The Ambiguities in our Understanding of Participation and the Implications of This for Methodology

  • Mandy Brown


This paper discusses the nature of the ambiguities in our understanding of participation, present in the participation and systems thinking literature. There is a tendency to confuse the two main justifications for participation; namely the arguments for participation on the grounds of efficiency, or on the grounds of a moral right to be included in decision making.


Problem Situation System Thinking Participative Process Soft System Methodology Moral Justification 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mandy Brown
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Systems StudiesUniversity of HullHullUK

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