Space-Charge Layers at Semiconductor Interfaces

  • M. Schulz
Part of the Physics of Solids and Liquids book series (PSLI)

Abstract

Space-charge layers at semiconductor interfaces are the basis for most semiconductor devices such as diodes, transistors, integrated circuits, and MOS devices. Interfaces occur when differing materials make contact with the semiconductor material in a plane. Various combinations of materials that create interfaces are shown in Figure 11.1. The best-known interface occurring in semiconductors is the pn-junction, where an n-type and p-type semiconductor make contact. The surface of a semiconductor may be considered as an interface between the semiconductor and vacuum or a neutral ambient. The interface between the semiconductor and an insulator is exploited in MOS devices. This interface may also be considered as a heterojunction between two different semiconductors for which one semiconductor is a high-band-gap material. Very important for semiconductor devices is also the metal-semiconductor interface, which is used to fabricate ohmic contacts and Schottky-barrier diodes. Semiconductor devices are fabricated by combinations of such interfaces. The simple planar transistor consists, for example, of a sequence of metal/p-semiconductor/n-semiconductor/p-semiconductor/metal layers of regions, which are separated by the interfaces.

Keywords

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Interface State Capture Cross Section Interface Trap Oxide Charge 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, Wiley-Interscience, New York (1981).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. R. Zwicker, in: Optical and Infrared Detectors (R. J. Keyes, ed.), Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 19, p. 120, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1977).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. S. Grove, Physics and Technology of Semiconductor Devices, John Wiley and Sons, New York (1977).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. H. Nicollian and J. R. Brews, MOS Physics and Technology, Wiley-Interscience, New York (1982).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. Balk, ed., The SiO 2 -Si System, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1986).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Balk, in: Insulating Films on Semiconductors, Proc. Int. Conf. INFOS 83, Eindhoven 1983 (J. Verwey and D. R. Wolters, eds.), p. 204, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1983).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    E. H. Rhoderick, Metal Semiconductor Contacts, Clarendon Press, Oxford (1978).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Schulz, Metal Semiconductor Interfaces, in: Scientific Principles of Semiconductor Technology (H. Weiss, ed.), Proc. Eur. Summer School, Bad Boll (1974).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. Kurtin, T. McGill, and C. A. Mead, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 1433 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. S. Bauer, ed., Surfaces and Interfaces: Physics and Electronics, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1983).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. J. Brillson and C. F. Brucker, in: Surfaces and Interfaces: Physics and Electronics (R. S. Bauer, ed.), p. 212, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    W. Mönch, in: Surfaces and Interfaces: Physics and Electronics (R. S. Bauer, ed.), p. 92, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    R. Dingle, in: Surfaces and Interfaces: Physics and Electronics (R. S. Bauer, ed.), North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1983).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. S. Bauer, in: Surfaces and Interfaces: Physics and Electronics (R. S. Bauer, ed.), p. 479, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. A. Schwarz and M. J. Schulz, in: VLSI Electronics (N. G. Einspruch, ed.), Academic Press, New York (1985).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Schulz, in: Surfaces and Interfaces: Physics and Electronics (R. S. Bauer, ed.), p. 422, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1983);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 16a.
    M. Schulz, Surf Sci. 132, 422 (1983).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 17.
    S. T. Pantelides, ed., The Physics of SiO 2 and its Interfaces, Pergamon Press, New York (1978).Google Scholar
  19. 18.
    G. G. Roberts and M. J. Morant, eds., Insulating Films on Semiconductors, Proc. Int. Conf. INFOS 79, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 50 (1979).Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    G. Lucovski, S. T. Pantelides, and F. L. Galeener, eds., The Physics of MOS Insulators, Proc. Int. Conf. Raleigh, Pergamon Press, New York (1980).Google Scholar
  21. 20.
    M. Schulz and G. Pensl, eds., Insulating Films on Semiconductors, INFOS 81, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg (1981).Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    J. F. Verwey and D. R. Wolters, eds., Insulating Films on Semiconductors, INFOS 83, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1983).Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    O. Madelung, M. Schulz, and H. Weiss, eds., Landolt-Börnstein Semiconductor Data, Vol. III/17C, Semiconductor Technology, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg (1983).Google Scholar
  24. 23.
