Ecological Approaches in the Study of Racial and Ethnic Differentiation and Inequality

  • Mark A. Fossett
  • Cynthia M. Cready
Part of the The Springer Series on Demographic Methods and Population Analysis book series (PSDE)


Ethnic differentiation and inequality have been central concerns in human ecological theory and research since inception of the field. Leading figures in “classical” ecology considered race and ethnic issues at length and made many significant contributions to the study of racial and ethnic relations (e.g., Burgess 1928; Cressey 1938; McKenzie [1931]1968; Park 1950; Park and Burgess 1925; Wirth 1928). The works of these classical ecologists continue to influence the sociology of race and ethnicity in many different ways. Contemporary research on ethnic residential segregation, for example, directs attention to ecological processes of succession, resegregation, and spatial assimilation (Massey and Mullan 1984; Massey and Denton 1993; Bean and Tienda 1987) and is grounded in the classical assumption that spatial patterns of residential distribution reflect social distance (Massey 1985; White 1987). Continuity between classical and contemporary ecological studies also is evident in analyses that focus on themes of intergroup competition (Hannan 1979; Olzak 1986; Olzak and Nagel 1986; Lieberson 1970) and processes of assimilation (Niedert and Farley 1985; Farley and Frey 1994; Massey and Mullan 1984). Likewise, recent research emphasizing the segregation, centralization, and concentration of ethnic minority and poverty populations (Massey and Eggers 1990; Wilson 1987; Kasarda 1985; White 1987) draws on notions of urban structure that resonate with the principles of urban spatial organization that classical ecology first advanced.2


Ethnic Identity Ethnic Diversity American Sociological Review Residential Segregation Ecological Theory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Albrecht, Don E., & Hwang, Sean-Shong. (1991). Neighborhood selection and residential segregation. Sociological Inquiry, 61, 199–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Althauser, Robert P., & Wigler, Michael. (1972). Standardization and component analysis. Sociological Methods and Research, 1, 97–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alihan, Milla. (1938). Social ecology: A critical analysis. New York: Columbia University Press. Anderson, Elijah. (1990). Streetwise: Race, class, and change in an urban community. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bahr, Howard M., & Gibbs, Jack P. (1967). Racial differentiation in American metropolitan areas. Social Forces, 45, 521–532.Google Scholar
  5. Banton, Michael. (1967). Race relations. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  6. Banton, Michael. (1983). Racial and ethnic competition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Barth, Frederik. (I 969). Ethnic groups and boundaries. Boston, Massachusetts: Little, Brown. Barth, Ernest A. T., & Noel, Donald L. (1972). Conceptual frameworks for the analysis of raceGoogle Scholar
  7. relations: An evaluation. Social Forces, 50, 333–348.Google Scholar
  8. Bean, Frank D., & Tienda, Marta. (1987). The Hispanic population of the United States. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  9. Berry, Brian J. L., & Kasarda, John D. (1977). Contemporary urban ecology. New York: Macmillan. Blalock, Hubert M., Jr. (1956). Economic discrimination and Negro increase. American Sociological Review, 21, 584–588.Google Scholar
  10. Blalock, Hubert M., Jr. (1957). Percent nonwhite and discrimination in the South. American Sociological Review, 22, 677–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blalock, Hubert M., Jr. (1959). Urbanization and discrimination in the South. Social Problems, 7, 146–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blalock, Hubert M., Jr. (1967). Toward a theory of minority group relations. New York: John Wiley. Blau, Peter M. (1977). Inequality and heterogeneity. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  13. Blau, Peter M., & Duncan, Otis D. (1967). The american occupational structure. New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  14. Bogue, Donald J. (1949). The structure of the metropolitan community: A study of dominance and subdominance. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  15. Burr, Jeffrey A., Fossett, Mark A., & Galle, Orner R. (1991). Racial occupational inequality in southern metropolitan areas, 1940–1980: Revisiting the visibility-discrimination hypothesis. Social Forces, 69, 831–850.Google Scholar
  16. Burr, Jeffrey A., Potter, Lloyd B., Galle, Orner R., & Fossett, Mark A. (1992). Migration and metropolitan opportunity structures: A demographic response to racial inequality. Social Science Research, 21, 380–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Burgess, Ernest W. (1928). Residential segregation in. American cities. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 140, 105–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chiswick, Barry R. (1978). The effect of Americanization on the earnings of foreign-born men. Journal of Political Economy, 86, 897–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cressey, Paul Frederick. (1938). Population succession in Chicago: 1898–1930. American Journal of Sociology, 44, 59–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Daymont, Thomas N. (1980). Racial equity or racial equality. Demography, 17, 379–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Duncan, Beverly. (1964). Variables in urban morphology. In E. W. Burgess & D. J. Bogue (Eds.)Google Scholar
