukemia virus type I infection as an oncogenic and prognostic risk factor in cervical and vaginal carcinoma, Obstet. Gynecol. 77 (1): 107–110 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 186.
    Mochizuki, M., Watanabe, T., Yamaguchi, K., Takatsuki, K., Yoshimura, K., Shirao, M., Nakashima, S., Mori, S., Araki, S., and Miyata, N., HTLV-I uveitis: A distinct clinical entity cased by HTLV-I, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 83: 236–239 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 187.
    Morgan, O. ST. C., Rodgers-Johnson, P., Mora, C., and Chat, G., HTLV-1 and polymyositis in Jamaica, Lancet 2: 1184–1187 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 188.
    Morofuji-Hirata, M., Kajiyama, W., Nakashima, K., Noguchi, A., Hayashi, J., and Kashiwagi, S., Prevalence of antibody to human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I in Okinawa, Japan, after an interval of 9 years, Am. J. Epidemiol. 137: 43–48 (1993).Google Scholar
  192. 189.
    MosMann, T. R., and Moore, K. W., The role of IL-10 in crossregulation of TH1 and TH2 responses, Immunol. Today 12 (3): A49–53 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 190.
    Mueller, N., Tachibana, N., Stuver, S., Okayama, A., Shishime, E., Ishizaki, J., Murai, K., Shionu, S., and Tsuda, K., Epidemiologic perspectives of HTLV-I, in: Human Retrovirology: HTLV (W. A. Blattner, ED.), pp. 281–293, Raven Press, New York, 1990.Google Scholar
  194. 191.
    Mueller, N., The epidemiology of HTLV-I infection, Cancer Causes Control 2: 37–52 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 192.
    Mueller, N., Evans, A. S., and London, T., Viruses, in: Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, 2nd ed. (D. Schottenfeld and J. E Fraumeni, JR., Eds.), pp. 502–531, Oxford University Press, New York, 1996.Google Scholar
  196. 193.
    Murai, K., Tachibana, N., Shioiri, S., Shishine, E., Okayama, A., Ishizaki, J., Tsuda, K., and Mueller, N., Suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity to Ppd and Pha in elderly HTLV-1 carriers, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 3: 1006–1009 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 194.
    Murphy, E. L., Glans, W. N., Figueroa, J. G., Bain, B., LA Grenade, L., Cranston, B., and Blattner, W. A., Human immunodeficiency virus and human T-lymphotropic virus type I infection among homosexual men in Kingston, Jamaica, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 1: 143–149 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 195.
    Murphy, E. L., Figueroa, J. G., Gibbs, W. N., Holding-Cobham, M., Cranston, B., Malley, K., Brodner, A. J., Alexander, S. S., and Blattner, W. A., Human T-lympho-tropic virus type I (HTLV-I), seroprevalence in Jamaica: I. Demo- graphic determinants, Am. J. Epidemiol. 133: 1114–1124 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 196.
    Murphy, E. L., Figueroa, J. P., Gibbs, W. N., Brathwaite, A., Holding-Cobham, M., Waters, D., Cranston, B., Hanchard, B., and Blattner, W. A., Sexual transmission of human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I), Ann. Intern. Med. 111: 555–560 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 197.
    Murphy, E. L., Hanchard, B., Figueroa, J. P., Gibbs, W. N., Lofters, W. S., Campbell, M., Goedert, J. J., and Blattner, W. A., Modeling the risk of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in persons infected with human lymphotopic virus type 1, Int. J. Cancer 43: 250–253 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 198.
    Nakano, S., Ando, Y., Icxno, M., ET AL, Search for possible route of vertical and horizontal transmission of adult T-cell leukemia virus, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 75: 1044–1045 (1984).Google Scholar
  202. 199.
    Newton, R. C., Limpuangthip, P., Greenberg, S., Gam, A., and Neva, E A., Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection in a carrier of HTLV-I virus with evidence of selective immunosuppression, Am. J. Med. 92: 202–208 (1992).Google Scholar
  203. 200.
    Nimer, S. D., Gasson, J. C., Hu, K., Smalberg, I., Williams, J. L., Chen, I. S. Y., and Rosenblatt, J. D., Activation of the GM-Csf promoter by HTLV-I and -II tax proteins, Oncogene 4: 671–676 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 201.
