Sexual Selection and the Evolution of Song Repertoires

  • Scott A. Macdougall-Shackleton
Part of the Current Ornithology book series (CUOR, volume 14)

Abstract

Bird song is an acoustic ornament. That is, bird song is a conspicuous, elaborate trait with no apparent survival value. Thus, along with long tails and showy plumage, bird song has been extensively studied as a model of avian sexual selection. There has now accumulated much experimental evidence, from both field and laboratory studies, that song functions to attract mates and to repel competitors from territories (Kroodsma and Byers, 1991; Searcy and Andersson, 1986). One of the most conspicuous and elaborate aspects of bird song is its extreme complexity and variety. Individuals of many species of birds sing multiple variants of their species-typical songs; that is, they possess song repertoires. Large song repertoires are the acoustic analogue of a peacock’s tail. Because songs are so showy and seem so redundant, much research has been devoted to describing song repertoires and patterns of singing behavior. Similarly, many researchers have hypothesized ways in which sexual selection may favor birds that have larger song repertoires. The purposes of this paper are to (1) review the distribution of song repertoires in passerine birds and (2) review the numerous hypotheses that have been proposed to account for the evolution of song repertoires.

Keywords

Sexual Selection Song Type Repertoire Size Great Reed Warbler Large Repertoire 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adhikerana, A. S., and Slater, P. J. B., 1993, Singing interactions in Coal Tits, Parus ater: an experimental approach, Anim. Behay., 46: 1205 - 1211.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, J., and Stimson, W. H., 1988, Sex hormones and the course of parasitic infection, Parasitol. Today 4: 189 - 193.Google Scholar
  3. Andersson, M., 1994, Sexual Selection, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  4. Armstrong, E. A., 1973, A Study of Bird Song, Dover, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Arnold, A. P., 1975, The effects of castration and androgen replacement on song, courtship, and aggression in Zebra Finches, J. Exp. Zool. 191: 309 - 326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Avery, M. L., 1995, Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus), in: The Birds of North America, Vol. 200 ( A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  7. Baker, M. C., 1982, Genetic population structure and vocal dialects in Zonotrichia (Emberizidae), in: Acoustic Communication in Birds, Vol. 2 ( D. E. Kroodsma and E. H. Miller, eds.), Academic Press, New York. pp. 209 - 235.Google Scholar
  8. Baptista, L. F., and Johnson, R. B., 1982, Song variation in insular and mainland California Brown Creepers (Certhia familiaris), J. Ornithol. 123 (S): 131 - 144.Google Scholar
  9. Basolo, A. L., 1995, A further examination of a pre-existing bias favouring a sword in the genus Xiphophorus, Anim. Behay. 50: 365 - 375.Google Scholar
  10. Beason, R. C., 1995, Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris), in: The Birds of North America, Vol. 195 ( A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  11. Beecher, M. D., 1996, Birdsong learning in the laboratory and field, in: Ecology and Evolution of Acoustic Communication in Birds ( D. E. Kroodsma and E. H. Miller, eds.), Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, pp. 61 - 78.Google Scholar
  12. Beecher, M. D., Campbell, S. E., and Stoddard, P. K., 1994, Correlation of song learning and territory establishment strategies in the Song Sparrow, Procl. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 1450 - 1454.Google Scholar
  13. Beecher, M. D., Stoddard, P. K., Campbell, S. E., and Horning, C. L., 1996, Repertoire matching between neighbouring Song Sparrows, Anim. Behay. 51: 917 - 923.Google Scholar
  14. Beehler, B. M., 1987, Ecology and behavior of the Buff-tailed Sicklebill (Paradisaeidae: Epimachus albertisi), Auk 84: 48 - 55.Google Scholar
  15. Bensch, S., and Hasselquist, D., 1992, Evidence for female choice in a polygynous warbler, Anim. Behay. 44: 301 - 311.Google Scholar
  16. Bijnens, L., and Dhondt, A. A., 1984, Vocalizations in a Belgian Blue Tit, Parus c. caeruleus, population, Le Gerfaut 74: 243 - 269.Google Scholar
  17. Bitterbaum, E., and Baptista, L. F., 1979, Geographic variation in the songs of California House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus), Auk 96: 462 - 474.Google Scholar
  18. Björklund, M., Westman, B., and Allander, K., 1989, Song in Swedish Great Tits: intra-or intersexual communication? Behaviour 111: 257 - 269.Google Scholar
  19. Borror, D. J., 1971, Songs of Aimophila sparrows occurring in the U.S., Wilson Bull. 83: 132 - 150.Google Scholar
  20. Borror, D. J., and Gunn, W. W. H., 1965, Variation in White-throated Sparrow songs, Auk 82: 26 - 47.Google Scholar
  21. Bradley, R. A., 1980, Vocal and territorial behavior in the White-eyed Vireo, Wilson Bull. 92: 302 - 311.Google Scholar
  22. Brenowitz, E. A., Arnold, A. P., and Loesche, P., 1996, Steroid accumulation in song nuclei of a sexually dimorphic duetting bird, the Rufous and White Wren, J. Neurobiol. 31: 235 - 244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Brindley, E. L., 1991, Response of European Robins to playback of song: neighbour recognition and overlapping, Anim. Behay. 41: 503 - 512.Google Scholar
  24. Briskie, J. V., 1993, Smith’s Longspur (Calcarius pictus), in The Birds of North America, Vol. 34 ( A. Poole, P. Stettenheim, and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  25. Brown, C. R., 1984, Vocalizations of the Purple Martin, Condor 86: 433 - 442.Google Scholar
  26. Brown, E. D., 1985, The role of song and vocal imitation among common crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), J. Comp. Ethol. 68: 115 - 136.Google Scholar
  27. Brown, E. D., Farabaugh, S. M., and Veltman, C. J., 1988, Song sharing in a group-living songbird, the Australian Magpie, Gymnorhina tibicen, Part I. Vocal sharing within and among social groups, Behaviour 104: 1 - 28.Google Scholar
  28. Brown, R. E., and Dickson, J. G., 1994, Swainson’s Warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii), in: The Birds of North America, Vol. 126 ( A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  29. Byers, B. E., 1995, Song types, repertoires and song variability in a population of Chestnut-sided Warblers, Condor 97: 390 - 401.Google Scholar
  30. Byers, B. E., 1996, Messages encoded in the songs of Chestnut-sided Warblers, Anim. Behay. 52: 691 - 705.Google Scholar
  31. Canady, R., Kroodsma, D., and Nottebohm, F., 1984, Population differences in the complexity of a learned skill are correlated with the brain space involved, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 6232 - 6234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Catchpole, C. K., 1973, The functions of advertising song in the Sedge Warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) and Reed Warbler (A. scirpaceus), Behaviour, 46: 300 - 320.Google Scholar
  33. Catchpole, C. K., 1976, Temporal and sequential organization of song in the Sedge Warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus), Behaviour 59: 226 - 246.Google Scholar
  34. Catchpole, C. K., 1980, Sexual selection and the evolution of complex songs among the European warblers of the genus Acrocephalus, Behaviour 74: 149 - 166.Google Scholar
  35. Catchpole, C. K., 1986, Song repertoires and reproductive success in the Great Reed Warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus, Behay. Ecol. Sociobiol. 19: 439 - 445.Google Scholar
  36. Catchpole, C. K., and McGregor, P. K., 1985, Sexual selection, song complexity and plumage dimorphism in European buntings of the genus Emberiza, An im. Behay. 33: 1378 - 1380.Google Scholar
  37. Catchpole, C. K., and Slater, P. J. B., 1995, Bird Song, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  38. Catchpole, C. K., Leisler, B., and Dittami, J., 1986, Sexual differences in the responses of captive Great Reed Warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) to variaion in song structure and size, Ethology 73: 69 - 77.Google Scholar
  39. Chappell, M. A., Zuk, M., Kwan, T. H., and Johnson, T. S., 1995, Energy cost of an avian vocal display: crowing in Red Junglefowl, Anim. Behay. 49: 255 - 257.Google Scholar
  40. Clayton, N., and Pröve, E., 1989, Song discrimination in female Zebra Finches and Bengalese Finches, Anim. Behay. 38: 352 - 362.Google Scholar
  41. Confer, J. L., 1992, Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera), in: ’l’he Birds of North America, Vol. 20 ( A. Poole, F. Stettenheim, and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  42. Craig, J. L., and Jenkins, P. F., 1982, The evolution of complexity in broadcast song of passerines, J. Theor. Biol. 95: 415 - 422.Google Scholar
  43. Cynx, J., 1990, Experimental determination of a unit of song production in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata), J. Comp. Pyschol. 104: 3 - 10.Google Scholar
  44. Darwin, C., 1871, The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, Murray, London.Google Scholar
  45. Davis, J., Eisler, G. F., and Davis, B. S., 1963, The breeding biology of the Western Flycatcher, Condor 65: 337 - 381.Google Scholar
  46. Davis, L. I., 1961, Songs of North American Myiarchus, Texas J. Sci. 8: 327 - 344.Google Scholar
  47. Dawkins, R., and Krebs, J. R., 1978, Animal signals: information or manipulation? in: Behavioural Ecology, an Evolutionary Approach ( J. R. Krebs and N. B. Davies, eds.), Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 282 - 309.Google Scholar
  48. Dawson, S. M., and Jenkins, P. F., 1983, Chaffinch song repertoires and the Beau Geste hypothesis, Behaviour 87: 256 - 269.Google Scholar
  49. Derrickson, K. C., 1987, Yearly and situational changes in the estimate of repertoire size in Northern Mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos), Auk 104: 198 - 207.Google Scholar
  50. DeVoogd, T. J., Krebs, J. R., Healy, S. D., and Purvis, A., 1993, Relations between song repertoire size and the volume of brain nuclei related to song: comparative evolutionary analyses amongst oscine birds, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 254: 75 - 82.Google Scholar
  51. Dobson, C. W., and Lemon, R. E., 1975, Re-examination of the monotony-threshold hypothesis in bird song, Nature 257: 126 - 128.Google Scholar
  52. Dufty, A. M. Jr., 1985, Song sharing in the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), Z. Tierpsych of. 69: 177 - 190.Google Scholar
  53. Eaton, S. W., 1958, A life history study of the Louisiana Waterthrush, Wilson Bull. 70: 210 - 235.Google Scholar
  54. Eberhardt, L. S., 1994, Oxygen consumption during singing by male Carolina Wrens (Thryothorus ludovicianus), Auk 111: 124 - 130.Google Scholar
  55. Eberhardt, L. S., 1996, Energy expenditure during singing: a reply to Gaunt et al., Auk 113: 721 - 723.Google Scholar
  56. Eens, M., Pinxten, M., and Verheyen, R. F., 1989, Temporal and sequential organization of song bouts in the European Starling, Ardea 77: 75 - 86.Google Scholar
  57. Eens, M., Pinxten, M., and Verheyen, R. F., 1991, Male song as a cue for mate choice in the European Starling Sturnus vulgaris, Behaviour 116: 210 - 238.Google Scholar
  58. Eens, M., Pinxten, R., and Verheyen, R., 1992, No overlap in song repertoire size between yearling and older starlings Sturnus vulgaris, Ibis 134: 72 - 76.Google Scholar
  59. Elfström, S. T., 1990, Individual and species-specific song patterns of Rock and Meadow pipits: physical characteristics and experiments, Bioacoustics 2: 277 - 301.Google Scholar
  60. Ellison, W. G., 1992, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerula), in The Birds of North America, Vol. 23 ( A. Poole, F. Stettenheim, and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  61. England, A. S., and Landenslayer, W. F. J., 1993, Bendire’s Thrasher (Toxostoma bendirei), in: The Birds of North America, Vol. 71 ( A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  62. Espmark, Y., Lampe, H. M., and Bjerke, T. K., 1989, Song conformity and continuity in song dialects of Redwings, Turdus iliacus, and some ecological correlates, Omis Scand. 20: 1 - 12.Google Scholar
  63. Evans-Ogden, L. J., and Stutchbury, B. J., 1994, Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina), in: ’l’he Birds of North America, Vol. 110 ( A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  64. Falls, J. B., 1982, Individual recognition by sound in birds, in: Acoustic Communication in Birds, Vol. 2 ( D. E. Kroodsma and E. H. Miller, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 237 - 278.Google Scholar
  65. Falls, J. B., and D’Agincourt, L. G., 1981, A comparison of neighbour—stranger discrimination in Eastern and Western meadowlarks, Can. J. Zool. 59: 2380 - 2385.Google Scholar
  66. Feekes, F., 1982, Song mimesis within colonies of Caicus c. cela (Icteridae, Ayes): a colonial password? Z. Tierpsychol. 58: 119 - 152.Google Scholar
  67. Ficken, M. S., and Ficken, R. W., 1965, Comparative ethology of the Chestnut-sided Warbler, Yellow Warbler, and American Redstart, Wilson Bull. 77: 363 - 375.Google Scholar
  68. Ficken, M., and Nocedal, J., 1992, Mexican Chickadee (Parus sclateri), in: The Birds of North America, Vol. 4 (A. Poole, F. Stettenheim, and F. Gill, eds.), American Ornithologists’ Union, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  69. Folstad, I., and Karter, A. J., 1992, Parasites, bright males, and the immunocompetence handicap, Am. Nat. 139: 603 - 622.Google Scholar
  70. Gaddis, P. K., 1985, Structure and variability in the vocal repertoire of the Mountain Chickadee, Wilson Bull. 97: 30 - 46.Google Scholar
  71. Gaunt, A. S., Bucher, T. L., and Gaunt, S. L. L., 1996, Is singing costly? Auk 113: 718 - 721.Google Scholar
  72. Gelter, H. P., 1987, Song differences between the Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, the Collared Flycatcher F. albicollis, and their hybrids, Ornis Scand. 18: 205 - 215.Google Scholar
  73. Göttinger, H. R., 1976, Variable and constant structures in Greenfinch songs (Chloris chloris) in different locations, Behaviour 60: 304 - 318.Google Scholar
  74. Göttinger, H. R., Wolffgramm, J., and Thimm, F., 1978, The relationship between species specific song programs and individual learning in songbirds, Behaviour 65: 241 - 262.Google Scholar
  75. Grafen, A., 1990, Sexual selection unhandicapped by the Fisher process, J. Theor. Biol. 144: 473 - 516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Gray, D. A., and Hagelin, J. C., 1996, Song repertoires and sensory exploitation: reconsidering the case of the Common Grackle, Anim. Behay. 52: 795 - 800.Google Scholar
