Linear Magnetic Dichroism in Directional Photoemission from Core Levels and Valence Bands

  • Giorgio Rossi
  • Fausto Sirotti
  • Giancarlo Panaccione
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 345)


The need for new surface specific probes of magnetism is very high. The ideal surface magnetic probe should be selectively sensitive to surface, subsurface and interface layers, atom-specific and site specific, i.e. sensitive to the local environment of the excited atom, an should provide an absolute measure of the magnetic moment associated to the selected atoms. The field of surface magnetism has been opened by the application of spin-polarimetry to photoelectrons and to the secondary electron yield.[1] The measure of spin polarization (SP) of secondaries is intrinsically surface sensitive due to the short escape depth for low energy photoelectrons in ferromagnets, and can be understood semi-quantitatively.[2] The magnetic resolution of SP is high and can be used for imaging surface magnetic domains[3] and for studying the dynamics of surface magnetism with time resolution in the picosecond range in laser experiments,[4] or in the nanosecond range in synchrotron radiation experiments.[5] SP of secondaries probes the average magnetization and cannot be made atom-specific without independent knowledge on the atomic structure. [6] Spin Polarized Low Energy Electron Diffraction is very surface sensitive,[7] but it is limited to ordered surfaces, and is not atom specific. The magneto-optic Kerr effect [8] is not surface sensitive and can be applied only to the study of ferromagnetic order in monolayers on non magnetic substrates.