    Noda, Y., Ishikawa, K.-I., Sasagawa, A., Homo, S., Mori, S., Tsujimoto, H., and Hayami, M., Hematologic abnormalities similar to the preleukemic state of adult T-cell leukemia in African green monkeys naturally infected with simian T-cell leukemia virus, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 77: 1227–1234 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 202.
    Oguma, S., Imamura, Y., Kusumoto, Y., Nishimura, Y., Yamaguchi, K., Takatsuki, K., Tokudome, S., and Okuma, M., Accelerated declining tendency of human T-cell leukemia virus type I carrier rates among younger blood donors in Kumamoto, Japan, Cancer Res. 52: 2620–2623 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 203.
    Ohshima, K., Kikuchi, M., Masuda, Y.-I., Kobari, S., Sumiyoshi, Y., Eguchi, E, Montai, H., Yoshida, T., Takeshita, M., and Kimura, N., Defective provirus form of human T-cell leukemia virus type I in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma: Clinicopathological features, Cancer Res. 51: 4639–4642 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 204.
    Okochi, K., Sato, H., and Hinuma, Y., A retrospective study on transmission of adult T-cell leukemia virus by blood transfusion: Seroconversion in recipients, Vox Sang. 46: 245–253 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 205.
    Osame, M., Usuku, K., Izumo, S., ET AL, HTLV-1 associated myelopathy, a new clinical entity, Lancet 1: 1031–1032 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 206.
    Osame, M., Izumo, S., Igata, A., Matsumoto, M., Matsumoto, T., Sonoda, S., Mitsutoshi, T., and Yoshisada, S., Blood transfusion and HTLV-1 associated myelopathy, Lancet 2: 104–105 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 207.
    Osame, M., Janssen, R., Kubota, H., Nishitani, H., Igata, A., Nagataki, S., Mori, M., GoTO, I., Shimabukuro, H., Khabbaz, R., and Kaplan, J., Nationwide survey of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis in Japan: Association with blood transfusion, Ann. Neurol. 28: 50–59 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 208.
    Osame, M., and Igata, A., The history of discovery and clinicoepidemiology of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (Ham), Jpn. J. Med. 28: 412–414 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 209.
    Osame, M., Igata, A., Usuku, K., Rosales, R. I., and Matsumoto, M., Mother-to-child transmission in HTLV-1 associated myelopathy, Lancet 1: 106 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 210.
    Ouattara, S. A., Gody, M., and DE-THÉ, G., Prevalence of HTLV-1 compared to Hiv-1 and Hiv-2 antibodies in different groups in the Ivory Coast (west Africa), J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 2: 481–485 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 211.
    Parks, W. P., Loves, B. A., Tomasulo, P. A., Schiff, E. R., Parks, E. S., Shaw, G. M., Lee, H., Yan, H.-Q., Lai, S., Hollingsworth, C. G., Nemo, G. J., and Mosley, J. W., The Transfusion Safety Study Group, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 4: 89–96 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 212.
    Powsz, B. J., Ruscetti, E W., Gazdar, A. E, Bunn, P. A., Minna, J. D., and Gallo, R. C., Detection and isolation of type-C retrovirus particles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 7415–7419 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 213.
    Popovic, M., Flomenberg, N., Volkman, D., Alteration of T-cell functions by infection with HTLV-1 or HTLV-II, Science 226: 459–462 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 214.
    Proiette, E, Viahov, D., Alexander, S., Taylor, E., Kirby, A., and Blattner, W. A., Correlates of HTLV-II/Hiv-1 seroprevalence and incidence of HTLV-II infection among intravenous drug users, Int. Conf AIDS July 19–24: 2 (1992).Google Scholar
  218. 215.
    Rauscher, E J., and O’Connor, T. E., Virology, in: Cancer Medicine (J. E Hollard and E. Frei, Iii, Ens.), Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1973.Google Scholar
  219. 216.
    Reeves, W. C., Levine, P. H., Cuevas, M., Quiroz, E., Maloney, E. M., and Saxinger, C. W., Seroepidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus in the Republic of Panama, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 42 (4): 374–379 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 217.