  77. Greenlaw, J. S., and Rising, J. D., 1994, Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Ammodramus caudactus), in The Birds of North America, Vol. 112 ( A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  78. Groschupf, K., 1992, Five-striped Sparrow (Aimophilo quinquestriata), in The Birds of North America, Vol. 21 ( A. Poole, F. Stettenheim, and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  79. Grzybowski, J. A., 1995, Black-capped Vireo (Vireo atricapillus), in The Birds of North America, Vol. 181 ( A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  80. Hailman, J. P., 1989, The organization of major vocalizations in the Paridae, Wilson Bull. 101: 305 - 343.Google Scholar
  81. Hall, G. A., 1996, Yellow-throated Warbler (Dendroica domica), in The Birds of North America, Vol. 223 ( A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  82. Hamilton, W. D., and Zuk, M., 1982, Heritable true fitness and bright birds: a role for parasites? Science 218: 384 - 387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Hartshorne, C., 1956, The monotony threshold in singing birds, Auk 83: 176 - 192.Google Scholar
  84. Hartshorne, C., 1973, Born to Sing, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.Google Scholar
  85. Harvey, P. H., and Pagel, M. D., 1991, The Comparative Method in Evolutionary Biology, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  86. Hasselquist, D., Bensch, S., and von Schantz, T., 1996, Correlation between male song repertoire, extra-pair paternity and offspring survival in the Great Reed Warbler, Nature 381: 229 - 231.Google Scholar
  87. Hiebert, S. M., Stoddard, P. K., and Arcese, P., 1989, Repertoire size, territory acquisition and reproductive success in the Song Sparrow, Anim. Behay. 37: 266 - 273.Google Scholar
  88. Hill, G. E., 1995, Black-headed Grosbeak (Pheucticus melanocephalus), in The Birds of North America, Vol. 143 ( A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  89. Hoelzel, A. R., 1985, Song characteristics and response to playback of male and female robins Erithacus rubecula, Ibis 128: 115 - 127.Google Scholar
  90. Holmes, R. T., 1994, Black-throated Blue Warbler (Denaroica caerulescens), in The Birds of North America, Vol. 87 ( A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  91. Horn, A. G., 1996, Dawn song repertoires of Tree Swallows (Tachycineata bicolor), Can. J. Zool. 74: 1084 - 1091.Google Scholar
  92. Horn, A. G. and Falls, J. B., 1988, Structure of Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) song repertoires, Can. J. Zool. 66: 284 - 288.Google Scholar
  93. Horn, A. G., and Falls, J. B., 1996, Categorization and the design of signals: the case of song repertoires, in: Ecology and Evolution of Acoustic Communication in Birds ( D. E. Kroodsma and E. H. Miller, eds.), Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, pp. 121 - 135.Google Scholar
  94. Horn, A. G., Leonard, M. L., Ratcliffe, L., Shackleton, A. S., and Weisman, R. G., 1992, Frequency variation in songs of Black-capped Chickadees (Parus atricapillus), Auk 109: 847 - 852.Google Scholar
  95. Horn, A. G., Leonard, M. L., and Weary, D. M., 1995, Oxygen consumption during crowing by roosters: talk is cheap, Anim. Behay. 50: 1171 - 1175.Google Scholar
  96. Horning, C. L., Beecher, M. D., Stoddard P. K., and Campbell, S. E., 1993, Song perception in the Song Sparrow: importance of different parts of the song in song type classification, Ethology 94: 46 - 58.Google Scholar
  97. Howard, R. D., 1974, The influence of sexual selection and interspecific competition on mockingbird song (Mimus polyglottos), Evolution 28: 428 - 438.Google Scholar
  98. Hultsch, H., and Todt, D., 1981, Repertoire sharing and song-post distance in nightingales (Luscinia rnegarhynchos B.), Behay. Ecol. Sociobiol. 8: 183 - 188.Google Scholar
  99. lnce, S. A., and Slater, P. J. B., 1985, Versatility and continuity in the songs of thrushes Turdus spp., Ibis 127: 355 - 364.Google Scholar
  100. Irwin, R. E., 1988, The evolutionary importance of behavioral development: the ontogeny and phylogeny of bird song, Anim. Behay. 36: 814 - 824.Google Scholar
  101. Irwin, R. E., 1990, Directional sexual selection cannot explain variation in song repertoire size in the New World blackbirds (Icterinae), Ethology 85: 212 - 224.Google Scholar
  102. Ketterson, E. D., Nolan, V., Jr., Wolf, L., and Ziegenfus, C., 1992, Testosterone and avian life histories: effects of experimentally elevated testosterone on behavior and correlates of fitness in the Dark-Eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis), Am. Nat. 140: 980 - 999.Google Scholar
  103. King, J. R., 1972, Variation in the song of the Rufous-collared Sparrow, Zonotrichia capensis, in northwestern Argentina, Z. Tierpsychol. 30: 344 - 373.Google Scholar
  104. Knapton, R. W., 1981, Geographic similarity and year to year retention of song in the Clay-Coloured Sparrow (Spizella pallida), Behaviour 75: 189 - 200.Google Scholar
  105. Krebs, J. R., 1976, Habituation and song repertoires in the Great Tit, Behay. Ecol. Sociobiol. 1: 215 - 227.Google Scholar
  106. Krebs, J. R., 1977, The significance of song repertoires: the Beau Geste hypothesis, Anim. Behay. 25: 475 - 478.Google Scholar
  107. Krebs, J. R., and Kroodsma, D. E., 1980, Repertoires and geographical variation in bird-song, Adv. Study Behay. 11: 143 - 177.Google Scholar
  108. Krebs, J., Ashcroft, R., and Webber, M., 1978, Song repertoires and territory defence in the Great Tit, Nature 271: 539 - 542.Google Scholar
  109. Kroodsma, D. E., 1971, Song variations and singing behavior in the Rufous-sided Towhee, Pipilo erythrophthalmus oregonus, Condor 73: 303 - 308.Google Scholar
  110. Kroodsma, D. E., 1976, Reproductive development in a female song bird: differential stimulation by quality of male song, Science 192: 574 - 575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Kroodsma, D. E., 1977, Correlates of song organization among North American wrens, Am. Nat. 111: 995 - 1008.Google Scholar
  112. Kroodsma, D. E., 1978, Continuity and versatility in bird song: support for the monotony threshold hypothesis, Nature 274: 681 - 683.Google Scholar
  113. Kroodsma, D. E., 1982, Song repertoires: problems in their definition and use, in: Acoustic Communication in Birds, Vol. 2 ( D. E. Kroodsma and E. H. Miller, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 125 - 146.Google Scholar
  114. Kroodsma, D. E., 1984, Songs of the Alder Flycatcher (E’mpidonax alnorum) and Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) are innate, Auk 101: 13 - 24.Google Scholar
  115. Kroodsma, D. E., 1985, Development and use of two song forms by the Eastern Phoebe, Wilson Bull. 97: 21 - 29.Google Scholar
  116. Kroodsma, D. E., 1989, Patterns in songbird singing behaviour: Hartshorne vindicated, Anim. Behay. 39: 994 - 997.Google Scholar
  117. Kroodsma, D. E., and Byers, B. E., 1991, The function(s) of bird song, Am. Zool. 31: 318 - 328.Google Scholar
  118. Kroodsma, D. E., and Parker, L. D., 1977, Vocal virtuosity in the Brown Thrasher, Auk 94: 783 - 785.Google Scholar
  119. Kroodsma, D. E., and Verner, J., 1978, Complex singing behavior among Cistothorus wrens, Auk 95: 703 - 716.Google Scholar
  120. Lambrechts, M. M., 1996, Organization of birdsong and constraints on performance, in: Ecology and Evolution of Acoustic Communication in Birds ( D. E. Kroodsma and E. H. Miller, eds.), Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, pp. 305 - 320.Google Scholar
  121. Lambrechts, M., and Dhondt, A. A., 1988, The anti-exhaustion hypothesis: a new hypothesis to explain song performance and song switching in the Great Tit, Anim. Behay. 36: 327 - 334.Google Scholar
  122. Lambrechts, M. M., and Dhondt, A. A., 1995, Individual voice discrimination in birds, in Current Ornithology, Vol. 12 ( D. N. Power, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 115 - 139.Google Scholar
  123. Latimer, W., 1977, A comparative study of the songs and alarm calls of some Parus species, Z. Tierpsychol. 45: 414 - 433.Google Scholar
  124. Lein, M. R., 1972, Territorial and courtship songs of birds, Nature 237: 48 - 49.Google Scholar
  125. Lemon, R. E., and Chatfield, C., 1973, Organization of song of Rose-breasted Grosbeaks, Anim. Behay. 21: 28 - 44.Google Scholar
  126. Lyon, B., and Montgomerie, R., 1995, Snow Bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis), in: The Birds of North America, Vol. 198 ( A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  127. Marler, P., and Tamura, M., 1962, Song ’dialects’ in three populations of White-crowned Sparrows, Condor 64: 368 - 377.Google Scholar
  128. Marler, P., Peters, S., Ball, G. F., Dufty, Jr., A. M., and Wingfield, J. C., 1988, The role of sex steroids in the acquisition and production of birdsong, Nature 336: 770 - 772.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Martin, D. J., 1977, Songs of the Fox Sparrow. I. Structure of song and its comparison with song of other Emberizidae, Condor 79: 209 - 211.Google Scholar
  130. McGregor, P. K., 1988, Song length and `male quality’ in the Chiffchaff, An im. Behay. 36: 606 - 608.Google Scholar
  131. McGregor, P. K., and Krebs, J. R., 1982, Song types in a population of Great Tits (Parus major); their distribution, abundance and acquisition by individuals, Behaviour 79: 126 - 152.Google Scholar
  132. McGregor, P. K., Krebs, J. R., and Perrins, C. M., 1981, Song repertoires and lifetime reproductive success in the Great Tit (Parus major), Am. Nat. 118: 149 - 159.Google Scholar
  133. Middleton, A. L., 1993, American Goldfinch (Carduelis tristis), in: The Birds of North America, Vol. 80 ( A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  134. Morrison, M. L., and Hardy, J. W., 1983, Vocalizations of the Black-throated Gray Warbler, Wilson Bull. 95: 640 - 643.Google Scholar
  135. Morse, D. H., 1966, The contexts of song in the Yellow Warbler, Wilson Bull. 78: 444 - 455.Google Scholar
  136. Morse, D. H., 1967, The contexts of songs in Black-throated Green and Blackburnian warblers, Wilson Bull. 79: 64 - 74.Google Scholar
  137. Morton, E. S., and Young, K., 1986, A previously undescribed method of song matching in a species with a single song “type,” the Kentucky Warbler (Oporornis formosus), Ethology 73: 334 - 342.Google Scholar
  138. Mountjoy, D. J., and Lemon, R. E., 1991, Song as an attractant for male and female European Starlings and the influence of song complexity on their response, Behay. Ecol. Sociobiol. 28: 97 - 100.Google Scholar
  139. Mountjoy, D. J., and Lemon, R. E., 1995, Extended song learning in wild European Starlings, Anim. Behay. 49: 357 - 366.Google Scholar
  140. Mountjoy, D. J., and Lemon, R. E., 1996, Female choice for complex song in the European Starling: a field experiment, Behay. Ecol. Sociobiol. 38: 65 - 71.Google Scholar
  141. Moller, A. P., 1994, Sexual Selection and the Barn Swallow, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  142. Naugler, C. T., 1993, American Tree Sparrow, in: The Birds of North America, Vol. 37 ( A. Poole, P. Stettenheim, and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  143. Nelson, D. A., 1992a, Song overproduction and selective attrition lead to song sharing in the Field Sparrow (Spizello pusilla), Behay. Ecol. Sociobiol. 30: 415 - 424.Google Scholar
  144. Nelson, D. A., 1992b, Song overproduction, song matching and selective attrition during development, in: Playback and Studies of Animal Communication ( P. K. McGregor, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 121 - 134.Google Scholar
  145. Nolan, V., Jr., 1978, The Ecology and Behavior of the Prairie Warbler, Dendroica discolor (Ornithological Monographs No. 26 ), American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  146. Olsen, N. J., and Kovacs, W. J., 1996, Gonadal steroids and immunity, Endocrine Rev. 17: 369 - 384.Google Scholar
  147. Payne, R. B., 1973, Behavior, Mimetic Songs and Song Dialects, and Relationships of the Parasitic Indigobirds (Vidua) of Africa (Ornithological Monographs, No. 11), American Ornithologists’ Union.Google Scholar
  148. Payne, R. B., 1978, Microgeographic variation in songs of Splendid Sunbirds, Nectarina coccinigaster: population phenetics, habitats, and song dialects, Behaviour 65: 282 - 308.Google Scholar
  149. Payne, R. B., and Budde, P., 1979, Song differences and map distances in a population of Acadian Flycatchers, Wilson Bull. 91: 29 - 41.Google Scholar
  150. Pitocchelli, J., 1993, Mourning Warbler (Oporornis philadelphia), in: The Birds of North America, Vol. 72 ( A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  151. Pitocchelli, J., 1995, MacGillivray /arbler (Oporornis tolmiei), in: The Birds of North America, Vol. 159 ( A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  152. Post, W., and Greenlaw, J. S., 1975, Seaside Sparrow displays: their function in social organizations and habitat, Auk 92: 461 - 469.Google Scholar
  153. Post, W., Poston, J. P., and Bancroft, G. T., 1996, Boat-tailed Grackle (Quiscalus major), in: The Birds of North America ( A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  154. Power, H. W., and Lombardo, M. P., 1996, Mountain Bluebird (Sialia currucoides), in: The Birds of North America, Vol. 222 ( A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  155. Ratcliffe, L. M., and Grant, P. R., 1985, Species recognition in Darwin’s finches (Geospiza, Gould). III. Male responses to playback of different song types, dialects and heterospecific songs, Anim. Behay. 33: 290 - 307.Google Scholar
  156. Read, A. F., and Weary, D. M., 1990, Sexual selection and the evolution of bird song: a test of the Hamilton–Zuk hypothesis, Behay. Ecol. Sociobiol. 26: 47 - 56.Google Scholar
  157. Read, A. F., and Weary, D. M., 1992, The evolution of bird song: comparative analyses, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 338: 165 - 187.Google Scholar
  158. Reynolds, M. D., 1995, Yellow-billed Magpie (Pica nuttalli), in: The Birds of North America, Vol. 180 ( A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  159. Rising, J. D., 1996, A Guide to the Identification and Natural History of the Sparrows of the United States and Canada, Academic Press, San Diego, California.Google Scholar
  160. Ritchison, G., 1981, Variance in the songs of Vesper Sparrows Pooecetes gramineus, Am. Midi. Nat. 106: 392 - 398.Google Scholar
  161. Ritchision, G., 1983, Vocalizations of the White-breasted Nuthatch, Wilson Bull. 95: 440451.Google Scholar
  162. Romanowski, V. E., 1978, Der Gesang Sumpf-und Weidenmeise (Parus palustris und Parus montanus)—Variation und Funktion, Vogelwarte 29: 235 - 253.Google Scholar
