The Use of Acetylene for the Quantification of N2 and N2O Production from Biological Processes in Soil

  • Leif Klemedtsson
  • Gunbritt Hansson
  • Arvin Mosier
Part of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies Symposium Series book series (FEMS, volume 56)

Abstract

Losses of nitrogen from soil have many adverse environmental effects. Supplies of potable water may be contaminated by NO 3 leached from agricultural soils, and since the 1970s there has also been concern about the effects of gaseous N-compounds produced from NH 4 + and NO 3 by micro- organisms. The rate of degradation of the Earth’s protective ozone screen is enhanced by N2O (Crutzen, 1983), and N2O also has a significant effect on the Earth’s thermal balance via the greenhouse effect (Lacis et al., 1981). N2 is not harmful to the environment, but the losses of fertilizer nitrogen via denitrification to N2 are economically undesirable. Consequently, it is essential to develop methods for quantitative studies of the nitrogen cycle in soil in order to find ways of minimizing N losses in agriculture and forest management.

Keywords

Nitrous Oxide Soil Core Denitrification Rate Denitrification Activity Heterotrophic Nitrification 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aulakh, M. S., Rennie, D. A. and Paul, E. A., 1982, Gaseous nitrogen losses from cropped and summer fallowed soils. Can. J. Sci., 62: 187.Google Scholar
  2. Balderston, W. L., Sherr, B. and Payne, W. J., 1976, Blockage by acetylene of nitrous oxide reduction in Pseudomonas perfectomarinus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 31: 504.Google Scholar
  3. Berg, P., Klemedtsson, L. and Rosswall, T., 1982, Inhibitory effect of low partial pressures of acetylene on nitrification. Soil Biol. Biochem., 14: 301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bleakley, B. H. and Tiedje, J. M., 1982, Nitrous oxide production by organisms other than nitrifiers or denitrifiers. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 44: 1342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bremner, J. M. and Blackmer, A. M., 1978, Nitrous oxide: Emission from soils during nitrification of fertilizer nitrogen. Science, 199: 295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burton, D. L. and Beauchamp, E. C., 1984, Field techniques using the acetylene blockage of nitrous oxide reduction to measure denitrification. Can. J. Soil Sci., 64: 555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cho, C. M., 1982, Oxygen comsumption and denitrification kinetics in soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 46: 756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Colbourn, P., Iqbal, M. M. and Harper, I. W., 1984, Estimation of the total gaseous nitrogen losses from clay soils under laboratory and field conditions. J. Soil Sci., 35: 11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Crutzen, P. J., 1983, Atmospheric interactions - homogenous gas reactions of C-, N- and S-containing compounds. in: The major biogeochemical cycles and their interactions, Bolin, B. and Cook, R. B. eds., SCOPE Report 21. Wiley and Sons, Chichester.Google Scholar
  10. Culbertson, C. W., Zehnder, A. J. B. and Ormeland, R.S., 1981, Anaerobic oxidation of acetylene by estuarine sediments and enrichment cultures. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 41: 396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Davidson, E. A., Swank, W. T. and Perry, T.O., 1986, Distinguishing between nitrification and denitrification as sources of gaseous nitrogen production in soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 62: 1280.Google Scholar
  12. Denmead, O. T., 1979, Chamber systems for measuring nitrous oxide emissions from soils in the field. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 43: 89.Google Scholar
  13. Fedorova, R. I., Melekhina, E. I. and Ilyuchina, N. I., 1973, Evaluation of the method of “gas metabolism” for detecting extra terrestrial life. Identification of nitrogen-fixing organisms. Izvestia Akademii Nauk. SSSER. Ser. Biol., 6: 797Google Scholar
  14. Firestone, M. K. and Davidson, E. A., 1989, Microbial basis of NO and N2O production and consumption. in: Exchange of Trace Gases between Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Atmosphere, Andreae, M. O. and Schimel, D. S. eds., Dahlem Conference, Chichester, John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  15. Firestone, M. K., Smith, M. S., Firestone, R. B. and Tiedje, J. M., 1979, The influence of nitrate, nitrite and oxygen on the composition of gaseous products of denitrification in soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 43: 1140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Goring, C. A. I., 1962, Control of nitrification by 2-chloro-6-(trichlorometyl)pyridine. Soil Sci., 93: 211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Haider, K., Mosier, A. R. and Heinemeyer, O., 1983a, Side effects of acetylene on the conversion of nitrate in soil. Z. Pflanzenerhaehr Bodenk., 146: 623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Haider, K., Mosier, A. R. and Heinemeyer, O., 1983b, Side effecs of acetylene on the conversion of nitrate in soil. Agronomy Abstracts., 75: 159.Google Scholar