    Reidel, D. A., Evans, A. S., Saxinger, C., and Blattner, W. A., A historical study of human T lymphotropic virus type I transmission in Barbados, J. Infect. Dis. 159: 603–609 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 218.
    Robert-Guroff, M., Weiss, S. H., Giron, J. A., Jennings, A. M., Ginzburg, H. M., Margolis, I. B., Blattner, W. A., and Gallo, R. C., Prevalence of antibodies to HTLV-I, -II, and -Iii in intravenous drug abusers from an AIDS endemic region, J.A.M.A. 255 (22): 3133–3137 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 219.
    Robert-Guroff, M., Kalyanataman, V. S., Blattner, W. A., Popovic, M., Sarngadharan, M. G., Maeda, M., Blayney, D., Catovsky, D., Bunn, P. A., Shibata, A., Nakao, Y., Ito, Y., Aoki, T., and Gallo, R. C., Evidence for human T-cell lymphoma-leukemia virus infection in family members of human T-cell lymphoma-leukemia positive T-cell leukemia-lymphoma patients, J. Exp. Med. 157: 248–258 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 220.
    Roberts, B. D., FouNG, S. K. H., Lipka, J. J., Kaplan, J. E., Hadlock, K. G., Reyes, G. R., Chan, L., Heneine, W., and Khabbaz, R. F., Evaluation of an immunoblot assay for serological confirmation and differentiation of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types I and II, J. Clin. Microbiol. 31 (2): 260–264 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 221.
    Roman, G., and Osame, M., Identity of HTLV-I-associated tropical spastic paraparesis and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, Lancet 1: 651 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 222.
    Roman, G. C.,-Roman, L. N., Spencer, P. S., and Schoenberg, B. S., Tropical spastic paraparesis: A neuroepidemiological study in Colombia, Ann. Neurol. 17: 361–365 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 223.
    Roongpisuthipong, A., Suphanit, I., Yamaguchi, K., Nakamitsu, M., and Yoshiki, K., Very low seroprevalence of HTLV-I in patients with gynecologic disorders in Thailand, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 5: 1066–1067 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 224.
    Rosenblatt, J. D., Giorgi, J. V., Golde, D. W., Ezra, J. B., Wu, A., Winberg, C. D., Glaspy, J., Wachsman, W., and Chen, I. S. Y., Integrated human T-cell leukemia virus II genome in CD8+ T cells from a patient with “atypical” hairy cell leukemia: Evidence for distinct T and B cell lymphoproliferative disorders, Blood 71 (2): 363–369 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 225.
    Rosenblatt, J. D., Gasson, J. C., Glaspy, J., ET AL, Relationship between human T-cell leukemia virus-II and atypical hairy cell leukemia: Serologic study of hairy cell leukemia patients, Leukemia 1 (4): 397–401 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 226.
    Rosenblatt, J. D., Golde, D. W., Wachsman, W., Giorgi, J. V., Jacobs, A., Schmidt, G. M., Quan, S., Gasson, J. C., and Chen, I. S. Y., A second isolate of HTLV II associated with atypical hairy cell leukemia, N. Engl. J. Med. 315: 372–377 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 227.
    Sakashita, A., Hattori, T., Miller, C. W., Suzushima, H., Asou, N., Takatsuki, K., and Koeffler, H. P., Mutations of the p53 gene in adult T-cell leukemia, Blood 79 (2): 477–480 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 228.
    Saksena, N. K., Sherman, M. P., Yanagihara, R., Dube, D. K., and Poiesz, B. P., Ltr sequence and phylogenetic analyses of a newly discovered variant of HTLV-I isolated from the Hagahai of Papua New Guinea, Virology 189: 1–9 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 229.
    Salahuddin, S. Z., Markham, P. D., Popovic, M., Sarngadharan, M. G., Orndorff, S., Fladagar, A., Patel, A., Gold, J., and Gallo, R. C., Isolation of infectious human T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type Iii (HTLV Iii) from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex (Arc) and from healthy carriers: A study of risk groups and tissue sources, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82: 5530–5534 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 230.
    Sanders, R. C., Mai’IN, P. M., Alexander, S. S., Levin, A. G., Blattner, W. A., and Alpers, M. P., The prevalence of antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus type I in different population groups in Papua New Guinea, Arch. Virol. 130: 327–334 (1993).Google Scholar
  234. 231.
