Heavy Snorers Disease

  • E. Lugaresi
  • F. Cirignotta
  • G. Coccagna
  • P. Montagna
  • M. Zucconi


Two syndromes characterized by chronic alveolar hypoventilation (CAH) in the absence of pleuro-pulmonal or musculo-skeletal alterations were identified in the Fifties. One, called cardio-respiratory syndrome of obesity or Pickwickian syndrome, was found in severely obese patients; the other, primary, idiopathic or essential CAH, seen in non obese patients was attributed to a reduced excitability of the breathing centers. In the Sixties, polysomnography documented the presence of obstructive apneas during sleep in Pickwickian cases (and also in many non obese patients, until then wrongly classified as primary CAH), and the beneficial effects of tracheostomy demonstrated that obstructive apneas were the cause of the syndrome, called by us Hypersomnia with Periodic Apneas, but better known as Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Heavy Snorers Disease (HSD), however, is a term which better emphasizes the concept that snoring and obstructive apneas represent just the end-points of the same process.


Sleep Apnea Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Daytime Somnolence Hyoid Bone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Lugaresi
    • 1
  • F. Cirignotta
    • 1
  • G. Coccagna
    • 1
  • P. Montagna
    • 1
  • M. Zucconi
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of NeurologyUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly

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