  163. Rothstein, S. I., Yokel, D. A., and Fleischer, R. C., 1988, The agonistic and sexual functions of vocalizations of male Brown-headed Cowbirds, Molothrus ater, Anim. Behay. 36: 73 - 86.Google Scholar
  164. Ryan, M. J., and Keddy-Hector, A., 1992, Directional patterns of female choice and the role of sensory biases, Am. Nat. 139: s4–s35.Google Scholar
  165. Ryan, M. J., and Rand, A. S., 1993, Sexual selection and signal evolution: the ghost of biases past, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 340: 187 - 195.Google Scholar
  166. Ryan, M. J., Fox, J. H., Wilczynski, W., and Rand, A. S., 1990, Sexual selection for sensory exploitation in the frog Physalaemus pustulosus, Nature 343: 66 - 67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Samson, F. B., 1978, Vocalizations of Cassin’s Finch in northern Utah, Condor 80: 203 - 210.Google Scholar
  168. Searcy, W. A., 1992a, Measuring responses of female birds to male song, in: Playback and Studies of Animal Communication ( P. K. McGregor, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 175 - 190.Google Scholar
  169. Searcy, W. A., 19926, Song repertoire and mate choice in birds, Am. Zool. 32: 71 - 80.Google Scholar
  170. Searcy, W. A., and Andersson, M., 1986, Sexual selection and the evolution of song, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 17: 507 - 533.Google Scholar
  171. Searcy, W. A., and Marier, P., 1984, Interspecific differences in the response of female birds to song repertoires, Z. Tierpsychol. 66: 128 - 142.Google Scholar
  172. Searcy, W. A., and Yasukawa, K., 1995, Polygyny and Sexual Selection in Red-winged Blackbirds, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  173. Shackleton, S. A., and Ratcliffe, L., 1994, Matched counter-singing signals escalation of aggression in Black-capped Chickadees (Parus atricapillus), Ethology 97: 310 - 316.Google Scholar
  174. Shackleton, S. A., Ratcliffe, L., Horn, A. G., and Naugler, C. T., 1991, Song repertoires of Harris’ Sparrows (Zonotrichia querula), Can. J. Zool. 69: 1867 - 1874.Google Scholar
  175. Shaw, K., 1995, Phylogenetic tests of the sensory exploitation model of sexual selection, Trends Ecol. Evol. 10: 117 - 120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Sheldon, B. C., and Verhulst, S., 1996, Ecological immunology: costly parasite defences and trade-offs in evolutionary ecology, Trends Ecol. Evol. 11: 317 - 321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Shiovitz, K. A., 1975, The process of species-specific song recognition by the Indigo Bunting, Passerina cyanea, and its relationship to the organization of avian acoustical behavior, Behaviour 55: 128 - 179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Shutler, D., and Weatherhead, P. J., 1990, Targets of sexual selection: song and plumage of Wood warblers, Evolution 44: 1967 - 1977.Google Scholar
  179. Sibley, C. G., and Ahlquist, J. E., 1990, Phylogeny and Classification of Birds, Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.Google Scholar
  180. Simpson, B. S., 1984, Tests of habituation to song repertoires by Carolina Wrens, Auk 101: 244 - 254.Google Scholar
  181. Slater, P. J. B., 1978, Beau Geste has problems, Anim. Behay. 26: 304.Google Scholar
  182. Slater, P. J. B., 1981, Chaffinch song repertoires: observations, experiments and a discussion of their significance, Z. Tierpsychol. 56: 1 - 24.Google Scholar
  183. Snow, D. W., and Snow, B. K., 1983, Territorial song of the Dunnock Prunella modularis, Bird Study 30: 51 - 56.Google Scholar
  184. Spector, D. A., 1991, The singing behavior of Yellow Warblers, Behaviour 117: 29 - 52.Google Scholar
  185. Spector, D. A., 1992, Wood-warbler song systems: a review of paruline singing behaviors, in: Current Ornithology, Vol. 9 ( D. Power, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 199 - 238.Google Scholar
  186. Stiles, F. G., and Whitney, B., 1983, Notes on the behavior of the Costa Rican Sharpbill (Oxyruncus cristatus frater), Auk 100: 117 - 125.Google Scholar
  187. Stoddard, P. K., 1996, Vocal recognition of neighbors by territorial passerines, in Ecology and Evolution of Acoustic Communication in Birds ( D. E. Kroodsma and E. H. Miller, eds.), Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, pp. 356 - 374.Google Scholar
  188. Strickland, D., and Ouellet, H., 1993, Gray Jay (Perisoreus canadensis), in: The Birds of North America, Vol. 40 ( A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  189. Székely, T., Catchpole, C. K., DeVoogd, A., Marchi, Z., and DeVoogd, T. J., 1996, Evolutionary changes in a song control area of the brain (HVC) are associated with evolutionary changes in song repertoire among European warblers ( Sylviidae ), Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 263: 607-610.Google Scholar