    J. A. Cooper, D. F. Nelson, S. A. Schwarz, and K. K. Thornber, in: YLSI Electronics (N. G. Einspruch, ed.), Academic Press, New York (1985).Google Scholar
  25. 24.
    T. Ando, A. B. Fowler, and F. Stern, Rev. Mod. Phys. 54, 437 (1982).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    B. E. Deal and A. S. Grove, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3770 (1965).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    W. A. Tiller, J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 619, 625 (1980); 128, 689 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 27.
    J. D. Plummer, ECS Semiconductor Symp., p. 445 (1981).Google Scholar
  29. 28.
    R. B. Fair, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 860 (1979).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 29.
    C. P. Ho, J. D. Plummer, B. E. Deal, and J. D. Meindl, J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 1101 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 30.
    C. R. Helms, in: Insulating Films on Semiconductors (M. Schulz and G. Pensl, eds.), INFOS 81, p. 19, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 31.
    B. E. Deal, Interface Specialist Conf., San Diego (1982).Google Scholar
  33. 32.
    A. Goetzberger, E. Klausmann, and M. Schulz, CRC Crit. Rev. Solid State Sci. 6, 1 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 33.
    E. H. Nicollian and A. Goetzberger, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 46, 1055 (1967).Google Scholar
  35. 34.
    H. Deuling, E. Klausmann, and A. Goetzberger, Solid-State Electron. 15, 559 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 35.
    M. Schulz and E. Klausmann, Appl. Phys. 18, 169 (1979).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 36.
    N. M. Johnson, D. J. Bartelink, and M. Schulz, in: The Physics of SiO 2 and its Interfaces (S. T. Pantelides, ed.), p. 421, Pergamon Press, New York (1978).Google Scholar
  38. 37.
    D. V. Lang, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3023 (1984).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 38.
    K. L. Wang and A. D. Evwavaye, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4574 (1976).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 39.
    K. L. Wang, Electrochem. Soc. Proc. 77–2, 622 (1977).Google Scholar
  41. 40.
    M. Schulz and N. M. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 622 (1977).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 41.
    E. Klausmann, in: Insulating Films on Semiconductors (G. G. Roberts and M. J. Morant, eds.), p. 97, Proc. Int. Conf. INFOS 79, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 50 (1979).Google Scholar
  43. 42.
    R. J. Kriegler, T. F. Devenyi, K. D. Chick, and J. Shappir, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 398 (1979).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 43.
    T. C. Poon and H. C. Card, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 6273, 5881 (1980).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 44.
    A. Sher, Y. H. Tsuo, P. Su, and W. E. Miller, in: The Physics of MOS Insulators (G. Lucovski, S. T. Pantelides, and F. L. Galeener, eds.), Proc. Int. Conf. Raleigh, p. 236, Pergamon Press, New York (1980);Google Scholar
  46. 44a.
    A. Sher, Y. H. Tsuo, P. Su, and W. E. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 991 (1980).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 45.
    K. Blumenstock and M. Schulz, in: Insulating Films on Semiconductors (M. Schulz and G. Pensl, eds.), INFOS 81, p. 48, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 46.
    D. W. Greve and W. E. Dahlke, in: Insulating Films on Semiconductors (G. G. Roberts and M. J. Morant, eds.), p. 107, Proc. Int. Conf. INFOS 79, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 50 (1979).Google Scholar
  49. 47.
    R. F. Pierret and B. R. Roesner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 366 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 48.
    P. J. Caplan, E. H. Poindexter, B. E. Deal, and R. R. Razouk, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 5847 (1979);ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 48a.
    P. J. Caplan, E. H. Poindexter, B. E. Deal, and R. R. Razouk, in: Insulating Films on Semiconductors (M. Schulz and G. Pensl, eds.), INFOS 81, p. 150, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg (1981).Google Scholar
  52. 49.