  22. Contributions to urban sociology (pp. 17–30). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Duncan, Otis Dudley. (1967). Discrimination against Negroes. Annals of the American Academy ofGoogle Scholar
  23. Political and Social Science, 371, 85–103.Google Scholar
  24. Duncan, Otis Dudley. (1968). Inheritance of poverty or inheritance of race? In D. P. Moynihan (Ed.), On understanding poverty (pp. 85–110 ). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  25. Duncan, Otis Dudley, & Duncan, Beverly. (1955). Residential distribution and occupational stratification. American Journal of Sociology, 60, 493–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Duncan, Otis Dudley, & Duncan, Beverly. (1957). The Negro population of Chicago: A study of residential succession. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  27. Duncan, Otis Dudley, & Duncan, Beverly. (1968). Minorities and the process of stratification. American Sociological Review, 33, 356–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Duncan, Otis Dudley, & Lieberson, Stanley. (1959). Ethnic segregation and assimilation. American Journal of Sociology, 64, 364–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Duncan, Otis Dudley, Scott, W. Richard, Lieberson, Stanley, Duncan, Beverly, & Winsborough, HalGoogle Scholar
  30. H. (1960). Metropolis and region. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Farley, Reynolds. (1977). Trends in racial inequalities: Have the gains of the 1960s disappeared in theGoogle Scholar
  32. s? American Sociological Review, 42, 189–207.Google Scholar
  33. Farley, Reynolds, & Allen, Walter R. (1987). The color line and the quality of life in America. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  34. Farley, Reynolds, & Frey, William H. (1994). Changes in the segregation of whites from blacks during the 1980s: Small steps toward a more integrated society. American Sociological Review, 59, 23–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Featherman, David L., & Hauser, Robert M. (1976). Changes in the socioeconomic stratification of the races, 1962–1973. American Journal of Sociology, 82, 621–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Featherman, David L., & Hauser, Robert M. (1978). Opportunity and change. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  37. Fix, Michael, & Struyk, Raymond J. (Eds.). (1992). Clear and convincing evidence: Measurement of discrimination in America. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press.Google Scholar
  38. Fossett, Mark A., Galle, Omer R., & Burr, Jeffrey A. (1989). Racial occupational inequality, 1940–1980: A research note on the impact of the changing regional distribution of the black population. Social Forces, 68, 415–427.Google Scholar
  39. Fossett, Mark A., Galle, Omer R., & Kelly, William R. (1986). Racial occupational inequalityGoogle Scholar
  40. –1980: National and regional trends. American Sociological Review, 51, 421–429. Fossett, Mark A., & Kiecolt, K. Jill. (1989). The relative size of minority populations and white racialGoogle Scholar
  41. attitudes. Social Science Quarterly, 70, 820–835.Google Scholar
  42. Fossett, Mark A., & Seibert, M. Theresa. (1996). Long time coming: Trends in racial inequality in the nonmetropolitan South since 1940. Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
  43. Fossett, Mark A. & South, Scott J. (1983). The measurement of intergroup income inequality: A conceptual review. Social Forces, 61, 855–871.Google Scholar
  44. Frazier, E. Franklin. (1957). Race and culture contacts in the modern world. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  45. Frisbie, W. Parker, & Niedert, Lisa. (1977). Inequality and the relative size of minority populations: A comparative analysis. American Journal of - Sociology, 82, 1007–1030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Glenn, Norval D. (1963). The relative size of the Negro population and Negro occupational status. Social Forces, 43, 42–49.Google Scholar
  47. Gibbs, Jack P. (1965). Occupational differentiation of Negroes and whites in the United States. Social Forces, 44, 159–165.Google Scholar
  48. Gibbs, Jack P., & Martin, Walter T. (1959). Toward a theoretical system of human ecology. Pacific Sociological Review, 2, 29–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gordon, Milton M. (1964). Assimilation in American life: The role of race, religion and national origins. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Gordon, Milton M. (1978). Human nature, class, and ethnicity. New York: Oxford University Press. Guest, Avery M. (1984). The city. In M. Micklin & H. M. Choldin (Eds.), Sociological human ecology:Google Scholar
