Mammalian Reproductive Physiology

Adaptive Responses to Changing Environments
  • Norman C. Negus
  • Patricia J. Berger


Not many years ago, environments were regarded as being relatively stable and species were presumed to have evolved life histories in equilibrium with such environments. More recently, however, attention has been drawn to the fluctuating and uncertain nature of most environments and the necessity of organisms to adapt to this heterogeneity or perish (Levins, 1968). Biologists have begun seriously to consider life history strategies as phenotypic traits that are responding to sets of environmental variables. Today there is increasing awareness of the great complexity of selective forces acting on the evolution of life histories at both the genetic and phenotypic levels (Boyce, 1984; Emlen, 1984).


Food Resource Small Mammal Reproductive Strategy Life History Strategy Short Generation Time 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norman C. Negus
    • 1
  • Patricia J. Berger
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA

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