    C. Brunstrom and C. Svensson, Solid State Commun. 37, 39 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 50.
    Y. Nishi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 10, 52 (1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 51.
    G. Mende and D. Hanemann, Appl. Phys. A26, 87 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 52.
    E. H. Poindexter and P. J. Caplan, in: Insulating Films on Semiconductors (J. F. Verwey and D. R. Wolters, eds.), INFOS 83, p. 24, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1983).Google Scholar
  56. 53.
    J. Maserjian and N. Zamani, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 559 (1982).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 54.
    K. Ziegler and E. Klausmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 400 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 55.
    H. Flietner, W. Fussel, and N. D. Sinh, Phys. Status Solidi 43, K99 (1977).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 56.
    P. Gray, Proc. IEEE 157, 1543 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 57.
    P. Gray and D. M. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 31 (1966).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 58.
    M. R. Boudry, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 530 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 59.
    T. P. Ma and R. C. Barker, Solid-State Electron 17, 913 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 60.
    T. J. Tredwell and C. R. Viswanathan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 460 (1980).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 61.
    X. O. Zheng, K. Hofmann, and M. Schulz, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 9146 (1982).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 62.
    K. Hofmann, private communication.Google Scholar
  66. 63.
    L. Risch, E. Pammer, and K. Friedrich, in: Insulating Films on Semiconductors (G. G. Roberts and M. J. Morant, eds.), Proc. Int. Conf. INFOS 79, p. 114, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 50 (1979).Google Scholar
  67. 64.
    L. Risch, in: Insulating Films on Semiconductors (M. Schulz and G. Pensl, eds.), INFOS 81, p. 39, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 65.
    N. M. Johnson, D. K. Biegelsen, and M. D. Moyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 995 (1981);ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 65a.
    N. M. Johnson, D. K. Biegelsen, and M. D. Moyer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 19, 390 (1981).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 66.
    N. M. Johnson, D. J. Bartelink, and J. P. McVittie, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 1407 (1978);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 66a.
    N. M. Johnson, D. J. Bartelink, and J. P. McVittie, in: Insulating Films on Semiconductors (M. Schulz and G. Pensl, eds.), INFOS 81, p. 35, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 67.
    N. M. Johnson, D. K. Biegelsen, M. D. Moyer, S. T. Chang, E. H. Poindexter, and P. J. Caplan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 563 (1983).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 68.
    A. Goetzberger, A. D. Lopez, and R. J. Strain, J. Electrochem. Soc. 120, 90 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 69.
    K. Saminadyev and J. C. Pfister, Solid-State Electron. 20, 891 (1977).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 70.
    E. Rosencher and D. Bois, in: The Physics of MOS Insulators (G. Lucovski, S. T. Pantelides, and F. L. Galeener, eds.), Proc. Int. Conf. Raleigh, p. 331, Pergamon Press, New York (1980).Google Scholar
  76. 71.
    W. Fahrner and A. Goetzberger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 329 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 72.
    T. P. Ma, Electrochem. Soc. Proc. 81–85, 427 (1981).Google Scholar
  78. 73.
    S. K. Lai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 58 (1981).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 74.
    M. Schulz, K. Blumenstock, and E. Klausmann, Electrochem. Soc. Proc. 81–85, 463 (1981).Google Scholar
  80. 75.
    M. Schulz and N. M. Johnson, Erratum, Solid-State Commun. 26 (1978).Google Scholar
  81. 76.
    M. Morita, K. Tsubonchi, and N. Mikoshiba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 745 (1978).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 77.
    W. Fahrner and A. Goetzberger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 16 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 78.
    R. R. Razouk and B. E. Deal, J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 1573 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 79.
    J. L. Pautrat and J. C. Pfister, Phys. Status Solidi 11, 669 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 80.
    Y. C. Cheng, Surf. Sci. 8, 181 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 81.
    B. E. Deal, Electrochem. Soc. Proc. 77–2, 276 (1977).Google Scholar
  87. 82.
    T. W. Hickmott, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 723 (1977).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 83.
