Tumor Necrosis Factor Gene Polymorphisms in Thymoma and Non-Thymoma Myasthenia Gravis

  • M. M. Lino
  • G. Zelano
  • A. P. Batocchi
  • A. Evoli
  • P. Tonali


Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease. Clinical symptons include muscle weakness after repeated exercise and diurnal fluctuations of the symptoms. Laboratory examinations generally reveal frequent occurrence of thymic hyperplasia or thymoma, precence of antiacetylcholine receptor antibodies and waning phenomenon on electromyographic examination.


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Tumor Necrosis Factor Major Histocompatibility Complex Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Major Histocompatibility Complex Allele 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    M.A. Degli-Esposti, A. Andreas, F. Christiansen, B. Schalke, E. Albert, R. Dawkins: An approach to the localization of the susceptibility genes for generalized myasthenia gravis by mapping recombinant ancestral haplotypes. Immunogenetics 1992, 35:355–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. Webb, D. Chaplin: Genetic variability at human tumor necrosis factor loci. The journal of immunology 1990, 145:1278–1285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    R.L. Dawkins, A. Leaver, P.U. Cameron, E. Martin, P.H. Kay, F.T. Christiansen: Some disease-associated ancestral haplotypes carry a Polymorphism of TNF. Human Immunology 1989, 26:91–974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    F. Pociot, L. Briant, C.V. Jongeneel, J. Molvig, H. Worsaae, M. Abbal, M. Thomsen, J. Nerup, A. Cambon-Thomsen: Association of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and class II major histocompatibility complex alleles with the secretion of TNF-α and TNF-β by human mononuclear cells: a possible link to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Eur. J. Immunol. 1993, 23:224–231.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    F. Pociot, J. Molvig, L. Wogensen, H. Worsaae, H. Dalboge, L. Baek, J. Nerup: A Tumor necrosis factor beta gene polymorphism in relation to monokine secretion and Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Scand. J. Immunol. 1991, 33:37–49.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M.P. Bettinotti K. Hartung, H. Deicher, G. Messer, E. Keller, E. H. Weiss, E. D. Albert: Polymorphism of the tumor necrosis factor beta gene in systemic lupus erythematosus: TNFB-MHC haplotypes. Immunogenetics 1993, 37:449–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    K. Badenhoop, G. Schawarz, H. Schleusener, A.P. Weetman, S. Recks, H. Peters, G.F. Bottazzo, K.H. Usadel: Tumor Necrosis Factor beta gene polymorphisms in Graves’ disease. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 1992, 74:287–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M.R. Tola, L.M. Caniatti, I. Casetta, E. Granieri, C. Conoghi, R. Quatrale, V.C. Monetti, E. Paolino, V. Govoni, R. Pascarella, M. Carreras: Immunogenetic heterogeneity and associated autoimmune disorders in myastenia gravis: a population-based survey in the province of Ferrara, northern Italy. Acta Neurol Scand 1994, 90:313–323.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    S.H. Chan C.B. Tan, Y.N. Lin, G.B. Wee, M.A. Degli Esposti, R.L. Dawkins: HLA and Singaporean Chinese Myasthenia gravis Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1993, 101:119–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Messer G., U. Splengler, M.C. Jung, G. Honold, K. Blomer, G.R. Pape, G. Riethmuller, E.H. Weiss: Polymorphic structure of TNF locus: A Ncol polymorphism in the first intron of the human TNF-β gene correlates with a variant amino acid in position 26 and reduced level of TNF-β production. J Exp Med. 1991; 173:209–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Messer G., Spengler U., Jung M.C, Honold G., Eisenburg J., Sholz S., Albert E.D., Pape G.R., Riethmuller G., Weiss E.H.: Allelicvariation in the TNF beta gene does not explain the low TNF beta response in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Scand J Immunol. 1991, 34: 735–740.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hashimoto S., McCombs CC, Michalski J.P.: Mechanism of a lymphocyte abnormality associated with HLA B8-DR3 in clinically healthy individuals. Clin Exp Immunol. 1989, 76:317–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ambider JM, Chiorazzi N, Gibofsky A. Fotino M., Kunkel H.G: Special characteristics of cellular immune function in normal individuals of the HLA-DR3 type. Clin. Immunol Immunopathol. 1982, 23:269–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. M. Lino
    • 1
  • G. Zelano
    • 2
  • A. P. Batocchi
    • 1
  • A. Evoli
    • 1
  • P. Tonali
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of NeurologyCatholic University of RomeRomaItaly
  2. 2.Institute of AnatomyCatholic University of RomeRomaItaly

Personalised recommendations