Heavy Snorers Disease
Two syndromes characterized by chronic alveolar hypoventilation (CAH) in the absence of pleuro-pulmonal or musculo-skeletal alterations were identified in the Fifties. One, called cardio-respiratory syndrome of obesity or Pickwickian syndrome, was found in severely obese patients; the other, primary, idiopathic or essential CAH, seen in non obese patients was attributed to a reduced excitability of the breathing centers. In the Sixties, polysomnography documented the presence of obstructive apneas during sleep in Pickwickian cases (and also in many non obese patients, until then wrongly classified as primary CAH), and the beneficial effects of tracheostomy demonstrated that obstructive apneas were the cause of the syndrome, called by us Hypersomnia with Periodic Apneas, but better known as Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Heavy Snorers Disease (HSD), however, is a term which better emphasizes the concept that snoring and obstructive apneas represent just the end-points of the same process.
KeywordsSleep Apnea Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Daytime Somnolence Hyoid Bone
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Coccagna, G., Mantovani, M., Brignani, R., Parchi C., and Lugaresi, E., 1972a, Continuous recording of the pulmonary and systemic arterial pressure during sleep in syndromes of hypersomnia with periodic breathing, Bull. Physiopathol. Respir., 8: 1217.Google Scholar
- Coccagna, G., Mantovani, M., Brignani, F., Parchi, C., and Lugaresi E., 1972b, Tracheostomy in hypersomnia with periodic breathing, Bull. Physiopathol. Respir., 8: 1217.Google Scholar
- Gislason, T., 1987, Sleep apnea. Clinical symptoms, epidemiology and ventilatory aspects, Thesis, Uppsala, pp. 1–48.Google Scholar
- Lugaresi, E., Coccagna, G., and Mantovani, M., 1978, Hypersomnia with periodic apneas, in: “Advances in Sleep Research”, vol. 4, Spectrum, New York.Google Scholar
- Lugaresi, E., Mondini, S., Zucconi, M., Montagna, P., and Cirignotta, F., 1983, Staging of heavy snorers disease: a proposal, Bull. Eur. Physiopathol. Resp., 19: 590.Google Scholar
- Mondini, S., Zucconi, M., Cirignotta, F., Aguglia, U., Lenzi, P.L., Zauli, C., and Lugaresi, E., 1983, Snoring as a risk factor for cardiac and circulatory problems: an epidemiological study, in: “ Sleep-Wake Disorders; Natural History, Epidemiology and Long-term Evolution”, Guilleminault, C., Lugaresi, E., eds., Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Newsom-Davis, J., Goldman, M., Loh, L., and Casson, M., 1975, Diaphragm function and alveolar hypoventilation, Q J. Med., 45: 87.Google Scholar
- Plum, F., and Leigh, R.J., 1981, Abnormalities of central mechanisms. in: “Regulation of Breathing”,II, Hornbein, T.F., ed., Decker, New York.Google Scholar
- Sullivan, C.E., Berthon-Jones, M., Issa, F.G., and Evis, L., 1985, Reversal of obstructive sleep apnea by continuous positive airway pressure applied through the nares, Lancet, I: 862.Google Scholar
- Tilkian, A.G., Motta, J., and Guilleminault, C., 1978, Cardiac arrhythmias in sleep apnea, in: “Sleep Apnea Syndromes”, Guilleminault, C., Dement, W. eds., Liss, New York.Google Scholar
- White, D.P., Central sleep apnea, in: “The Medical Clinics of North America”, vol. 69, Thawley J.E. ed., Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar