First-Class Functions

  • Ivor Horton
  • Peter Van Weert


The term does have a somewhat similar origin. In the 1960s, Christopher Strachey (the same computer language pioneer who first formalized the concepts of lvalues and rvalues, by the way) coined the term when he labeled procedures (functions) as second-class citizens in the programming language ALGOL: “They always have to appear in person and can never be represented by a variable or expression….”

Copyright information

© Ivor Horton and Peter Van Weert 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ivor Horton
    • 1
  • Peter Van Weert
    • 2
  1. 1.Stratford-upon-AvonUK
  2. 2.Kessel-LoBelgium

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