Myeloid DCs Deduced from Monocytes

In-Vitro and in-Vivo Data Support a Monocytic Origin of DCs
  • Falko Steinbach
  • Robert Gieseler
  • Afsaneh Soruri
  • Bianca Krause
  • J. Hinrich Peters
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 417)


We recently presented cumulative evidence for the monocytic origin of myeloid dendritic cells (DC)1. Here we extend this concept and conclude that DC are to be regarded as members of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS).


Dendritic Cell Mononuclear Phagocyte System Interdigitating Cell Blood Dendritic Cell Interdigitating Reticulum Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Peters, J.H., R. Gieseler, B. Thiele, and F. Steinbach. (1996). Dendritic cells–from ontogenetic orphans to myelo-monocytic descendants. Immunol. Today, 17, 273–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Takahashi K, Naito M, Morioka Y, Schultz LD (1993) Immunophenotypic and ultrastructural differentiation and maturation of nonlymphoid dendritic cells in osteopetrotic (op) mice with the total absence of macrophage colony stimulating factor activity. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 329: pp 293–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gieseler, R.K., R.A. Röber, R. Kuhn, K. Weber, M. Osborn, and J.H. Peters. (1991). Dendritic accessory cells derived from rat bone marrow precursors under chemically defined conditions in vitro belong to the myeloid lineage. Em:: J. Cell Biol. 54, no. 1: 171–181.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Xu, H., M. Krämer, H.-P. Spengler, and J.H. Peters. 1995. Dendritic cells differentiated from human monocytes through a combination of IL-4, GM-CSF and IFNy exhibit phenotype and function of blood dendritic cells. Adv. Exp. Med. Bio1.378:75–78Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Veennan AJP (1974) On the interdigitating cells in the thymus-dependent area of the rat spleen: A relation between the mononuclear phagocyte system and T-lymphocytes. Cell Tissue Res. 148: 247–257Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hoefsmit ECM, Duijvestijn AM, Kamperdijk EWA (1982) Relation between Langerhans cells, veiled cells, and interdigitating cells. Immunobiol. 161: 255–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Parwaresch MR. Radzun HJ, Feller AC, Peters K-P, Hansmann M-L (1983) Peroxidase-positive mononuclear leukocytes as possible precursors of human dendritic reticulum cells. J. Immunol. 131: 2719–2725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Murphy GF, Messadi D, Forferko E, Hancock WW (1986) Phenotypic transformation of macrophages to Langerhans cells in the skin. Am. J. Pathol. 123: 401–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sallusto, F., and A. Lanzavecchia. 1994. Efficient presentation of soluble antigen by cultured human dendritic cells is maintained by GM-CSF plus IL-4 and downregulated by TNFa..1. Exp. Med 179:1109–1116.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ruppert J, Schutt C, Ostermeier D, Peters JH (1993) Down-regulation and release of CD14 on human monocytes by IL-4 depends on the presence of serum or GM-CSF. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 329: 281–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Steinbach, F., B. Krause, and B. Thiele. 1995. Monocyte derived Dendritic Cells (MoDC) present phenotype and functional activities of Langerhans Cells/Dendritic Cells. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 378, 151–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gieseler R, Heise D, Soruri A, Schwartz P, Peters JH. In-vitro differentiation of mature-type dendritic cells from human blood monocytes. Develop. Immunol. (in press)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mukherji B, Chakraborty NG, Yamasaki S, Okino T, Yamase H, Sporn JR, Kurtzman SK, Ergin MT, Ozols J, Meehan J, Mauri F (1995) Induction of antigen-specific cytolytic T cells in situ in human melanoma by immunization with synthetic peptide-pulsed autologous antigen-presenting cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92: 8078–8082PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ruppert, J., and J.H. Peters. (1991). IL-6 and IL-1 enhance the accessory activity of human blood monocytes during differentiation to macrophages. J. Immunol. 