Where is the Cortical Representation of the Diaphragm in Man?

  • Kevin Murphy
  • David Maskill
  • Anne Mier
  • Abraham Guz

Abstract

The use of transcranial stimulation, initially using electrical techniques1 and subsequently using magnetic techniques2 have demonstrated a rapid oligosynaptic pathway from the cortex to the diaphragm. These studies do not however establish the exact area of the cortex that is associated with activation of the diaphragm. The early work of Foerster3 identified a site near the vertex which when stimulated produced hiccough but no detail is available. Use has been made of an improved magnetic coil design (figure-of-eight) to ‘Map’ the unilateral cortical representation of the inspiratory muscles; essentially the diaphragm. The work of Rösier et al4 had showed that a figure-of-eight coil was better at exciting specific areas of the motor cortex; essentially showing an extended peak current along the intersection of the two coils. He had also shown the importance of the direction of the principal stimulating current vector.

Keywords

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Motor Cortex Compound Muscle Action Potential Inspiratory Muscle Cortical Representation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    S.C. Gandevia and J.C. Rothwell, Activation of the human diaphragm from the motor cortex, J. Physiol 384:109–118(1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. Murphy, Anne Mier, L. Adams and A. Guz, Putative cerebral cortical involvement in the ventilatory response to inhaled CO2 in man, J. Physiol. 420:1–18(1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    O. Foerster, Motorische felder und bahen in: Handbook der neurologie, O. Bumke and O. Foerster ed., Springer, Berlin (1936).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    K.M. Rosier, C.W. Hess, R. Heckmann and H.P. Ludin, Significance of shape and size of the stimulating coil in magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex, Neurosci. Lett., 100:347–352(1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. Lansing and J. Saville, Chest surface recording of diaphragm potentials in man. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurosci., 72:59–68(1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    D. Maskill, K. Murphy, A. Mier, M. Owen and A. Guz, Motor cortical representation of the diaphragm in man. J. Physiol. 443:105–121(1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J.G. Colebatch, L. Adams, K. Murphy, A.J. Martin, A.A. Lammertsma, H.J. Touchon-Danguy, J.C. Clark, K.J. Friston and A. Guz, Regional cerebral blood flow during volitional breathing in man. J. Physiol 443:91–103(1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kevin Murphy
    • 1
  • David Maskill
    • 1
  • Anne Mier
    • 1
  • Abraham Guz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineCharing Cross and Westminster Medical SchoolLondonUK

Personalised recommendations