Communication is a much more far-reaching term than language, even though one of the functions, if not the main function, of language is societal communication. In Study 9 I show how the ethologist Schleich (1973, 1995) explored a specific type of biological communication, which he called tonic. This term refers to the function that Schleidt ascribed to tonic communication, namely the establishment and maintenance of stable social bonds. On the basis of examples from birds and mammals, the ethologist speculated on the origin of human language in relation to characteristic human bonds.
KeywordsSocial Bond Human Language Nonhuman Animal Communicative Competence Social Animal
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