Regenerative Cryogenic Refrigerators

  • Robert A. Ackermann
Part of the The International Cryogenics Monograph Series book series (ICMS)

Abstract

The development of satellite communications in the 1950s led to the first commercial need for small cryogenic refrigerators to provide 4 K cooling for ground-based parametric amplifiers. The use of these refrigerators has increased significantly since that time with the evolution of several additional cryogenic applications. The most successful of these new applications are:
  • Military infrared surveillance and target acquisition systems

  • Vacuum cryopumps

  • Superconducting magnets for medical and electrical power systems

  • Superconducting electronic devices

Keywords

Heat Exchanger Mass Flow Rate Exhaust Valve Pulse Tube Inlet Valve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ackermann, R. A., and Gifford, W. E. (1971). A heat balance analysis of a Gifford–McMahon cryorefrigerator, in Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol. 16 ( K. D. Timmerhaus, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, p. 221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Colgate, S. A., and Petschek, A. G. (1993). Regenerator optimization for Stirling cycle refrigeration, in Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol. 39 ( P. Kittel, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, p. 1351.Google Scholar
  3. Gifford, W. E. (1966). The Gifford–McMahon Cycle, in Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol. 11 ( K. D. Timmerhaus, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, p. 152.Google Scholar
  4. Gifford, W. E., and Longsworth, R. C. (1967). Surface heat pumping, in Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol. 11 ( K. D. Timmerhaus, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, p. 171.Google Scholar
  5. Matsubara, Y., and Gao, J. L. (1994). Novel configuration of three-stage pulse tube for temperatures below 4 K, Cryogenics 34 (4), 259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Mikulin, E. I., Tarasov, A. A., and Shkrebyonock, M. P. (1984). Low temperature expansion pulse tube, in Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol. 29 ( R. W. Fast, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, p. 629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Radebaugh, R., and Louie, B. (1985). A simple first step to the optimization of regenerator geometry, in Proceedings of the Third Cryocooler Conference, NBS Special Publication 698, p. 177, National Bureau of Standards, Boulder.Google Scholar
  8. Walker, G. (1983). Cryocoolers, Part 1: Fundamentals and Part 2: Applications, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert A. Ackermann
    • 1
  1. 1.General Electric CompanySchenectadyUSA

Personalised recommendations