    Sato, K., Maruyama, I., Maruyama, Y., Kitajima, I., Nakajima, Y., Higaki, M., Yamamoto, K., Miyasaka, N., Osame, M., and Nishioka, K., Arthritis in patients infected with human T lymphotropic virus type I: Clinical and immunopathologic features, Arthritis Rheum. 34 (6): 714–721 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 232.
    Sawada, T., Tohmatsu, J., Obara, T., Koide, A., Kamihira, S., Ichimaru, M., Kashwagi, S., Kajiyama, W., Matsumura, N., Kinoshita, K., Yano, M., Yamaguchi, K., Kiyokawa, T., Takatsuki, K., Taguchi, H., and Miyoshi, I., High-risk of motherto-child transmission of HTLV-1 in p4Otax antibody-negative mothers, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 80: 506–508 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 233.
    Sawada, T., Iwahara, Y., Ishii, K., Taguchi, H., Hoshino, H., and Miyoshi, I., Immunoglobulin prophylaxis against milk-borne transmission of human T-cell leukemia virus type I in rabbits, J. Infect. Dis. 164: 1193–1196 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 234.
    Seiki, M., Hattori, S., Hirayama, Y., and Yoshida, M., Human adult T-cell leukemia virus: Complete nucleotide sequence of the provirus genome integrated in leukemia cell Dna, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 3618–3622 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 235.
    Shimotohno, K., Takahashi, Y., Shimizu, N., Takano, M., Miwa, M., Sugimura, T., Nucleotide sequence analysis of human T-cell leukemia virus type II, in: Retroviruses in Human Lymphoma/Leukemia (M. Miwa ET AL., Eds.), pp. 165–175, TokyoNnu Science Press, Ultrecht, 1985.Google Scholar
  239. 236.
    Shimoyama, M., and The Lymphoma Study Group (1984–87), Diagnostic criteria and classification of clinical subtypes of adult T-cell leukaemia-lymphoma, Br. J. Haematol. 79: 428–437 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 237.
    Shioiri, S., Tachibana, N., Okayama, A., Ishihara, S., Tsuda, K., Essex, M., Stuver, S. O., and Mueller, N., Analysis of anti-tax antibody of HTLV-I carriers in an endemic area in Japan, Int. J. Cancer 53: 1–4 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 238.
    Shirakawa, F., Tanaka, Y., Oda, S., Chiba, S., Suzuki, H., Eto, S., and Yamashita, U., Immunosuppressive factors from adult T-cell leukemia cells, Cancer Res. 46: 4458–4462 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 239.
    Sidi, Y., Meytes, D., Shohat, B., Fenigi, E., Weisbort, Y., Lee, H., Pinkhas, J., and Rosenblatt, J. D., Adult T-cell lymphoma in Israeli patients of Iranian origin, Cancer 65: 590–593 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 240.
    Sodoroski, J. G., Rosen, C. A., and Haseltine, W. A., Transacting transcriptional activation of the long terminal repeat of human T-lymphotropic viruses in infected cells, Science 225: 381–385 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 241.
    Sonoda, S., Yashiki, S., Fujiyoshi, T., Arima, N., Tanaka, H., IzuMo, S., and Osame, M., Ethnically defined immunogenetic factors involved in the pathogenesis of HTLV-I associated diseases, Bio Bull. 5: 79–88 (1993).Google Scholar
  245. 242.
    Stuver, S. O., Tachibana, N., Okayama, A., Shioiri, S., Tsunetoshi, Y., Tsuda, K., and Mueller, N., Heterosexual transmission of human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I among married couples in South-western Japan: An initial report from the Miyazaki Cohort Study, J. Infect. Dis. 167: 57–65 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 243.
    Stuver, S. O., Tachibana, N., and Mueller, N., A casecontrol study of factors associated with HTLV-I infection in southern Miyazaki, Japan, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 84: 867–872 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 244.
    Stuver, S. O., Tachibana, N., Okayama, A., Romano, E, Yokota, T., and Mueller, N., Determinants of HTLV-I seroprevalence in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan: A cross-sectional study, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 5: 12–18 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 245.
    Sugimoto, M., Nakashima, H., Watanabe, S., Uyama, E., Tanaka, F., Ando, M., and Araki, S., T-lymphocyte aveolitis in HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (letter), Lancet 2: 1220 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 246.
    Sullivan, M. T., Williams, A. E., Fang, C. T., Grandinetti, T., Poiesz, B. J., and Ehrlich, G. D., Transmission of human T-lymphotropic virus type I and II by blood transfusion: A retrospective study of recipients of blood components (1983 through 1988), Arch. Intern. Med. 151: 2043–2048 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 247.
    Tachibana, N., Okayama, A., Ishizaki, J., Yokota, T., Shishime, E., Murai, K., Shioiri, S., Tsuda, K., Essex, M., and Mueller, N., Suppression of tuberculin skin reaction in healthy HTLV-I carriers from Japan, Int. J. Cancer 42: 829–831 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 248.
    Tachibana, N. Okayama, A., Ishihara, S., Shiori, S., Murai, K., Tsuda, K., Goya, N., Matsuo, Y, Essex, M., Stuver, S., and Mueller, N., High HTLV-I proviral Dna level associated with abnormal lymphocytes in peripheral blood from asymptomatic carriers, Int. J. Cancer 51: 593–595 (1992).Google Scholar
  252. 249.
    Taguchi, H., Kobayashi, M., and Miyoshi, I., Immunosuppression by HTLV-I infection, Lancet 337: 308 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 250.
    Tajima, K., and Hinuma, Y., Epidemiological features of adult T-cell leukemia virus, in: Pathophysicological Aspects of Cancer Epidemiology (G. Mathe and P. Rizenstein, Eds.), pp. 75–87, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1984.Google Scholar
  254. 251.
    Tajima, K., Tominago, S., Suchi, T., ET AL, Epidemiological analysis of the distribution of antibody to adult T-cell leukemiavirus-associated antigen: Possible horizontal transmission of adult T-cell leukemia virus, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 73: 893–901 (1982).Google Scholar
  255. 252.
    Tajima, K., Tominago, S., Suchi, T., Fukui, K., Komoda, H., and Hinuma, Y., HTLV-I carriers among migrants from an Atlendemic area to All non-endemic metropolitan areas in Japan, Int. J. Cancer 37: 383–387 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 253.
    Tajima, K., Kamura, S., ITo, S-I., ITo, M., Nagatama, M., Kinoshita, K., and Iked, S., Epidemiological features of Htlvi carriers and incidence of Atl in an Atl-endemic island: A report of the community-based cooperative study in Tsushima, Japan, Int. J. Cancer 40: 741–746 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 254.
    Tajima, K., ITo, S.-I., and Tsushima and The Atl Study Group, Prospective studies of HTLV-1 and associated disease in Japan, in: Human Retrovirology: HTLV (W. A. Blattner, ED.), pp. 267–280, Raven Press, New York, 1990.Google Scholar
  258. 255.
    Taiima, K., The T- and B-Cell Malignancy Study Group, and Coauthors OF The Fourth Nationwide Study OF Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (Atl) IN Japan, Estimates of risk of Atl and its geographical and clinical features, Int. J. Cancer 45: 237–243 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 256.
    Takahashi, K., Takezaki, T., Oki, T., Kawakami, K., Yashiki, S., Fujiyoshi, T., Usuku, K., and Mueller, N., Inhibitory effect of maternal antibody on mother-to-child transmission of human T-lymphotropic virus type I, Int. J. Cancer 49: 673–677 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 257.
    Takatsuki, K., Uchiyama, T., Sagawa, K., and Yodoi, J., Adult T-cell leukemia in Japan, in: Topics in Hematology (S. Seno, F. Takaku, and S. Irino, Eds.), pp. 73–77, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 1977.Google Scholar
  261. 258.
    Takayanagui, O. M., Cantos, J. L. S., and Jardim, E., Tropical spastic paraparesis in Brazil, Lancet 337: 309 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 259.
    Tanaka, Y., Shirakawa, F., Oda, S., Chiba, S., Suzuki, H., Eto, S., and Yamashita, U., Effects of immunosuppressive factors produced by adult T cell leukemia cells on B cell responses, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 78: 1390–1399 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 260.
