The Effects of Dopamine on the Ventilatory Response to Sustained Hypoxia in Humans

  • Denham S. Ward
  • Marica Nino

Abstract

The ventilatory response to acutely imposed sustained isocapnic hypoxia is biphasic(5). In humans, ventilation increases immediately in the first 3–5 minutes of hypoxia (hypoxic ventilatory stimulation, HVS), then gradually declines over the next 15–20 minutes to a value intermediate between the normoxic and the peak hypoxic ventilation(5). The initial hyperventilatory response is due to increased peripheral chemoreceptor output; however the mechanisms of the subsequent hypoxic ventilatory decline (HVD) are not well elucidated. In animals, the peripheral chemoreceptor discharge does not adapt during sustained hypoxia but the phrenic nerve efferent discharge does decrease(18) and hypoxia causes ventilatory depression when the carotid sinus nerve is cut(1). These findings suggest a central origin for the ventilatory decline. Increases in inhibitory central neuromodulators, such as GABA(17) and adenosine(4), and the hypoxia-induced increase in cerebral blood flow washing out acid metabolites(21) have been proposed as possible mechanisms for the ventilatory decline.

Keywords

Carotid Body Ventilatory Response Dopamine Infusion Hypoxic Ventilatory Response Carotid Sinus Nerve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    S. Andronikou, M. Shirahata, A. Mokashi, and S. Lahri, Carotid body chemoreceptor and ventilatory responses to sustained hypoxia and hypercapnia in the cat, Respir. Physiol. 72:361–374 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    D.A. Bascom, I.D. Clement, K.L. Dorrington, and P.A. Robbins, Effects of dopamine and domperidone on ventilation during isocapnic hypoxia in humans, Respir. Physiol. 85:319–328 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    P.A. Easton, and N.R. Anthonisen, Carbon dioxide effects on the ventilatory response to sustained hypoxia, J. Appl. Physiol. 64:1451–1456 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    P.A. Easton, and N.R. Anthonisen, Ventilatory response to sustained hypoxia after pretreatment with aminophylline, J. Appl. Physiol. 64:1445–1450 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    P.A. Easton, L.J. Slykerman, and N.R. Anthonisen, Ventilatory response to sustained hypoxia in normal adults, J. Appl. Physiol. 61:906–911 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    R.B. Filuk, D.J. Berezanski, and N.R. Anthonisen, Depression of hypoxic ventilatory response in humans by somatostatin, J. Appl. Physiol. 65(3): 1050–1054 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. Georgopoulos, D. Berezanski, and N.R. Anthonisen, Effects of CO2 breathing on ventilatory response to sustained hypoxia in normal adults, J. Appl. Physiol. 66:1071–1078 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. Georgopoulos, S. Walker, N.R. Anthonisen, Increased chemoreceptor output and the ventilatory response to sustained hypoxia in normal adults, J. Appl. Physiol. 67:1157–1163 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.S. Jenkins, CP. Valcke, and D.S. Ward, A programmable system for acquisition and reduction of respiratory physiological data, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 17:93–108 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Kagawa, M.J. Stafford, T.B. Waggener, and J.W. Severinghaus, No effect of naloxone on hypoxia-induced ventilatory depression in adults, J. Appl. Physiol. 52:1031–1034 (1982).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Khamnei and P.A. Robbins, Hypoxic depression of ventilation in humans: alternative models for the chemoreflexes, Respir. Physiol. 81:117–134 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    C.G. Morrill, J.R. Meyer, and J.V. Weil, Hypoxic ventilatory depression in dogs, J. Appl. Physiol. 38(1): 143–146 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J.J. Pandit and P.A. Robbins, The ventilatory effects of sustained isocapnic hypoxia during exercise in humans, Respir. Physiol. 86:383–404 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. Ratge, U. Steegmuller, G. Mikus, K.P. Kohse and H. Wisser, Dopamine infusion in healthy subjects and critically ill patients, Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 17:361–369, (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. Suzuki, M. Nishimura, H. Yamamoto, K. Miyamoto, and F. Kishi, No effect of brain blood flow on ventilatory depression during sustained hypoxia, J. Appl. Physiol. 66:1674–1678 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    G.D. Swanson, and J.W. Bellville, Hypoxic-hypercapnic interaction in human respiratory control, J. Appl. Physiol. 36:480–487 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A.M. Taveira da Silva, B. Hartley, P. Hamosh, J.A. Quest, and R.A. Gillis, Respiratory depressant effects of GABA alpha and beta-receptor agonists in the cat, J. Appl. Physiol. 62:2264–2272 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Vizek, CK. Pickett, and J.V. Weil, Biphasic ventilatory response of adult cats to sustained hypoxia has central origin, J. Appl. Physiol. 63:1658–1664 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    D.S. Ward, and J.W. Bellville, Reduction of hypoxic ventilatory drive by dopamine, Anesth. Analg. 61:333–337 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    D.S. Ward, and T.T. Nguyen, Ventilatory response to sustained hypoxia during exercise, Med. Sci. Sports. Exerc. 23(6):719–726 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    R.B. Weiskopf, and R.A. Gabel, Depression of ventilation during hypoxia in man, J. Appl. Physiol. 39:911–915 (1975).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Denham S. Ward
    • 1
  • Marica Nino
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyUCLA School of MedicineLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations