The Control of Breathing Movements in the Fetus

  • G. S. Dawes

Abstract

In 1970 I and my colleagues in Oxford and Paris rediscovered fetal breathing (Dawes, 1984). For, as you will remember, maternal abdominal movements in man had been ascribed to fetal breathing by von Ahlfeld (1888), a view rejected contumaciously by his contemporaries. And Windle (1940) decided that the observations of Snyder and Rosenfeld (1937) on the breathing movements of fetal kittens and puppies in utero were likely to be experimental artefacts. Barcroft (1946) concluded that in the sheep breathing movements were not normally present antenatally, from 60 days gestation until term (147 days), when they suddenly began and became continuous, possibly as a result of cold exposure. So the misleading words, the “onset of breathing at birth” were perpetuated in the scientific literature and popular belief.

Keywords

Breathing Movement Ventrolateral Medulla Fetal Sheep Fetal Lamb Prostaglandin Synthetase Inhibitor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Reference

  1. Adamson, S.L., 1986, Respiratory control mechanisms before and after birth, IUPS Satellite Symposium on Fetal Physiology - Cellular and Systems Approach, Vancouver Island, Canada, 33.Google Scholar
  2. Bamford, O.S., Dawes, G.S., Denny, R., and Ward, R.A., 1986, Effects of the a2-adrenergic agonist clonidine and its antagonist idazoxan on the fetal lamb, J. Physiol., 381: 29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bamford, O.S., Dawes, G.S., Hanson, M.A., and Ward, R.A., 1986, The effects of doxapram on breathing, heart rate and blood pressure in fetal lambs, Resp. Physiol., 66: 387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bamford, O.S., Dawes, G.S., and Ward, R.A., 1986, Effects of apomorphine and haloperidol in fetal lambs, J. Physiol., 377: 37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barcroft, J., 1946, Researches on pre-natal life, Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.Google Scholar
  6. Blanco, C.E., Bamford, O., Hawkings, R., and Chen, V., 1987, Responses in the chronically instrumented fetal sheep to changes in blood gases and temperature produced by an extracorporeal membrane oxygen system, Proc. Soc. Study Fetal Physiol. 14th Annual Meeting: Groningen, 23.Google Scholar
  7. Blanco, C.F., Dawes, G.S., Hanson, M.A., and McCooke, H.B., 1984, The response to hypoxia of arterial chemoreceptors in fetal sheep and new-born lambs, J. Physiol., 351: 25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cameron, I.R., and Semple, S.J.G., 1968, The central respiratory stimulant action of salicylates, Clin. Sci., 35: 391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Dawes, G.S., 1968, Foetal and Neonatal Physiology. Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago.Google Scholar
  10. Dawes, G.S., 1984, The central control of fetal breathing and skeletal muscle movements, J. Physiol., 346: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Dawes, G.S., 1986, The central nervous control of fetal behaviour, Eur. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Rep. Biol., 21: 341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dawes, G.S., 1988, Hormonal control of fetal breathing, The Endocrine Control of the Fetus. Kunzel, W., and Jensen, A., eds., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, (in press).Google Scholar
  13. Dawes, G.S., Gardner, W.N., Johnston, B.M., and Walker, D.W., 1980,. Breathing patterns in fetal lambs after midbrain transection, J. Physiol., 308: 29 P.Google Scholar
  14. Dawes, G.S., Gardner, W.N., Johnston, B.M., and Walker, D..W. 1983, Breathing in fetal lambs: the effects of brain stem section, J. Physiol., 335: 535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dawes, G.S., and Robinson, J.S., 1976, Rhytmic phenomena in prenatal life, Prog. Brain Res., 45: 383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. De Vries, J.I.P., 1987, Development of specific movement patterns in the human fetus, Doctoral Thesis: University of Groningen, Chapter 8.Google Scholar
  17. Gluckman, P.D., Gunn, T.R., and Johnston, B.M., 1983, The effect of cooling on breathing and shivering in unanaesthetised fetal lambs in utero, J. Physiol., 343: 495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Gluckman, P.D., and Johnston, S.M., 1987, Lesions in the upper lateral pons abolish the hypoxic depression of breathing in unanaesthetised fetal lambs in utero, J.Physiol., 382: 373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Heyman, M.A., and Rudolph, A.M., 1976, Effects of acetylsalicylic acid on the ductus arteriosus and circulation of fetal lambs in utero, Circ. Res., 38: 418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hohimer, A.R., Bissonette, J.M., Machida, C.M., and Horowitz, B. 1985, The effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibition on breathing movements and electrocortical activity in fetal sheep, Resp. Physiol., 61: 327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hohimer, A.R., Bissonette, J.M., Richardson, B.S., and Machida, C.M., 1983, Central chemical regulation of breathing movements in fetal lambs, Resp. Physiol., 52: 88.Google Scholar
  22. Jansen, A.H., Ioffe, S., and Chernick, V., 1987, Breathing activity in peripheral and central chemoreceptor denervated fetal sheep. 14th Annual Meeting Society Study Fetal Physiol., Groningen, 3.Google Scholar
  23. Jensen, A., Bamford, 0.S., Dawes, G.S., Hofmeyr, G., and Parkes, M.J., 1986, Changes in organ blood flow between high and low voltage electrocortical activity in fetal sheep, J. Dev. Physiol., 8: 187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Jensen, A., Hofmeyr, 0.S., Dawes, G.S., Hofmeyr, G.J., and Parkes, M.J., 1985, Changes in organ blood flow between high and low voltage electrocortical activity and during isocapnic hypoxia in intact and brain stem transected fetal lambs, in: “The Physiological developmentGoogle Scholar
  25. of the Fetus and Newborn“, Jones, C.T., and Nathaniels, P.W., eds, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  26. Johnson, P., Robinson, J.S., and Salisbury, D., 1973, The onset andGoogle Scholar
  27. control of breathing after birth, Foetal and Neonatal Physiology: Sir J. Barcroft Symposium, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 217.Google Scholar
  28. Johnston, B.M., and Gluckman, P.D., 1983, GABA-mediated inhibition of breathing in the late gestation sheep fetus, J. Dev. Physiol., 5: 353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Johnston, B.M., Gluckman, P.D., and Parsons, Y., 1985, The effects of midbrain lesions on breathing in fetal lambs, in: “Physiological Development of Fetus and Newborn”, Jones, C.T., and Nathanielsz, P.W., eds., Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  30. Kitterman, J.A., Liggins, G.C., Clements, J.A., and Tooley, W.H., 1979, Stimulation of breathing movements in fetal sheep by inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis, J. dev. Physiol., 1: 453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Koos, B.J., 1985, Central stimulation of breathing movements in fetal lambs by prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors, J. Physiol., 362: 455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Millhorn, D.E., and Eldridge, F.L., 1986, Role of ventrolateral medulla in regulation of respiratory and cardiovascular systems, J. Appl. Physiol., 61: 1249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Moore, P.J., Nijhuis, J.G., Hanson, M.A., and Parker, M.J., 1988, The effect of pilocarpine on breathing movements in the chemodenervated fetal lamb in utero, in: “Fetal and Neonatal Development”, Jones, C.T., ed, Perinatology Press, Ithaca, (in press).Google Scholar
  34. Parkes, M.J., Bamford, O.S., Dawes, G.S., Gianopoulos, J.G., and Quail, A.W., 1984, The effects of removal of the cerebellum, brain stem transection and discrete brain stem lesions in fetal lambs. Proc. Soc. Study Fetal Physiol., Oxford, 8.Google Scholar
  35. Patrick, J., Natale, R., and Richardson, B., 1978, Patterns of human fetal breathing activity at 34 to 35 weeks gestational age, Am. J. Obstet. Gynaecol., 13: 507.Google Scholar
  36. Snyder, F.F., and Rosenfeld, M., 1937, Direct observation of intrauterine respiratory movements of the fetus and the role of carbon dioxide and oxygen in their regulation, Am. J. Physiol., 119: 153.Google Scholar
  37. Von Ahlfeld, F., 1888, Uber bisher noch nicht beschriebene intrauterine Bewegungen des Kindes. In Verhandlungen der deutschen Gesselschaft der Gynakologie, Breitkopf and Hartel, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  38. Walker, D.W., and Harding, R., 1984, Effect of hypoxia on the excitability of two cranial reflexes in unanaesthetised fetal sheep, J. Dev. Physiol., 6: 387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Windle, W.F., 1940, Physiology of the Fetus. Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. S. Dawes
    • 1
  1. 1.Charing Cross Sunely Research CentreLondonEngland

Personalised recommendations