  51. Contemporary issues and applications (pp. 277–322). Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
  52. Hannan, Michael T. (1979). The dynamics of ethnic boundaries in modern states. In J. W. Meyer & M. T. Hannan (Eds.), National development and the world system: Educational, economic and political change, 1950–1970 (pp. 253–275). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  53. Hatt, Paul. (1945). The relation of ecological location to status position and housing of ethnic minorities. American Sociological Review, 10, 481–485.Google Scholar
  54. Hatt, Paul. (1946). The concept of natural area. American Sociological Review, 11, 423–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hauser, Robert M., & Featherman, David L. (1974). Socioeconomic achievements of U.S. Men, 1962–1972. Science, 185, 325–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hauser, Robert M., & Featherman, David L. (1977). The process of stratification: Trends and analyses. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  57. Hawley, Amos H. (1944a). Disperson versus segregation: Apropos of a solution of race problems. In Papers of the Michigan academy of sciences, arts and letters. Ann Arbor, M1: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  58. Hawley, Amos H. (1944b). Ecology and human ecology. Social Forces, 22, 398–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hawley, Amos H. (1950). Human ecology: A theory of community structure. New York: Ronald Press. Hawley, Amos H. (1984). Human ecological and Marxian theories. American Journal of SociologyGoogle Scholar
  60. Hawley, Amos H. (1986). Human ecology: A theoretical essay. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Hawley, Amos H., & Rock, Vincent P. (Eds.). (1973). Segregation in residential areas: Papers onGoogle Scholar
  61. racial and socioeconomic factors in choice of housing. Washington, DC: National AcademyGoogle Scholar
  62. of Sciences.Google Scholar
  63. Heer, David M.-(1959). The sentiment of white supremacy: An ecological study. American Journal of Sociology, 64. 592–598.Google Scholar
  64. Heer, David M. (1963). The attractiveness of the South to whites and nonwhites: An ecological study. American Sociological Review 28, 101–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hershberg, Theodore, Burstein, Alan N., Ericksen, Eugene P., Greenberg, Stephanie, & Yancey, William L. (1979). A tale of three cities: Blacks, immigrants and opportunity in Philadelphia: 1850–1880, 1930 and 1970. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 441, 55–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hout, Michael, & Goldstein, Joshua R. (1994). How 4.5 million Irish immigrants became 40 million Irish Americans: Demographic and subjective aspects of the ethnic composition of white Americans. American Sociological Review, 59, 64–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hwang, Sean-Shong, & Murdock, Steve H. (1988). Population size and residential segregation: An empirical evaluation of two perspectives. Social Science Quarterly, 69, 818–834.Google Scholar
  68. Hwang, Sean-Shong, Murdock, Steven H., Parpia, Banoo, & Hamm, Rita R. (1985). The effects of race and socioeconomic status on residential segregation in Texas, 1970–80. Social Forces, 63. 732–747.Google Scholar
  69. lams, Howard M., & Thornton, Arland. (1975). Decomposition of differences: A cautionary note. Sociological Methods and Research, 3, 341–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Johnson, M. P., & Sell, R. R. (1976). The cost of being black: A 1970 update. American Journal of Sociology, 82, 183–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Jones, F. L., & Kelley, Jonathan. (1984). Decomposing differences between groups: A cautionary noteGoogle Scholar
  72. on measuring discrimination. Sociological Methods and Research, 12, 323–343.Google Scholar
  73. Kasarda, John D. (1985). Urban change and minority opportunities. In R. Peterson (Ed.), The new Google Scholar
  74. urban reality (pp. 33–68). Washington, DC: Brookings Institute.Google Scholar
  75. Kirschenman, Joleen, & Neckerman, Kathryn. (1991). `We’d love to hire them, but…’: The meaning of race for employers. In C. Jencks & P. E. Peterson (Eds.), The urban underclass (pp. 203–232 ). Washington, DC: The Brookings Institute.Google Scholar
  76. Lichter, Daniel T. (1985). Racial concentration and segregation across U.S. counties, 1950–1980. Demography, 22, 603–6609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lieberson, Stanley. (1961a). A societal theory of race relations. American Sociological Review, 26, 902–908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lieberson, Stanley. (1961b). The impact of residential segregation on ethnic assimilation. Social Forces, 40, 52–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lieberson, Stanley. (1963). Ethnic patterns in American cities. New York: The Free Press. Lieberson, Stanley. (1969). Measuring population diversity. American Sociological Review, 34, 850–862.Google Scholar
  80. Lieberson, Stanley. (1970). Language and ethnic relations in Canada. New York: John Wiley. Lieberson, Stanley. (1973). Generational differences among blacks in the north. American Journal of Sociology, 79, 550–565.Google Scholar
