Systems Theory and Management Thinking

  • Peter Checkland


Two inquiring systems developed since the 1960s — Vickers’s concept of the appreciative system and the soft systems methodology, are highly relevant to the problems of the 21st century. Both assume that organizations are more than rational goal-seeking machines and address the relationship-maintaining and Gemeinschaft aspects of organisations, characteristically obscured by functionalist and goal-seeking models of organization and management. Appreciative systems theory and soft systems methodology enrich rather than replace these approaches.


National Health Service Organization Theory System Thinking Soft System Methodology Operational Research Society 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Checkland
    • 1
  1. 1.University of LancasterLancasterUK

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