Modelling Pioneer: Fred S. Grodins (1915–1989)

  • Stanley M. Yamashiro


Fred S. Grodins was a pioneer in the application of control theory to study biological control systems. He was born in Chicago, Illinois and obtained all of his college training at Northwestern University. This consisted of a B.S. in Chemistry in 1937, a M.S. in Physiology in 1940, a M.D. in 1942, and Ph. D. in Physiology in 1944. Fred interned at Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago. This was followed by two years of active duty in the U.S. Army Air Force. After the war, Fred returned to Chicago to become Assistant Professor of Physiology at the University of Illinois College of Medicine. In 1947 he returned to Northwestern to become Associate Professor of Physiology and Abbott Professor of Physiology in 1951. Fred remained at Northwestern until 1967 when he left to become the founding chairman of the Biomedical Engineering Department at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, California. In 1986 Fred retired from this position and became Emeritus Professor until his death. Summarized below are some of the major contributions Fred made to modeling and control of breathing. Personal recollections of this remarkable individual are also given.


Respiratory Control Active Duty Denervated Muscle Electrical Muscle Stimulation Traumatic Shock 
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  1. 1.
    F.S. Grodins and S. Freeman, Traumatic shock, Int. Abstr. Surg. 72:1 (1941).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    F.S. Grodins, S.L. Osborne, F.R, Johnson, S. Arana. and A.C. Ivy, Electrical stimulation and atrophy of denervated muscle, Am. J. Physiol. 142:222 (1944).Google Scholar
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    S. L. Osborne, F.S. Grodins, E. Mittlemann, and W.S. Milne, Rationale for electrodiagnosis and electrical stimulation in denervated muscle, Arch. Phys. Therapy 25:338 (1944).Google Scholar
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    Gray, J.S., Pulmonary ventilation and its physiological regulation, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, (1950).Google Scholar
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    F.S. Grodins, A. Lein, and H.F. Adler, Changes in blood acid-base balance during asphyxia and resusitation, Am. J. Physiol. 147:433 (1946).PubMedGoogle Scholar
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    F.S. Grodins, Analysis of factors concerned in regulation of breathing in exercise. Physiol. Rev. 30: 220 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
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    C.S. Poon, Ventilatory control in hypercapnia and exercise: optimization hypothesis. J. Appl. Physiol. 62: 2447 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
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    G.D. Swanson and P.A. Robbins, Optimal respiratory controller structures, I.E.E.E. Trans. B.M.E. 33: 677 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    F.F. Kao, An experimental study of the pathways involved in exercise hyperpnea employing cross-circulation techniques, In: The Regulation of Human Respiration, eds. DJ.C. Cunningham and B.B. Lloyd, Blackwell, Oxford, 461 (1963).Google Scholar
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    F.S. Grodins, J.S. Gray, K.R. Schroeder, A.L. Norins, and R.W. Jones, Respiratory responses to CO2 inhalation, a theoretical study of a nonlinear biological regulator, J. Appl. Physiol. 7:283 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
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    F.S. Grodins, Integrative cardiovascular physiology, a mathematical synthesis of cardiac and blood vessel hemodynamics, Q. Rev. Biol. 34:93 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    F.S. Grodins, Control theory and biological systems, Columbia University Press, New York, (1963).Google Scholar
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    F.S. Grodins, J. Buell, and AJ. Bart, Mathematical analysis and digital simulation of the respiratory control system, J. Appl. Physiol 22:260 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stanley M. Yamashiro
    • 1
  1. 1.Biomedical Engineering DepartmentUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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