Spin Polarization Core Level Ferromagnetic Order Magnetic Sublevel Photoemission Experiment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    H.C. Siegmann; J. Phys.: Conden. Matter 4, 8395 (1992) and references quoted thereinADSGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    H.C. Siegmann, in this bookGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    R. Allenspach, J. Magn. Magn. Materials, 129, 160 (1994) and references thereinADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    A. Vaterlaus, T. Beutler, and F. Meier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3314 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    F. Sirotti, R. Bosshard, G. Panaccione, A. Jucha, and G. Rossi, to be publishedGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    F. Sirotti, G. Panaccione, and G. Rossi, J. Physique, to be publishedGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    J. Kirschner, in Polarized Electrons in Surface Physics, ed. by R. Feder, World Scientific, Singapore, 1985Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    M.J. Freiser, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Mag-4, 152 (1968)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    T. Beier, H. Jahrreiss, D. Pescia, Th. Woike, and W. Gudat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1875 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    P. Carra and M. Altarelli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1286 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    M. Sacchi, F. Sirotti, G. Rossi, Solid State Commun. 81, 977 (1992); M. Sacchi, 0. Sakho, F. Sirotti, and G. Rossi, Appl. Surf. Sci. 56–58, 1 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    C.T. Chen, Y.U. Idzerda, H.J. Lin, G. Meigs, A. Chaiken, G.A. Prinz, and G.H. Ho; Phys. Rev. B48, 642 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    B.T. Thole, P. Carra, F. Sette, and G. van der Laan; Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1943 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    J. Stöhr and Y. Wu, in “New Directions in Research with Third Generation Soft X-Ray Synchrotron Radiation Sources” ed by. A.S. Schlachter and F. Wuillemier, 1994 Kluwer Academic Publisher p.221; F. Sette, ibid. p.251Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    M. Landolt, in Polarized Electrons in Surface Physics, ed. by R. Feder, World Scientific, Singapore, 1985; R. Allenspach, D. Mauri, M. Taborelli, and M. Landolt, Phys. Rev. B35, 4801 (1987)Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    C. Carbone, and E. Kisker; Solid State Commun. 65, 1107 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    E. Kisker, in Polarized Electrons in Surface Physics, ed. by R. Feder, World Scientific, Singapore, 1985Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    D. Tillmann, R. Thiel, E. Kisker, Z. Phys. B-Condensed Matter 77, 1 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    G. Schönhense and H.C. Siegmann, Ann. Physik 2, 465 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    U. Fano; Phys. Rev. 178, 131 (1969)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    G. Baum, M.S. Lubell, and W. Raith, Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 267 (1970)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    N.A. Cherepkov and V.V. Kuznetsov J. Phys. B 22, L405 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    G. van der Laan and B.T. Thole, Solid State Commun. 92, 427 (1994ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    B.T. Thole and G. van der Laan, Phys. Rev. Letters 67, 3306 (1991); Phys. Rev. B49, 9613 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    G. Schönhense, Physica Scripta T31, 255 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    L.I. Schiff “Quantum Mechanics “, McGraw-Hill New York (1955).zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    F. Sirotti, M. De Santis, and G. Rossi, Phys. Rev. B48, 8299 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    B. Sinkovic, P.D. Johnson, N.B. Brookes, A. Clarke, and N.V. Smith, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1647 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    L. Baumgarten, CM. Schneider, H. Petersen, F. Schafers, and J. Kirschner; Phys. Rev. Letters 65, 492 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    H. Ebert, L. Baumgarten, CM. Schneider, and J. Kirschner, Phys. Rev.B 44, 4406 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    K. Starke, E. Navas, L. Baumgarten, and G. Kaindl, Phys. Rev. B48, 1329 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    G. van der Laan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2527 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    N.V. Smith and P.K. Larsen; in Photoemission and the Electron Properties of Surfaces ed. by Feuerbacher, Fitton and Willis, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1978.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    N.A. Cherepkov, Phys. Rev. B to be published; N.A. Cherepkov, V.V. Kuznetsov, and V.A. Verbitskii; J. Phys. B. to be publishedGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    D. Venus; Phys. Rev. B48, 6144 (1993), ibid. 49, 8821 (1994))ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    Ch. Roth, F.U. Hillebrecht, H. Rose, and E. Kisker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3479 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    Ch. Roth, H. Rose, F.U. Hillebrecht, and E. Kisker, Solid State Commun. 86, 647 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    F. Sirotti and G. Rossi, Phys. Rev. B49, 15682 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    G. Rossi, F. Sirotti, N.A. Cherepkov, F. Cornbet Farnoux, and G. Panaccione, Solid State Commun. 90, 557 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    F. Kisker, in this bookGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    C.M. Schneider, D. Venus, and J. Kirschner, Phys. Rev. B45, 5041 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    W. Macedo, A. Schatz, G. Panaccione, F. Sirotti, and G. Rossi, unpublished resultsGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    J. Unguris, R.J. Celotta, and D. Pierce, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1125 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. [44]
    D.L. Connelly, J.S. Loomis, and D.E. Mapother, Phys. Rev. B3, 924 (1971)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. [45]
    W. Durr, M. Taborelli, O. Paul, R. Germar, W. Gudat, D. Pescia, and M. Landolt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 206 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. [46]
    G. van der Laan, M.A. Hoyland, M. Surman, C.F. J. Flipse, and B.T. Thole, Phys. Rev. Lett 69, 3827 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. [47]
    E. Tamura, G.D. Waddill, J.C Tobin, and P.A. Sterne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1533 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. [48]
    K. Blum, Density Matrix Theory and Application (Plenum, New York, 1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. [49]
    H. Klar and H. Kleinpoppen, J. Phys. B 15, 933 (1982)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. [50]
    G. Schörihense, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 640 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. [51]
    N. Inner, R. David, B. Schmeideskamp, and U. Heinzmann, Phys. Rev. B45, 3849 (1992)ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    Ch. Roth, F.U. Hillebrecht, W.G. Park, H.B. Rose, and E. Kisker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1963 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. [53]
    G. Panaccione, F. Sirotti, and G. Rossi, to be publishedGoogle Scholar
  54. [54]
    E. Tamura and R. Feder, Europhysics Lett. 16, 695 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. [55]
    C.M. Schneider, M.S. Hammond, P. Schuster, A. Cebollada, R. Miranda, and J. Kirschner, Phys. Rev. B 44, 12066 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. [56]
    J. Bansmann, G. Westphal, M. Getzlaff, F. Fegel and G. Schonhense, J. Magn.Magn. Mater. 104–107, 1691 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. [57]
    B.T. Thole and G. van der Laan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2499 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. [58]
    G. Rossi, I. Lindau, L. Braicovich, and I. Abbati, Phys. Rev. B 28, 303 (1983)ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. [59]
    O. Eriksson, G.W. Fernando, R.C. Albers, and A.M. Boring, Solid. State Commun. 78, 801 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. [60]
    F.U. Hillebrecht, and W.D. Herberg, Z. Phys. B93, 299 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giorgio Rossi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fausto Sirotti
    • 1
    • 2
  • Giancarlo Panaccione
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratorium für FestkörperphysikETH-ZürichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Laboratoire pour l’Utilisation du Rayonnement ElectromagnetiqueCNRS, CEA, MESROrsayFrance

Personalised recommendations