  81. Lieberson, Stanley. (1975). Rank-sum comparisons between groups. In D. H. Heise (Ed.), Sociological methodology 1976 (pp. 276–291 ). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  82. Lieberson, Stanley. (1980). A piece of the pie: Black and white immigrants since 1880. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  83. Lieberson, Stanley. (1981). An asymmetrical approach to segregation. In C. Peach, V. Robinson, & S. Smith (Eds.), Ethnic segregation in cities (pp. 61–82 ). London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  84. Lieberson, Stanley. (1985a). Making it count: The improvement of social research and theory. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  85. Lieberson, Stanley. (19856). A new ethnic group in the United States. In N. R. Yetman (Ed.), Majority and minority: The dynamics of race and ethnicity in American life (5th ed.) (pp. 444–457). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  86. Lieberson, Stanley, & Carter, Donna K. (1982). A model for inferring the voluntary and involuntary causes of residential segregation. Demography, 19, 511–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lieberson, Stanley, & Fuguitt, Glen V. (1967). Negro-white occupational differences in the absence of discrimination. American Journal of Sociology, 73, 188–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lieberson, Stanley, & Waters, Mary C. (1986). Ethnic groups in flux: The changing ethnic responses of American whites. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 487, 79–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lieberson, Stanley, & Waters, Mary C. (1988). From many strands: Ethnic and racial groups in contemporary America. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  90. Lyman, Stanford M. (1968). Contrasts in the community organization of Chinese and Japanese in north America. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 5, 51–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Massey, Douglas S. (1985). Ethnic residential segregation: A theoretical synthesis and empirical review. Sociology and Social Research, 69, 315–350.Google Scholar
  92. Massey, Douglas S., & Denton, Nancy A. (1985). Spatial assimilation as a socioeconomic outcome. American Sociological Review, 50, 94–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Massey, Douglas S., & Denton, Nancy A. (1987). Trends in the residential segregation of blacksGoogle Scholar
  94. Hispanics and Asians: 1974–1980. American Sociological Review 52 802–825.Google Scholar
  95. Massey, Douglas S., & Denton, Nancy A. (1988a). Suburbanization and segregation in U.S. metro-Google Scholar
  96. politan areas. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 592–626.Google Scholar
  97. Massey, Douglas S., & Denton, Nancy A. (1988b). The dimensions of residential segregation. Social Forces, 67, 281–315.Google Scholar
  98. Massey, Douglas S., & Denton, Nancy A. (1993). American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  99. Massey, Douglas S., & Eggers, Mitchell L. (1990). The ecology of inequality: Minorities and theGoogle Scholar
  100. concentration of poverty, 1970–1980. American Journal of Sociology, 95, 1153–1188. Massey, Douglas S., & Gross, Andrew B. (1991). Explaining trends in residential segregationGoogle Scholar
  101. 1970-.
    Urban Affairs Quarterly 27, 13–15.Google Scholar
  102. Massey, Douglas S., & Mullan, Brendan R. (1984). Processes of Hispanic and black spatial assimilation. American Journal of Sociology, 89, 836–873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. McKenzie, Roderick D. [1931] (1968). Cultural and racial differences as bases of human symbiosis. In A. H. Hawley (Ed.), Roderick D. McKenzie on human ecology: Selected writings (pp. 170–201 ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  104. Nagel, Joane. (1986). The political construction of ethnicity. In S. Olzak & J. Nagel (Eds.), Competitive ethnic relations (pp. 93–112 ). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  105. Nagel, Joane, & Olzak, Susan. (1982). Ethnic mobilization in new and old states: An extension of the competition model. Social Problems, 30, 127–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Niedert, Lisa J., & Farley, Reynolds. (1985). Assimilation in the United States: An analysis of ethnic and generational differences in status and achievement. American Sociological Review, 50, 840–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Noel, Donald L. (1968). A theory of the origin of ethnic stratification. Social Problems, 16, 157–172. Noel, Donald L. (1972). The origins of American slavery and racism. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.Google Scholar
  108. Olzak, Susan. (1983). Contemporary ethnic mobilization. Annual Review of Sociology, 9, 355–374. Olzak, Susan. (1986). A competition model of ethnic collective action in American cities, 1877–1889.Google Scholar
  109. In S. Olzak & J. Nagel (Eds.), Competitive ethnic relations (pp. 17–46). Orlando, FL: AcademicGoogle Scholar