  19. Herlihy, M. and Quirke, W., 1975, The persistence of 2-chloro-6(trichloromethyl)pyridine in soil. Comm. Soil Sci. Pl. Anal., 6: 513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hynes, R. K. and Knowles, R., 1978, Inhibition by acetylene of ammonia oxidation in Nitrosomonas europaea. FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 4: 319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hynes, R. K. and Knowles, R., 1982, Effect of acetylene on autotrophic and heterotrophic nitrification. Can J. Microbiol., 28: 334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jury, W. A., Letey, J. and Colleus, T., 1982, Analysis of chamber methods used for nitrous oxide production in the field. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 46: 250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kanner, D. and Bartha, R., 1979, Growth of Nocardia rhodochromum on acetylene gas. J. Bacteriol., 139: 225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kaspar, H. and Tiedje, J. M., 1980, Responses of electron-capture detectors to hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide and nitrous oxide. J. Chrom., 193: 142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Klemedtsson, L., Svensson, B. H., Lindberrg, T. and Rosswall, T., 1977, The use of acetylene inhibition of nitrous oxide reductase in quantifying denitrification in soils. Swedish J. Agric. Res., 7: 179.Google Scholar
  26. Klemedtsson, L., Svensson, B. H. and Rosswall, T., 1987, Dinitrogen and nitrous oxide produced by denitrification and nitrification in soil with and without barley plants. Plant Soil., 99: 303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Klemedtsson, L., Simkins, S. and Svensson, B. H., 1986, Tandem thermoconductivity and electron-capture detectors and non-linear calibration curves in quantitative nitrous oxide analysis. J. Chrom., 361: 107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Klemedtsson, L., Svensson, B. H. and Rosswall, T., 1988a, Relationships between soil moisture content and nitrous oxide production during nitrification and denitrification. Biol. Fertil. Soils, 6: 106.Google Scholar
  29. Klemedtsson, L., Svensson, B. H. and Rosswall, T., 1988b, A method of selective inhibition to distinguish between nitrification and denitrification as sources of nitrous oxide in soil. Biol. Fert. Soils, 6: 112.Google Scholar
  30. Knowles, R., 1984, Some effects on inhibitors on nitrogen transformations. in: Proc. Int. Symp. Nitrogen in the Environment, Malik, K. A., Naqvi, S. H. M. and Aleem, M. I. H., NIAB, Faisalabad.Google Scholar
  31. Lacis, A., Hanson, G., Lee, P., Mitchell, T. and Lebedoff, S., 1981, Greenhouse effects of trace gases, 1970–1980. Geophys. Res. Lett., 8: 1035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Letey, J., Jury, W. A., Hadas, A. and Valois, N., 1980, Gas diffusion as a factor in laboratory incubation studies on denitrification. J. Environ. Oual., 9: 223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Martikainen, P.J., 1985, Nitrous oxide emission associated with autotrophic ammonium oxidation in acid coniferous forest soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 50: 1519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. McConnaughey, P. K. and Duxbury, T.R., 1986, Introduction of acetylene into soil for measurement of denitrification. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 50: 210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mosier, A. R. and Mack, L., 1980, Gas chromatography system for precise, rapid analysis of N2O. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 44: 1121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mosier, A. R., 1980, Acetylene inhibition of ammonium oxidation in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem., 12: 443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mosier, A. R., Guenzi, W. D. and Schweizer, E. E., 1986b, Field denitrification estimation by nitrogen-15 and acetylene inhibition techniques. Soil Soi. Soc. Am. J., 50: 831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mosier, A. R. and Heinemeyer, O., 1985, Current methods used to estimate N2O and N2 emissions from field soils. in: Denitrification in the nitrogen cycle. Golterman, E. L. ed., NATO Conference Series I: Ecology, Vol 9, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  39. Notton, B. A., Walson, E. F. and Hewitt, E. J., 1979, Effects of N-serve (2chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)pyridine) formulations on nitrification and loss of nitrate in a sand culture experiment. Plant Soil, 51: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Oremland, R. S., Umberger, C., Culbertson, C. W., Smith, R. L., 1984. Denitrification in San Fransisco Bay intertidal sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 47: 1106–1112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Parkin, T. B., Kaspar, H. F., Sextone, A. J. and Tiedje, J. M., 1984, A gas-flow soil core method to measure field denitrification rates. Soil Biol. Biochem., 16: 323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Parkin, T. B., Sexton, A. J. and Tiedje, J. M., 1985, Comparison of field denitrification raes determined by acetylene-based soil core and nitrogen-15 methods. Soil. Sci. Soc. Am. J., 49: 94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Poth, M. and Focht, D. D., 1985, 15N kinetic analysis of N2O production by Nitrosomonas europaea: an examination of nitrifier denitrification. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 49: 1134.Google Scholar
  44. Rice, C. W. and Smith, M. S., 1982, Denitrification in no-till and ploughed soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 46: 1168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Robertson, G. P. and Tiedje, J. M., 1987, Nitrous oxide sources in aerobic soil: nitrification, denitrification and other biological processes. Soil Biol. Biochem., 19: 187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rolston, D. E., Sharpley, A. N., Toy, D. W. and Broadbent, F. E., 1982, Field measurement of denitrification: II. Rates during irrigation cyles. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 46: 289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ryden, J. C. and Dawson, K.P., 1982, Evaluation of the acetylene inhibition technique for field measurements of denitrification in grassland soils. J. Sci Food Agric., 1197.Google Scholar
  48. Ryden, J. C., Lund, L. J., Letey, J. and Focht, D. D., 1979, Direct measurement of denitrification loss from soils: II. Development and application of field methods. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 43: 110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ryden, J. C., Skinner, J. H. and Nixon, D. J., 1987, Soil core incubation systems for the field measurement of denitrification using acetylene inhibition. Soil Biol. Biochem., 19: 753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Scaglia, J., Lensi, R. ans Chalamet, A., 1985, Relationships between photosyntesis and denitrification in planted soil. Plant Soil, 84: 37.Google Scholar
  51. Schmidt, E. L., 1982, Nitrification in soil. in: Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils, Stevenson, F. J. ed., Am. Soc. Agro. Inc, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Inc, Madison.Google Scholar
  52. Smith, M. S., Firestone, M. K. and Tieje, J. M., 1978 The acetylene inhibition method for short-term measrurement of soil denitrification and its evaluation using nitrogen-13. Soil Soi. Soc. Am. J., 42: 611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Smith, M. S. and Tiedje, J. M., 1979, Phases of denitrification followed by oxygen depletion in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem., 11: 261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Smith, M. S. and Zimmerman, K., 1981, Nitrous oxide production by non-denitrifying soil nitrate reducers. Soil Sci Soc. Am. J., 43: 865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Svensson, B. H., Klemedtsson, L. and Rosswall, T., 1985, Preliminary field denitrification studies of nitrate-fertilized and nitrogen-fixing crops. in: Denitrification in the Nitrogen Cycle. Golterman, E. L. ed., NATO Conference Series I: Ecology, Vol 9, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  56. Svensson, B. H., Boström, U. and Klemedtsson, L., 1986, Potential for higher rates of denitrification in earthworm casts than in the surrounding soil. Biol. Fertil. Soil, 2: 147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Terry, R. E. and Duxbury, J. M., 1985, Acetylene decomposition in soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 49: 90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tiedje, J. M., 1982, Denitrification. in: Methods of Soil Analysis, part 2: Chemical and Microbial Properties (2nd ed) Page, A. L., Miller, R. H. and Keeney, D. R. eds., Am. Soc. Agro. Inc, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Inc, Madison.Google Scholar
  59. Tiedje, J. M., 1988, Ecology of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium. in: Biology of Anaerobic Microorganisms, Zehnder, J. B. ed., Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  60. Tiedje, J. M., Simkins, S., Groffman, P. M., 1989. Perspectives on measurement of denitrification in the field including recommended protocols for acetylene based methods. im Ecology of Arable Land, Perspectives and Challenges. Clarholm, M., Bergström, L. eds., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Holland, pp. 217–240.Google Scholar
  61. Topp, E and Germon, J. C., 1986, Acetylene metabolism and stimulation of denitrification in an agricultural soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 52: 802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Walter, H. M., Keeney, D. R. and Fillery, I. R., 1979, Inhibition of nitrification by acetylene. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 43: 195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yoshinari, T. and Knowles, R., 1976, Acetylene inhibiton of nitrous oxide reduction by denitrifying bacteria. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm., 69: 705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Yoshinari, T., Hynes, R. and Knowles, R., 1977, Acetylene inhibiton of nitrous oxide reducation and measurement of denitrification and nitrogen fixation in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem., 9: 177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leif Klemedtsson
    • 1
  • Gunbritt Hansson
    • 1
  • Arvin Mosier
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologySwedish University of Agricultral SciencesUppsalaSweden
  2. 2.USDA - ARSFort CollinsUSA

Personalised recommendations