    Teich, N., Taxonomy of retroviruses, in: Molecular Biology of Tumor Viruses: RNA Tumor Viruses (R. Weiss, N. Teich, H., Varmus and J. Coffin, Eds.), pp. 25–208, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, 1984.Google Scholar
  264. 261.
    Temin, H. M., and Mizutani, S., Rna-dependent Dna polymerase in virions of Rous sarcoma virus, Nature 226: 1211–1213 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 262.
    The T- and B-Cell Malignancy Study Group, Statistical analysis of immunologic, clinical and histopathologic data on lymphoid malignancies in Japan, Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol. 11: 15–38 (1981).Google Scholar
  266. 263.
    The T- and B-Cell Malignancy Study Group, Statistical analyses of clinicopathological, virological and epidemiological data on lymphoid malignancies with special reference to adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma: A report of the second nationwide study of Japan, Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol. 15: 517–535 (1985).Google Scholar
  267. 264.
    The T- and B-Malignancy Study Group, The third natiowide study on adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (Atl) in Japan: Characteristic patterns of Hla antigens and HTLV-I infection in Atl patients and their relatives, Int. J. Cancer 41: 505–512 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 265.
    Tokudome, S., Tokunaga, O., Shimamoto, Y., Miyamoto, Y., Sumida, I., Kikuchi, M., Takeshita, M., Ikeda, T., Fujiwara, K., Yoshihara, M., Yanagawa, T., and Nishizumi, M., Incidence of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma among human T-lymphotropic virus type I carriers in Saga, Japan, Cancer Res. 49: 226–228 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 266.
    Tomonaga, M., Ikeda, S., Kinosita, K., Momita, S., Kamihira, S., Kanda, N., ITo, M., ITo, S., Nakata, K., Kinoshita, H., Shimotohno, K., and Oshibuchi, T., The prevalence rate of monoclonal proliferation of HTLV-I infected T-lymphocytes (Hcmpt) among HTLV-I carriers [Abstract], Proceedings from the Fifth International Conference on Human Retrovirology; HTLV, Kumamoto, Japan, 1992.Google Scholar
  270. 267.
    Trujillo, J. M., Concha, M., Munoz, A., Bergonzoli, G., Mora, C., Borrero, I., Gibbs, C. J., JR., and Arango, C., Seroprevalence and cofactors of HTLV-I infection in Tumaco, Colombia, AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 8: 651–657 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 268.
    Tschachler, E., BÖHnlein, E., Felzmann, S., and Reitz, JR., M. S., Human T-lymphocyte virus type I tax regulates the expres- sion of the human lymphotoxin gene, Blood 81: 95–100 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 269.
    Ueda, K., Kusuhara, K., Tokugawa, K., Miyazaki, C., Yoshida, C., Tokumura, K., Sonoda, S., and Takahashi, K., Cohort effect on HTLV-I seroprevalence in southern Japan, Lancet 2: 1337 (1989).Google Scholar
  273. 270.
    Uematsu, T., Hanada, S., Nomura, K., ET AL, The incidence of anti-Atla (antibodies to adult T-cell leukemia-associated antigen) among hemodialysis patients in the Kagoshima district with specific reference to blood transfusions, J. Jpn. Soc. Dial. Ther. 19: 757–762 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 271.
    Uno, H., Kawano, K., Matsuoka, H., and Tsuda K., Hla and adult T-cell leukaemia: Hla-linked genes controlling susceptibility to human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 71: 211–215 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 272.
    Usuku, K., Sonada, S., Osame, M., Yashiki, S., Takahashi, K., Matsumoto, M., Sawada, T., Tsuji, K., Tara, M., and Igata, A., Hla haplotype-linked high immune responsiveness against HTLV-I in HTLV-I-associated myelopathy: Comparison with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, Ann. Neurol. 23 (Suppl.): S143 - S150 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 273.
    Vallejo, A., and Garcia-Saiz, A., Isolation and nucleotide sequence analysis of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II in Spain, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 7 (5): 517–518 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 274.
    Varmus, H., Retroviruses, Science 244: 1427–1435 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 275.
