Cause and Effect

Storks and Birth Rates
  • Peter Kenny


We human beings seem to have an inbuilt desire to seek out relationships between different observed effects, and deduce a cause-and-effect association. I suppose that survival depends to some extent on recognizing relationships and assuming that one effect causes another. As youngsters we learn of danger by relating climbing to the risk of falling. Crossing the road without looking is related to the possibility of being struck by a vehicle, and so on. However, we are inclined to imagine relationships where none exist, and, worse still, to imagine that these relationships imply cause and effect. The extreme situation is in the area of superstition: a remarkably high percentage of the population avoid the number thirteen or carry lucky charms. Astrology, which claims that events in our lives are affected by the positions of the planets, has a large following.


Causal Relationship Southern Hemisphere Observe Effect Extreme Situation Reasonable Doubt 
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Copyright information

© Peter Kenny 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Kenny
    • 1
  1. 1.StaffordshireUK

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