    E. Kooi, Philips Res. Rep. 20, 578 (1965).Google Scholar
  89. 84.
    P. Balk, Electrochem. Soc. Meet., Buffalo, Abstract 111 (1965).Google Scholar
  90. 85.
    K. Hofmann and M. Schulz, J. Electrochem. Soc. 132, 2201 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 86.
    K. Yamasaki, T. Sugano, and M. Yoshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 113 (1979).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 87.
    G. Kaden, Phys. Status Solidi A 3, 161 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 88.
    M. Schulz, E. Klausmann, and A. Hurrle, CRC Cut. Rev. Solid State Sci. 5, 319 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 89.
    P. F. Schmidt and L. P. Adda, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1826 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 90.
    J. Snel, in: Insulating Films on Semiconductors (G. G. Roberts and M. J. Morant, eds.), Proc. Int. Conf. INFOS 79, p. 119, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 50 (1979).Google Scholar
  96. 91.
    N. Will, K. Hofmann, and M. Schulz, in: Insulating Films on Semiconductors (J. F. Verwey and D. R. Wolters, eds.), INFOS 83, p. 8, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1983).Google Scholar
  97. 92.
    E. H. Snow, A. S. Grove, B. E. Deal, and C. T. Sah, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1664 (1965).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 93.
    S. R. Hofstein, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 13, 222 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 94.
    T. Hickmott, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22 267 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 95.
    M. R. Boudry and J. P. Stagg, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 942 (1979).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 96.
    R. J. Kriegler, Denki Kagaku 41 466 (1973).Google Scholar
  102. 97.
    G. Sixt and A. Goetzberger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 978 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 98.
    G. Sixt, M. Schulz, and A. Goetzberger, Appl. Phys. 4, 217 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 99.
    D. J. DiMaria, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 7251 (1981).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 100.
    A. B. Fowler and A. Hartstein, Philos. Mag. B 42, 949 (1980).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 101.
    A. Hartstein and A. B. Fowler, Surf. Sci. 73, 19 (1978).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 102.
    A. Goetzberger, V. Heime, and E. H. Nicollian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 95 (1968).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 103.
    N. O. Lipari, J. Vac. Sci. Techol. 15, 1412 (1978).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 104.
    R. Williams and M. H. Woods, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 458 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 105.
    W. R. Bottoms and D. Guterman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 965 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 106.
    C. Werner, H. Bernt, and A. Eder, in: Insulating Films on Semiconductors (G. G. Roberts and M. J. Morant, eds.), Proc. Int. Conf. INFOS 79, p. 124, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 50 (1979).Google Scholar
  112. 107.
    K. Ziegler and E. Klausmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 678 (1976).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 108.
    E. Rosencher and R. Coppard, in: Insulating Films on Semiconductors (J. F. Verwey and D. R. Wolters, eds.), INFOS 83, p. 158, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1983).Google Scholar
  114. 109.
    H. C. Card, in: Insulating Films on Semiconductors (G. G. Roberts and M. J. Morant, eds.), Proc. Int. Conf. INFOS 79, p. 190, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 50 (1979).Google Scholar
  115. 110.
    Y. Takase and A. Odajima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, 919 (1980).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 111.
    S. Kar and W. Dahlke, Solid-State Electron. 15, 869 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 112.
    P. Dressendorfer, S. K. Lai, R. C. Barker, and T. P. Ma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 850 (1980).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 113.
    S. K. Lai, Electrochem. Soc. Proc. 81–5, 416 (1981).Google Scholar
  119. 114.
    P. Balk, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 69, 63, (1983); Suppl. Proc. Int. Vac. Congr. Cannes, p. 525 (1980).Google Scholar
  120. 115.
    N. Lieske and R. Hezel, in: Insulating Films on Semiconductors (G. G. Roberts and M. J. Morant, eds.), Proc. Int. Conf. INFOS 79, p. 206, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 50 (1979).Google Scholar
  121. 116.
    J. R. Brews, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2306 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 117.