    Verdier, M., Denis, F., Sangare, A., ET AL, Prevalence of antibody to human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) in populations of Ivory Coast, west Africa, J. Infect. Dis. 160: 363–370 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. 276.
    Vitek, C. R., Gracia, E, Giusti, R., Fukuda, K., Groen, D. B., Castillo, L. L., Armien, B., Khabbaz, R. F., Levine, P. H., and Kaplan, J. E., Evidence for sexual and mother-to-child transmission for HTLV-II among Guaymi Indians, Panama, J. Infect. Dis. 171: 1022–1026 (1995).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 277.
    Vlahov, D., Khabbaz, R., Corn, S., Galai, N., Taylor, E., and Kaplan, J., Risk factors for HTLV-II seroconversion among injecting drug users in Baltimore, AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 10 (4): 448 (1994).Google Scholar
  281. 278.
    Watanabe, T., Yamaguchi, K., Takatsuki, K., Osame, M., and YosHida, M., Constitutive expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PthrP) gene in HTLV-I carriers and adult T-cell leukemia patients which can be trans-activated by HTLV-I tax gene, J. Exp. Med. 172: 759–765 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 279.
    Weiss, S. H., Laboratory detection of human retroviral infection, in: AIDS and Other Manifestations of HIV Infection, 2nd ed. (G. P. Wormser, ED.), pp. 95–116, Raven Press, New York, 1992.Google Scholar
  283. 280.
    Welles, S. L., Levine, P. H., Joseph, E. M., Goberdhan, L. J., Lee, S., Miotti, A., Cervantes, J., Bertoni, M., Jaffe, E., and DosIK, H., An enhanced surveillance program for adult T-cell leukemia in central Brooklyn, Leukemia 8: S111–115 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 280a.
    Welles, S. L., Tachibana, N., Okayama, A., Shioiri, S., Ishihara, S., Murai, K., and Mueller, N. E., Decreased reactivity to Ppd among HTLV-I carriers in relation to virus and hematologic status. Int. J. Cancer 56: 337–340 (1994).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 281.
    Wiktor, S. Z., Pate, E. J., Murphy, E. L., Palker, T. J., Champegnie, E., Ramlal, A., Cranston, B., Hanchard, B., and Blattner, W. A., Mother-child transmission of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) in Jamaica: Association with antibodies to envelope glycoprotein (gp46) epitopes, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 6: 1162–1167 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 282.
    Wiktor, S. Z., Alexander, S. S., Shaw, G. M., Weiss, S., Murphy, E. S., Wilks, R. J., Shorty, V. J., Hanchard, B., and Blattner, W. A., Distinguishing between HTLV-I and HTLV-II by Western blot, Lancet 335: 1533 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. 283.
    Wiktor, S. Z., Jacobson, S., Weiss, S. H., Mcfarlin, D. E., Jacobson, S., Shaw, G. M., Shorty, V. J., and Blattner, W. A., Spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation in HTLV-II infection, Lancet 337: 327–328 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. 284.
    Williams, A. E., Fang, C. T., Slamon, D. J., Poiesz, B. J., Sandler, G., Darr II, W. F., Shulman, G., Mcgowan, E. I., Douglas, D. K., Bowman, R. J., Peetoom, F., Kleinman, S. H., Lenes, B., and Dodd, R. Y., Seroprevalence and epidemiological correlates of HTLV-I infection in U.S. blood donors, Science 240: 643–646 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 285.
    Yamaguchi, K., Nishima, H., Kohrogi, H., Jono, M., Miyamoto, Y., and Takatsuki, K., A proposal for smoldering adult T-cell leukemia: A clinicopathologic study of five cases, Blood 62: 758–766 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 286.
    Yamaguchi, K., Kiyokawa, T., Nakada, K., Yul, L. S., Asou, N., IsHm, T., Sanada, I., Suki, M., Yoshida, M., Matutsi, E., Catovsky, D., and Takasuki, K., Polyclonal integration of HTLV-I proviral Dna in lymphocytes from HTLV-I seropositive individuals: An intermediate state between the healthy carrier state and smouldering Atl, Br. J. Haem. 68: 169–174 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 287.
    Yanagihara, R., Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I infection and disease in the Pacific basin, Hum. Biol. 64: 843–854 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 288.
    Yanagihara, R., Jenkins, C. L., Alexander, S. S., Mora, C. A., and Garruto, R. M., Human T-lymphotropic virus type I infection in Papua, New Guinea: High prevalence among the Hagahai confirmed by Western analysis, J. Infect. Dis. 162: 649–654 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 289.
    Yanagihara, R., Ajdukiewicz, A. B., Garruto, R. M., Shar Low, E. R., WU, X. Y., Alemaena, O., Sale, H., Alexander, S. S., and Gajdusek, D. C.,Human T-lymphotropic virus type I infection in the Solomon Islands, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 44: 122–130 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. 290.
    Yoshida, M., Osame, M., Usuku, K., Matsumoto, M., and Igata, A., Viruses detected in HTLV-1 associated myelopathy and adult T-cell leukemia are identical on Dna blotting, Lancet 1: 1085–1086 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 291.
    Yoshida, M., Seiki, M., Yamaguchi, K., and Takatsuki, K., Monoclonal integration of human T-cell leukemia provirus in all primary tumors of adult T-cell leukemia suggests causative role of human T-cell leukemia virus in the disease, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 2534–2537 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. 292.
    Yoshida, M., Miyoshi, I., and Hinuma, Y., Isolation and characterization of retrovirus from all lines of human adult T-cell leukemia and its implication in disease, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 2031–2035 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 293.
    Yoshida, M., and Fujisawa, T.-I., Positive and negative regulation of HTLV-I gene expression and their roles in leukemogenesis in Atl, in: Advances in Adult T-cell Leukemia and HTLV-I Research (K. Takatsuki, Y. Hinuma, and M. Yoshida, Eds.), pp. 217–235, Gann Monograph on Cancer Research No. 39, Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo, and Crc Press, Boca Raton, 1992.Google Scholar
  298. 294.
    Zanindvic, V., Sanzon, F., Lopez, F., Velandia, G., Blank, A., Blank, M., Fujiyama, C., Yashiki, S., Matsumoto, D., Katahira, Y., Miyashita, H., Fujiyoshi, T., Chan, L., Sawada, T., Miura, T., Hatami, M., Tajima, K., and Sonoda, S., Geographic independence of HTLV-I and HTLV-II foci in the Andes Highland, the Atlantic coast, and the Orinoco of Colombia, AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 10 (1): 97–101 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. 295.
    Zella, D., Mori, L., Sala, M., Ferrante, P., Casoli, C., Magnani, G., Achilli, G., Cattaneo, E., Lori, F., and Bertazzone, U., HTLV-II infection in Italian drug abusers, Lancet 336: 575–576 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. 296.
    Zeng, Y., Lan, X. Y., Fang, J., Wang, P. Z., Wang, Y. R., Sui, Y. F., Wang, Z. T., HU, R. J., and Hinuma, Y., HTLV antibody in China, Lancet 1: 799–800 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. 297.
    Cker-Franklin, D., Hooper, W. C., and Evatt, B. L., Human lymphotropic retroviruses associated with mycosis fungoides: Evidence that human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) as well as HTLV-I may play a role in the disease, Blood 80 (6): 1537–1545 (1992).Google Scholar
  302. 298.
    Zucker-Franklin, D., Huang, Y. Q., Grusky, G. E., and Friedman-Kien, A. E., Kaposi’s sarcoma in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient with asymptomatic human T-lymphotropic virus type I infection, J. Infect. Dis. 167: 987–989 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Suggested Reading

  1. Fields, B. N., Knipe, D. M., and Howley, P. M. (Eds.), Fields Virology, 3rd ed., Chapter 59, Raven Press, New York, 1995.Google Scholar
  2. Gessain, A., and Gour, O., Chronic myelopathy association with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I), Ann. Intern. Med. 117: 933–946 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Takasuki, K., Hinuma, Y., and Yoshida, M., Advances in Adult T-cell Leukemia and HTLV-I Research, Gann Monograph on Cancer Research No. 39, Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo, Crc Press, Boca Raton, 1992.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nancy E. Mueller
    • 1
  • William A. Blattner
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of EpidemiologyHarvard School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  2. 2.Medical Biotechnology CenterInstitute of Human Virology, University of MarylandBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations