Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: Depressive or Deficit Syndrome

  • Jacqueline A. Samson
  • Alexander Young
  • Ming T. Tsuang
Conference paper


The development of a comprehensive understanding of the etiology, treatment, and prevention of psychiatric disorders has been slow and hampered by uncertainties about the existence of etiologically distinct illnesses within the larger domain of psychiatric illness. Early attempts at subtyping psychiatric disorders relied heavily on clinical observation and the abilities of clinicians to recognize patterns of recurring symptoms and outcome within their clinics and practices. From this approach emerged the seminal descriptions of Kraepelin and Bleuler, and the foundation of current clinical nosology. Key to the early systems (and to our current DSM III-R system) (1) was the distinction between affective illnesses conceptualized as disorders of mood disturbance (such as manic-depressive psychosis), and schizophrenic illnesses conceptualized as being associated with a fundamental defect in the emotions or volition [according to Kraepelin (2)] or capacity for appropriate affective response or goal-directed activity [(according to Bleuler (3)]. Schizophrenic illnesses were seen as more permanent in nature, with a progressively deteriorating course, and often characterized by disordered thinking, delusional beliefs, or impairments in perceptual processes (hallucinations).


Negative Symptom Schizophrenic Patient Schizoaffective Disorder Depressive Syndrome Affective Illness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacqueline A. Samson
    • 1
  • Alexander Young
    • 1
  • Ming T. Tsuang
    • 1
  1. 1.Harvard Medical School Boston Massachusetts and BrocktonWest Roxbury VA Medical CenterBrocktonUSA

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