146, 144–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Krause, B. Differenzierung Dendritischer Zellen aus Monozyten (MoDC): Vorbereitende Studie zur Differenzierung von MoDC bei SLE Patienten MD thesis in prep.,Charité der HU zu BerlinGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Steinbach, F. et al., (in prep.). Endogenous factors play a central role in the differentiation of DC from monocytes (MoDC)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    O’Doherty, U., M. Peng, S. Gezelter, W.J. Swiggard, M. Betjens, N. Bhardway, and R.M. Steinman. 1994. Human blood contains two subsets of dendritic cells, one immunologically mature and the other immature. Immunology 82: 487–493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kaplan, G., G. Walsh, L.S. Giudo. P. Meyn, R.A. Burkhardt, R.M. Abalos, J. Barker, P.A. Frindt, T.T. Fajardo, R. Celona, Z.A. Cohn. 1992. Novel responses of human skin to intradermal recombinant granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor: Langerhans cell recruitment, keratinocyte growth and enhanced wound healing. J. Exp. Med. 175: 1717–1728.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Larsen CP, Morris PJ, Austyn JM (1990 a) Migration of dendritic leukocytes from cardiac allografts into host spleens: A novel pathway for initiation of rejection. J. Exp. Med. 171: 307–314Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Larsen CP, Steinman RM, Witmer-Pack M, Hankins DF, Morris PJ, and Austyn JM (1990 b) Migration and maturation of Langerhans cells in skin transplants and explants. J. Exp. Med. 172: 1483–1493Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Peters JH, Ruhl S, Friedrichs D (1987) Veiled accessory cells deduced from monocytes. Immunobiol. 176: 154–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kabel Pi, de Haan-Meulman M, Voorbij HA, Kleingeld M, Knol EF, Drexhage HA (1989) Accessory cells with a morphology and marker pattern of dendritic cells can be obtained from elutriator-purified blood monocyte fractions. An enhancing effect of metrizamide in this differentiation. Immunobiol. 179: 395–341Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Knight SC, Farrant J, Bryant A, Edwards AJ, Burman S, Lever A, Clarke J, Webster ADB (1986) Non-adherent, low-density cells from human peripheral blood contain dendritic cells and monocytes, both with veiled morphology. Immunology 57:595–603Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Thomas, R., L.S. Davies, and P.E. Lipsky. 1993. Isolation and characterization of human peripheral blood dendritic cells. J. lmmunol. 150: 821–834.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lauener RP, Goyert SM, Geha RS, Vercelli D (1990) Interleukin 4 down-regulates the expression of CDI4 in normal human monocytes. Eur. J. Immunol. 20: 2375–2381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Poulter LW, Campbell DA, Munro C, Janossy G (1986) Discrimination of human macrophages and dendritic cells by means of monoclonal antibodies. Scand. J. Immunol. 24: 351–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chen-Woan M, Delaney CP, Fournier V, Wakizaka Y, Murase N, Fung J, Starzl TE, Demetris AJ (1996) In vitro characterization of rat bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and their precursors. J. Leuk. Biol. 59: 196–207Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Inaba K, Inaba M, Deguchi M, Hagi K, Yasumizu R, Ikehara S, Muramatsu S, Steinman RM (1993) Granulocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells arise from a common major histocompatibility complex class II-negative progenitor in mouse bone marrow. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 3038–3042PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Leenen PJM, Campbell PA (1993) Heterogeneity of mononuclear phagocytes: An interpretive review. In: Horton MA (Ed.): Blood Cell Biochemistry, Vol. 5: Macrophages and Related Cells. Plenum Press New York pp. 29–85Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Goordyal P, Isaacson PG (1985) Immunocytochemical characterization of monocyte colonies of human bone marrow: a clue to the origin of Langerhans cells and interdigitating reticulum cells. J. Pathol. 146: 189–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Falko Steinbach
    • 1
  • Robert Gieseler
    • 2
  • Afsaneh Soruri
    • 2
  • Bianca Krause
    • 1
    • 3
  • J. Hinrich Peters
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for VirologyFU BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Department of ImmunolgyGeorg-August-UniversityGöttingenGermany
  3. 3.Department of Medicine III CharitéHU BerlinBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations