Cryocoolers 8 pp 695-707 | Cite as

Cryogenic Systems Integration Model (CSIM)

  • M. Donabedian
  • D. S. Glaister
  • M. D. Bernstein


The Cryogenic Systems Integration Model (CSIM), is an interactive PC “Windows” based software tool for the simulation and analysis of spacecraft cryogenic mechanical refrigeration thermal control systems.

CSIM development was initiated in response to a need for an encompassing and efficient method for design and analysis of spacecraft cryogenic mechanical refrigeration systems. Previous experience has shown that cryogenic systems exhibit large analytical uncertainties [5] and that thermal integration is often critical and inadequately considered during the preliminary design phase resulting in revisions during later phases.

The program was compiled for a PC platform and uses the Microsoft Windows Graphical User Interface. CSIM includes design algorithms, subroutines, and databases to allow the user to conduct analyses and trade-offs necessary to complete the design integration and simulation of a complete cryogenic refrigeration system. CSIM input requirements include instrument load and temperature, cryocooler selection, intermediate shield and sink temperatures, radiator and bracket materials, options to incorporate thermal storage units, heat pipes, and thermal switches, and the selection of redundancy and thermal margin factors. CSIM outputs provide a complete breakdown of temperatures, heat flows, dimensions, weight, power and total system penalties. Algorithms are incorporated to model conduction bars, flexible straps, thermal storage units (both sensible and phase change), parasitic heat loads, cryocoolers (cooling capacity, power, weight, and heat dissipation), heat pipes (for either cold transport or waste heat rejection), cryocooler brackets, and radiators.

Several databases are provided within the program which can be enhanced or modified by the user. These databases include the performance characteristics of a variety of production and developmental cryocoolers, temperature dependent thermophysical properties of 160 materials, phase change characteristics of 21 materials from 14 K to 195 K, and performance data for 8 fluids from 16 K to 600 K for a universal axial groove heat pipe configuration.


Heat Pipe Phase Change Material Thermal Storage Power Penalty Thermal Control System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Chang, H. V., “Optimization of Heat Pipe Radiator Design”, AIAA. 84–1718, (1984).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alario, J., “A High Capacity Re-entrant Groove Heat Pipe for Cryogenic and Room Temperature Space Applications”, presented at Spacecraft Thermal Control Workshop, The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, California (1992).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Edelstein, F. and Kosson, F., “A High Capacity Re-entrant Groove Heat Pipe for Cryogenic and Space Applications”, Cryogenics, vol. 32, no. 2 (1992), pp. 167–172.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hernandez, D. J., Jr., “Updated Material Thermophysical Property Database”, The Aerospace Corporation. ATM no. 94(9975-1)-1 (1993).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Donabedian, M., “Thermal Uncertainty Martins for Cryogenic Sensor Systems”, AIAA, 91-1426, AIAA 26th Thermophysics Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii (1991).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Naes, L. and Nast, T., “Long-Life Orbital Operation of Stirling Cycle Mechanical Refrigerators”, Proc. of Society of Photo-Optical Inst. Engr.. no. 245 (23): 126 (1980).ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Knowles, T. R., “Metal/Phase-Change Material Composite Heat Sinks”, AWAL-TR-88-3069, Energy Science Laboratories, (1988).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Glaister, D. S., Bell, K. D., and Bello, M., “The Development and Verification of a Cryogenic Phase Change Thermal Storage Unit for Spacecraft Applications”, presented at the 8th International Cryocooler Conference, Vail, Colorado (1994).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ross, R. G., Jr. and Johnson, D. L., “BAe 55 K Stirling Cooler Performance Characterization”, Jet Propulsion Laboratory report D10276, (1993).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Edelstein, F., Personal Communication, Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, New York, March 1993.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Donabedian
    • 1
  • D. S. Glaister
    • 1
  • M. D. Bernstein
    • 1
  1. 1.The Aerospace CorporationEl SegundoUSA

Personalised recommendations