  110. Olzak, Susan, & Nagel, Joane. (1986). Introduction, competitive ethnic relations: An overview. In S. Olzak & J. Nagel (Eds.), Competitive ethnic relations (pp. 1–16 ). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  111. Park, Robert Ezra. (1950). Race and culture: Essays in the sociology ofcontemporary man. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  112. Park, Robert E., & Burgess, Ernest W. (1925). The city. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Poston, Dudley L., Jr. (1984). Regional ecology: A macroscopic analysis of sustenance organization.Google Scholar
  113. In M. Micklin & H. M. Choldin (Eds.), Sociological human ecology: Contemporary issuesGoogle Scholar
  114. and applications (pp. 323–382). Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
  115. Poston, Dudley L., Jr., Alvirez, David, & Tienda, Marta. (1976). Earnings differences between Anglo and Mexican American male workers in 1960 and 1970: Changes in the “cost” of being Mexican American. Social Science Quarterly, 57, 618–631.Google Scholar
  116. Poston, Dudley L., Jr., & Micklin, Michael. (1993). Spatial segregation and social differentiation of the minority nationalities from the Han majority in the People’s Republic of China. Sociological Inquiry, 63, 150–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Robinson, W. S. (1950). Ecological correlations and the behavior of individuals. American Sociological Review, 15, 351–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Shin, Eui Hang. (1979). Correlates of intercounty variations in net migration rates of blacks in the deep South 1960–1970. Rural Sociology. 44, 39–55.Google Scholar
  119. Siegel, Paul M. (1965). On the cost of being a Negro. Sociological Inquiry, 35, 41–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Siegel, Paul M. (1984). Human ecology and ecology. In Michael Micklin & Harvey M. Choldin (Eds.)Google Scholar
  121. Sociological human ecology: Contemporary issues and applications (pp. 21–49). Boulder, CO:Google Scholar
  122. Sly, David F. (1972). Migration and the ecological complex. American Sociological Review, 37, 615–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Stevens, Gillian, & Swicegood, C. Gray. (1987). The linguistic context of ethnic endogamy. American Sociological Review, 52, 73–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Stinner, William F., & De Jong, Gordon F. (1969). Southern Negro migration: Social and economic components of an ecological model. Demography, 6, 455–471.Google Scholar
  125. Taeuber, Alma F., & Taeuber, Karl E. (1967). Recent immigration and studies of ethnic assimilation. Demography, 4, 798–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Taeuber, Karl E., & Taeuber, Alma F. (1964). The Negro as an immigrant group: Recent trends in racial and ethnic segregation in Chicago. American Journal of Sociology, 69, 374–394. Taeuber, Karl E., & Taeuber, Alma F. (1965). Negroes in cities. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  127. Tolnay, Stewart E., & Beck, E. M. (1992). Racial violence and black migration in the American South, 1910 to 1930. American Sociological Review, 57, 103–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Turner, Margery, Fix, Michael, & Struyk, Raymond. (1991). Opportunities denied, opportunities diminished: Discrimination in hiring. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  129. Turner, Margery, Struyk, Raymond, & Yinger, John. (1991). Housing discrimination in America: Summary of findings offrom the housing discrimination study. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  130. Turner, Jonathan H. (1991). The structure of sociological theory (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. White, Michael J. (1987). American neighborhoods and residential differentiation. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  131. Wienk, Ronald E., Reid, Clifford E., Simonson, John C., & Eggers, Frederick J. [1979] (1994). Measuring racial discrimination in American housing markets. In G. L. Carter (Ed.), Empirical approaches to sociology: Classic and contemporary readings (pp. 421–434 ). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  132. Wilcox, Jerry, & Roof, Wade Clark. (1978). Percent black and black-white status inequality: Southern versus non-southern patterns. Social Science Quarterly, 59, 421–434.Google Scholar
  133. Wilson, William Julius. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass, and public policy. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  134. Winsborough, H. H., & Dickinson, Peter. (1971). Components of Negro-white income differences. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Social Statistics Section:6–8.Google Scholar
  135. Wirth, Louis. (1928). The ghetto. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  136. Yancey, William L., Ericksen, Eugene P., & Juliani, Richard N. (1976). Emergent ethnicity: A review and reformulation. American Sociological Review, 41, 391–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark A. Fossett
    • 1
  • Cynthia M. Cready
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SociologyTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

Personalised recommendations