Physiological, Ecological, and Evolutionary Bases for the Avoidance of Chemical Irritants by Birds

  • Larry Clark
Part of the Current Ornithology book series (CUOR, volume 14)


The chemical senses in birds are only infrequently considered. This dearth of general appreciation of avian chemical sensory systems is understandable. Vision, audition, tactile, and thermal sensory systems have readily quantifiable stimuli and relatively few mediating receptor systems. In contrast, chemical signals are mediated by numerous sensory systems, the stimuli themselves are myriad, and the method by which the stimuli reach the receptor systems can at best be described as chaotic. Nonetheless the chemical senses are critical to the survival and feeding ecology of species. Recent reviews have described the functional and adaptive aspects of avian olfactory and gustatory systems (Waldvogel, 1989; Kare and Brand, 1986; Berkhoudt, 1985; Bang and Wenzel, 1986; Wenzel, 1973). This review considers the least generally understood chemical sensory system of birds, the avian trigeminal system.


Conditional Stimulus Avoidance Response Snow Goose Canada Goose Chemical Sens 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Larry Clark
    • 1
  1. 1.United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Health Inspection Service, Animal Damage ControlNational Wildlife Research CenterFort CollinsUSA

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