Metabolic Effects of Intranasally Administered Insulin and Glucagon in Man
After isolation, chemical characterization and purification, several polypeptide hormones, i.e. insulin, glucagon, vasopressin and its analogues. LHRH and its derivatives. ACTH, calcitonin, growth hormone, gonadotropins, are currently employed in clinical practice. These hormones are administered parenterally, either by the subcutaneous, the intramuscular, the intravenous or the intraperitoneal route and by means of syringes or pumps. Some of these hormones require continuous or prolonged treatments in several chronic diseases, and this can cause severe reactions and may reduce the compliance of patients during the course of the disease. For these reasons, alternative routes of administration of peptidic hormones have been investigated. Oral administration has been tried for many of them but the gastrointestinal proteolytic digestion remains a limiting factor for most of them, with the noticeable exception of dDAVP (Pontiroli et al., 1985).
KeywordsPlasma Glucagon Porcine Insulin Spray Solution Potency Ratio Spray Formulation
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- Pontiroli A. E., Secchi A., and Alberetto M., 1985, Alternative routes of peptide hormones administration, In: “Special topics in endocrinology ana metabolism.” Eds P. P. Foa and M. P. Cohen. Inc. A. R. Liss., New York, 7: 77.Google Scholar