    P. K. Chatterjee, G. W. Taylor, A. F. Tasch, and H. S. Fu, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 27, 564 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 118.
    R. M. Levin and T. T. Sheng, J. Electrochem. Soc. 130, 1894 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 119.
    R. G. M. Penning, de Vries, and H. Wallinga, in: Insulating Films on Semiconductors (J. F. Verwey and D. R. Wolters, eds.), INFOS 83, p. 171, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1983).Google Scholar
  125. 120.
    K. H. Zaininger and A. G. Holmes-Siedle, RCA Rev. 28, 208 (1967).Google Scholar
  126. 121.
    C. T. Sah, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 24, 1563 (1976).Google Scholar
  127. 122.
    T. P. Ma and R. C. Barker, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 317 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 123.
    S. K. Lai and D. R. Young, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 6231 (1981).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 124.
    J. M. Aitken, D. R. Young, and K. Pan, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3386 (1978).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 125.
    J. M. Aitken, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 26, 372 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 126.
    D. J. DiMaria, Z. A. Weinberg, and J. M. Aitken, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 898 (1977).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 127.
    O. L. Curtis, J. R. Srour, and K. Y. Chin, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4506 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 128.
    P. S. Winokur and M. Sokolowski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 627 (1976).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 129.
    P. S. Winokur, J. M. McGarrity and H. E. Boesch, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 23, 1580 (1976).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 130.
    F. J. Grunthaner, P. J. Grunthaner, R. P. Vaszuez, B. F. Lewis, J. Maserjian, and A. Madhukar, in: The Physics of MOS Insulators (G. Lucovski, S. T. Pantelides, and E. L. Galeener, eds.), Proc. Int. Conf. Raleigh, p. 290, Pergamon Press, New York (1980).Google Scholar
  136. 131.
    F. B. McLean, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 27, 263 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 132.
    V. Zekeriya and T. P. Ma, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 1017 (1984).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 133.
    M. Knoll, D. Bräuning and W. H. Fahrner, in: Insulating Films on Semiconductors (J. F. Verwey and D. R. Wolters, eds.), INFOS 83, p. 107, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1983).Google Scholar
  139. 134.
    K. Ng and G. W. Taylor, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 30, 871 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 135.
    D. Schmitt and G. Dorda, Electron. Lett. 17, 761 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 136.
    H. Gesch, J. P. Leburton, and G. Dorda, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 29, 913 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 137.
    S. A. Abbas and R. C. Dockerty, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 147 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 138.
    T. H. Ning, C. M. Osburn, and H. N. Hu, IEEE Trans. Syst., Man Cybern. 14, 268 (1979);Google Scholar
  144. 138a.
    T. H. Ning, C. M. Osburn, and H. N. Hu, J. Electron. Mater. 6, 65 (1977).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 139.
    P. E. Cottrell, R. R. Traitman, and T. H. Ning, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 26, 520 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 140.
    G. Dorda, in: Solid State Devices (E. H. Rhoderick, ed.), Proc. ESSDERC Conf. 1983, Canterbury, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. No. 69 (1984).Google Scholar
  147. 141.
    D. R. Young, D. J. DiMaria, and W. R. Hunter, J. Electron. Mater. 6, 569 (1977).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 142.
    D. R. Young, E. A. Irene, D. J. DiMaria, R. F. DeKeersmaecker, and H. Z. Massima, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 6366 (1979).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 143.
    D. J. DiMaria, in: Insulating Films on Semiconductors (G. G. Roberts and M. J. Morant, eds.), Proc. Int. Conf. INFOS 79, p. 160, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 50 (1979).Google Scholar
  150. 144.
    F. J. Feigl, D. R. Young, D. J. DiMaria, and S. Lai, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 5665 (1981).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 145.
    R. F. DeKeersmaecker, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1085 (1980).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 146.
    D. J. DiMaria, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 7251 (1981).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 147.
    J. M. Aitken and R. F. DeKeersmaecker, Report RADC-TR81–113.Google Scholar
  154. 148.
    F. J. Feigl, in: Insulating Films on Semiconductors (M. Schulz and G. Pensl, eds.), INFOS 81, p. 104, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 149.
    R. A. Gdula, J. Electrochem. Soc. 42, 123 (1976).Google Scholar
  156. 150.
    H. Lefevre, Appl. Phys. 22, 15 (1980); 29, 105 (1982).MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 151.
    T. Kunjunny and D. K. Ferry, Phys. Rev. B 24, 4593 (1981).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 152.
    R. B. Laughlin, J. D. Joannopoulis, and D. J. Chadi, in: Insulating Films on Semiconductors (G. G. Roberts and M. J. Morant, eds.), Proc. Int. Conf. INFOS 79, p. 321, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 50 (1979).Google Scholar
  159. 153.
    F. Herman, in: Insulating Films on Semiconductors (M. Schulz and G. Pensl, eds.), INFOS 81, p. 1, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg (1981).Google Scholar
  160. 154.
    T. Sugano, in: Insulating Films on Semiconductors (J. F. Verwey and D. R. Wolters, eds.), INFOS 83, p. 1, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1983).Google Scholar
  161. 155.
    L. M. Roth and A. J. Bennett, Proc. 10th Int. Conf. on Semiconductors, p. 619 (1970).Google Scholar
  162. 156.
    T. Sakurai and T. Sugano, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 2889 (1981).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 157.
    F. L. Galeener, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 40, 527 (1980).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 158.
    M. Preier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 361 (1967).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 159.
    M. Schulz, in: Insulating Films on Semiconductors (G. G. Roberts and M. J. Morant, eds.) Proc. Inf. Conf. INFOS 79, p. 87, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 50 (1979).Google Scholar
  166. 160.
    D. J. DiMaria, in: The Physics of SiO 2 and its Interfaces (S. T. Pantelides, ed.), p. 160, Pergamon Press, New York (1978).Google Scholar
  167. 161.
    H. Flietner, Surf Sci. 46, 251 (1984).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 162.
    A. G. Revecz and G. V. Gibbs, in: The Physics of SiO 2 and its Interfaces (S. T. Pantelides, ed.), p. 92, Pergamon Press, New York (1978).Google Scholar
  169. 163.
    A. Hartstein, A. B. Fowler, and M. Albert, Surf. Sci. 98, 181 (1980).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 164.
    F. Koch, in: Insulating Films on Semiconductors (M. Schulz and G. Pensl, eds.), INFOS 81, p. 248, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 165.
    F. Braun, Ann. Phys. Chem. 153, 556 (1874).Google Scholar
  172. 166.
    G. W. Rubloflf, in: Surfaces and Interfaces: Physics and Electronics (R. S. Bauer, ed.), p. 268, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 167.
    R. T. Tung, J. M. Gibson, and J. Poate, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 888 (1983).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 168.
    J. W. Mayer, I. V. Mitchell and M. A. Nicolet, in: Proc. Int. Conf. on Ion Implantation (I. Ruge and J. Graul, eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1971).Google Scholar
  175. 169.
    K. N. Tu and J. W. Maxer, in: Thin Films-Interdiffusion and Reactions (J. Poate, K. N. Tu, and J. W. Mayer, eds.), John Wiley and Sons, New York (1978).Google Scholar
  176. 170.
    J. M. Shannon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 369 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 171.
    J. M. Shannon, in: Solid State Devices (E. H. Rhoderick, ed.), Proc. ESSDERC Conf. 1983, Canterbury, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. No. 69 (1984).Google Scholar
  178. 172.
    H. Elabd and W. F. Kosonocky, RCA Rev. 13, 569 (1982).Google Scholar
  179. 173.
    K. Tanikawa, Y. Ito, and A. Shimohashi, IEEE Trans. EDL 4, 66 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 174.
    S. P. Murarka, in: Semiconductor Silicon (H. R. Huff, R. J. Kriegler, and Y. Takeishi, eds.), The Electrochemical Society, Pennington (1981).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Schulz
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Angewandte PhysikErlangenGermany

Personalised recommendations