  190. Temrin, H., 1986, Singing behaviour in relation to polyterritorial polygyny in the Wood Warbler (Phylloscopus sibilatrix), Anim. Behay. 34: 146 - 157.Google Scholar
  191. Thielcke, G., 1961, Stammesgeschichte and geographische variation des gesanges unserer baumläufer (Certhia familiaris L. and C. brachydactyla Brehm), Z. Tierpsychol. 18: 188 - 204.Google Scholar
  192. Thompson, N. S., LeDoux, K., and Moody, K., 1994, A system for describing bird song units, Bioacoustics 5: 267 - 279.Google Scholar
  193. Thompson, W. L., 1970, Song variation in a population of Indigo Buntings, Auk 87: 5871.Google Scholar
  194. Thorpe, W. H., 1963, Learning and Instinct in Animals, 2nd ed., Metheun, London.Google Scholar
  195. Trainer, J. M., 1988, Singing organization during aggressive interactions among male Yellow-rumped Caciques, Condor 90: 681 - 688.Google Scholar
  196. Trainer, J. M., and Peitz, B. S., 1996, Song repertoire of the Bobolink: a reassessment, Ethology 102: 50 - 62.Google Scholar
  197. Tubaro, P. L., 1992, Song repertoires of the White-browed Blackbird, Wilson Bull. 104: 345 - 352.Google Scholar
  198. Tubaro, P. L., and Segura, E. T., 1995, Geographic, ecological and subspecific variation in the song of the Rufous-browed Peppershrike (Cyclarhis gujanensis), Condor 97: 792 - 803.Google Scholar
  199. Twedt, D. J., and Crawford, R. D., 1995, Yellow-headed Blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus), in: The Birds of North America, Vol. 192 ( A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  200. Tweit, R. C., and Finch, D. M., 1994, Abert’s Towhee (Pipilo aberti), in: The Birds of North America, Vol. 111 ( A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  201. Van Horne, B., 1995, Assessing vocal variety in the Winter Wren, a bird with a complex repertoire, Condor 97: 39 - 49.Google Scholar
  202. Weary, D. M., Krebs, J. R., Eddyshaw, R., McGregor, P. K., and Horn, A., 1988, Decline in song output by Great Tits: exhaustion or motivation? Anim. Behay. 36: 1242 - 1244.Google Scholar
  203. Weary, D. M., and Lemon, R. E., 1988, Evidence against the continuity–versatility relationship in bird song, Anim. Behay. 36: 1379 - 1383.Google Scholar
  204. Weary, D. M., and Lemon, R. E., 1989, Kroodsma refuted, Anim. Behay. 39: 996 - 998.Google Scholar
  205. Weary, D. M., Lambrechts, M. M., and Krebs, J. R., 1991, Does singing exhaust male Great Tits? Anim. Behay. 41: 540 - 542.Google Scholar
  206. Weary, D. M., Lemon, R. E., and Perreault, S., 1992, Song repertoires do not hinder neighbour–stranger discrimination, Behay. Ecol. Sociobiol. 31: 441 - 447.Google Scholar
  207. Weary, D. M., Norris, K. J., and Falls, J. B., 1990, Song features birds use to identify individuals, Auk 107: 623 - 625.Google Scholar
  208. Weatherhead, P. J., Metz, K. J., Bennett, G. F., and Irwin, R. E., 1993, Parasite faunas, testosterone and secondary sexual traits in male Red-Winged Blackbirds, Behay. Ecol. Sociobiol. 33: 13 - 23.Google Scholar
  209. Webb, E. A., and Bock, C. E., 1996, Botteri’s Sparrow (Aimophila botterii), in: The Birds of North America, Vol. 216 ( A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  210. Whitney, C. L., 1981, Patterns of singing in the Varied Thrush: I. The similarity of songs within individual reportoires, Z. Tierpsychol. 57: 131 - 140.Google Scholar
  211. Williams, L., and MacRoberts, M. H., 1977, Individual variation in the songs of Dark-eyed Juncos, Condor 79: 106 - 112.Google Scholar
  212. With, K. A., 1994, McCown’s Longspur (Calcarius mccownii), in: The Birds of North America, Vol. 96 ( A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  213. Wootton, J. T., 1996, Purple Finch (Carpodacus purpureus), in: The Birds of North America, Vol. 208 ( A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  214. Yasukawa, K., 1981, Song repertoires in the Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus): A test of the Beau Geste hypothesis, Anim. Behay. 29: 114 - 125.Google Scholar
  215. Yasukawa, K., and Searcy, W. A., 1985, Song repertoires and density assessment in Red-winged Blackbirds: further tests of the Beau Geste hypothesis, Behay. Ecol. Sociobiol. 16: 171 - 175.Google Scholar
  216. Yasukawa, K., Blank, J. L., and Patterson, C. B., 1980, Song repertoires and sexual selection in the Red-winged Blackbird, Behay. Ecol. Sociobiol. 7: 233 - 238.Google Scholar
  217. Ydenberg, R. C., Giraldeau, L. A., and Falls, J. B., 1988, Neighbours, strangers and the asymmetric war of attrition, Anim. Behay. 36: 343 - 347.Google Scholar
  218. Zahavi, A., 1975, Mate selection—A selection for a handicap, J. Theor. Biol. 53: 205 - 214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Zann, R., 1993, Structure, sequence and evolution of song elements in wild Australian Zebra Finches, Auk 110: 702 - 715.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scott A. Macdougall-Shackleton
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations