Acting to Save Our Schools (1984–1994)

  • R. Douglas Greer
Chapter
Part of the Applied Clinical Psychology book series (NSSB)

Abstract

Throughout much of his life, Burhrus Frederick Skinner (1904–1990) advocated that science ought to act to save our world. Skinner was concerned about the failure of the educational establishment to draw on a superior pedagogy made possible by the science of behavior, particularly given the poor state of American schools. He characterized the dilemma in the title of his paper as “The Shame of American Education” (Skinner, 1984).

Keywords

Verbal Behavior Behavior Analysis Educational Reform Direct Instruction Apply Behavior Analysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albers, A., & Greer, R. D. (1991). Is the three term contingency trial a predictor of effective instruction? Journal of Behavioral Education, 1, 337–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aschelmann, S. R., & Williams, M. L. (1989). A test of the response deprivation hypothesis in a multiple-response context. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 93, 345–353.Google Scholar
  3. Axelrod, S. (1991). The problem: American education. The solution: Use behavioral analytic technology. Journal of Behavioral Education, 1, 275–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Axelrod, S., & Greer, R. D. (1994). A commentary on cooperative learning. Journal of Behavioral Education, 4, 41–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Babbit, R. (1986). Computerized data management and the time-distribution of tasks performed by supervisors in a data-based educational organization. (Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 1986). Dissertation Abstract International, 47, 3737a.Google Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  7. Barrett, B., Beck, R., Binder, C., Cook, D. A., Englemann, S., Greer, R. D., Kryklund, S. J., Johnson, K. R., Maloney, M., McCorkle, N., Vargas, J. S., & Watkins, C. L. (1991). The right to effective education. The Behavior Analysts, 14, 79–82.Google Scholar
  8. Becker, W. (1992). Direct instruction: A twenty-year review. In R. West & L. Hammerlynck (Eds.), Design for educational excellence: The legacy of B. F. Skinner (pp. 71–112). Longmont, CO: Sopris West.Google Scholar
  9. Bjork, D. W. (1994). B. F. Skinner: A life. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  10. Brooks, R. (1994, May). Building an embodied mind (MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab: Presidential Scholar’s Address. The twentieth annual convention of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
  11. Brophy, J., & Good, T. (1986). Teacher behavior and student achievement. In M. C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook on research on teaching (3rd ed.) (pp. 328–375). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  12. Bushel, Jr., D., & Baer, D. M. (1994). Measurably superior instruction means close continual contact with the relevant outcome data. Revolutionary! In R. Gardner et al. (Eds.), Behavior analysis in education: Focus on measurably superior instruction (pp. 23–64). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  13. Buskist, W., Cush, D., & de Grandpre, R. J. (1991). The life and times of PSI. Journal of Behavioral Education, 1, 215–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carr, E. G., & Durand, V. M. (1985). Reducing behavior problems through functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 111–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Catania, A. C., Matthews, B. A., & Shimoff, E. (1982). Instructed versus shaped human verbal behavior: Interactions with nonverbal responding. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 38, 233–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Darling-Hammond, L. (1993). Professional development schools: Schools for developing schools. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  17. Davidson, R. J. (1978). Specificity and patterning in biobehavioral systems: Implications for behavior change. American Psychologist, 32, 430–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Delquadri, J., Greenwood, C. R., & Hall, R. V. (1979, May). Opportunity to respond: An update. Paper presented at the second annual meeting of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Milwaukee, WI.Google Scholar
  19. Diamond, D. (1992). Beyond time on task: Comparing opportunities to respond and learn units to determine an accurate means of measuring educational gains. Unpublished paper, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Donley, C. R., & Greer, R. D. (1993). Setting events controlling social verbal exchanges between students with developmental delays. Journal of Behavioral Education, 4, 387–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. The education crisis: Issues, perspectives, solutions. (1992). Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (Monograph No. 7).Google Scholar
  22. Englemann, S. (1991). Change school through revolution, not evolution. Journal of Behavioral Education, 1, 295–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Englemann, S., & Carnine, D. (1982). Theory of instruction: Principles and applications. New York: Irvington.Google Scholar
  24. Gardner III, R., Sainata, D. M., Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L., Eschelman, J., & Grossi, T. A. (1994). Behavior analysis in education: Focus on measurably superior instruction. Pacific Groves, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  25. Glenn, S. (1988). Contingencies and metacontingencies: Toward a synthesis of behavior analysis and cultural materialism. The Behavior Analyst 11, 161–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Greenwood, C. R., Delquadri, J., & Hall, R. V. (1989). Longitudinal effects of classwide peer tutoring. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 371–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Greenwood, C. R., Hart, B., Walker, D. I., Risely, T. (1994). The opportunity to respond and academic performance revisited: A behavioral theory of developmental retardation and its prevention. In R. Gardner III et al. (Eds.), Behavior analysis in education: Focus on measurably superior instruction (pp. 213–224). Pacific Groves, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  28. Greer, R. D. (1983). Contingencies of the science and technology of teaching and prebehavioristic research practices in education. Educational Researcher, 12, 3–14.Google Scholar
  29. Greer, R. D. (1989). A pedagogy for survival. In A. Brownstein (Ed.), Progress in behavioral studies (pp. 7–44). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  30. Greer, R. D. (1991). The teacher as strategic scientist: A solution to our educational crisis? Behavior and Social Issues, 1, 25–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Greer, R. D. (1992). L’enfant terrible meets the educational crisis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 65–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Greer, R. D. (1994a). A science of teaching for all children: A learner-driven systems approach for superior schools. Unpublished manuscript, Columbia University, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  33. Greer, R. D. (1994b). A systems analysis of the behaviors of schooling. Journal of Behavioral Education, 4, 255–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Greer, R. D. (1994c). The autonomous learner. In J. Borland, D. Greer, L. Hickson, R. Kretchmer, D. Mithaugh, & S. Recchia (Eds.), Freedom and inquiry in special education. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  35. Greer, R. D. (1994d). The measure of a teacher. In R. Gardner III et al. (Eds.), Behavior analysis in education: Focus on measurably superior instruction (pp. 161–171). Pacific Groves, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  36. Greer, R. D., & Polirstok, S. R. (1982). Collateral gains and short term maintenance in reading and on-task responses by inner city adolescents as a function of their use of social reinforcement while tutoring. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15, 123–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Greer, R. D., Graf, S. A., & Lindsley, O. (1984, June). Follow-up on follow-through. Paper presented to the ABA general assembly, Nashville, TN.Google Scholar
  38. Greer, R. D., McCorkle, N. P., & Williams, G. (1989). A sustained analysis of the behaviors of schooling. Behavioral Residential Treatment, 4, 113–141.Google Scholar
  39. Greer, R. D., Dorow, L., Williams, G., McCorkle, N., & Asnes, R. (1991). Peer-mediated procedures to induce swallowing and food acceptance in young children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, 783–790.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Greer, R. D., Phelan, C. S., & Sales, C. (1993, May). A costs-benefits analysis of a graduate course. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Association for Behavior analysis, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  41. Halle, J. W., Baer, D. M., & Spradlin, J. E. (1981). Teachers’ generalized use of delay as a stimulus control procedure to increase language in handicapped children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14, 389–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hart, B. (1985). Naturalistic language training techniques. In S. Warren & A. Rogers-Warren (Eds.), Teaching functional language (pp. 63–88). Baltimore: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  43. Herrnstein, R. J., Loveland, D. H., & Cable, C. (1976). Natural concepts in pigeons. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 38, 285–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Heward, W. L. (1994). Three low tech strategies for increasing the frequency of active student response during group instruction. In R. Gardner III et al. (Eds.), Behavior analysis in education: Focus on measurably superior instruction (pp. 283–320). Pacific Groves, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  45. Heward, W L., Heron, T. E., Hill, D. S., & Trapp-Porter, J. (Eds.). (1984). Focus on behavior analysis in education. Columbus, OH: Merrill.Google Scholar
  46. Hogin, S. (1994, March). CABAS for students with early self-editing repertoires. Paper presented at the annual convention of the International Behaviorology Association, Guanajuato, Mexico.Google Scholar
  47. Holland, J. G., & Skinner, B. F. (1961). The analysis of behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  48. Ingham, P., & Greer, R. D. (1992). Changes in student and teacher responses in observed and generalized settings as a function of supervisor observations. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 153–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Iwata, B. A., Pace, G. M., Dorsey, M. F., Zarcone, J. R., Vollmer, J., Smith, R. G., Rodgers, T. A., Lerman, D. C., Shore, B. A., Mazaleski, J. L., Goh, H., Cowdery, G. E., Kalsher, M. J., McCosh, K. C., & Kimberly, D. W. (1994). The functions of self-injurious behavior: An experimental-epidemiological analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 215–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jackson, M. A., & Malott, R. W. (1994). Helping high-risk black college students. In R. Gardner III et al. (Eds.), Behavior analysis in education: Focus on measurably superior instruction (pp. 349–364). Pacific Groves, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  51. Johnson, K. R., & Layng, T. V. (1992). Breaking the structuralist barrier: Literacy and numeracy with fluency. American Psychologist, 47(11), 1475–1490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Johnson, K. R., & Layng, T. V. (1994). The Morningside model of generative instruction. In R. Gardner III et al. (Eds.), Behavior analysis in education: Focus on measurably superior instruction (pp. 283–320). Pacific Groves, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  53. Keller, F. S. (1968). Good-bye teacher. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 79–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Keller, F. S. (1978). Instructional technology and educational; reform: 1977. The Behavior Analyst, 1, 48–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Keller, F. S. (1982). Pedagogue’s progress. Lawrence, KS: TRI.Google Scholar
  56. Keller, F. S., & Schoenfeld, W. N. (1950). Principles of psychology. New York: Appleton-Century Crofts.Google Scholar
  57. Kelly, T. M. (1994). Functional relations between numbers of learn unit presentations and emissions of self-injurious and assaultive behavior. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York.Google Scholar
  58. Kelly, T. M., & Greer, R. D. (1992, May). Functional relationships between learn units and maladaptive behavior. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Association for Behavior Analysis, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  59. Kinder, D., & Carnine, D. (1991). Direct instruction: What it is and what it is becoming. Journal of Behavioral Education, 1, 193–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lamarre, J., & Holland, J. G. (1985). The functional independence of mands and tacts. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 43, 5–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lamm, N., & Greer, R. D. (1991). A systematic replication of CABAS in Italy. Journal of Behavioral Education, 1, 427–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lindsley, O. R. (1991). Precision teaching’s unique legacy from B. F. Skinner. Journal of Behavioral Education, 1, 253–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lodhi, S., & Greer, R. D. (1989). The speaker as listener. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 51, 353–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lovass, O. I. (1987). Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 3–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lovitt, T. (1994). Applied behavior analysis: An insider’s appraisal. In R. Gardner III et al. (Eds.), Behavior analysis in education: Focus on measurably superior instruction (pp. 321–332). Pacific Groves, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  66. Mayer, G. R., Butterworth, T., Nafpaktitis, M., & Sulzer-Azaroff, B. (1983). Preventing school vandalism and improving discipline: A three year study. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16, 335–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. McCorkle, N. P., & Greer, R. D. (1994). Motivational functions of yoked and competitive peer contingencies with preschoolers. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  68. Michael, J. (1982). Distinguishing between discriminative and motivational functions of stimuli. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 34, 149–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Miller, A. D., Barbetta, P. M., & Heron, T. E. (1994). START tutoring: Designing, training, implementing, and evaluating tutoring programs for school and home settings. In R. Gardner III et al. (Eds.), Behavior analysis in education: Focus on measurably superior instruction (pp. 265–269). Pacific Groves, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  70. Mithaug, D. E. (1993). Self-regulation theory: How optimal adjustment maximizes gain. Westport, CN: Praeger.Google Scholar
  71. Mithaug, D. E., Martin, J. E., Agran, M., & Rusch, F. R. (1988). Why special education graduates fail: How to teach them to succeed. Colorado Springs, CO: Ascend.Google Scholar
  72. Palmer, D. C., & Donahoe, J. W. (1992). Essentialism and selectionism in cognitive science and behavior analysis. American Psychologist, 47(11), 1344–1358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Peira, J. A., & Winton, S. W. (1991). Teaching and remediation of mathematics: A review of behavioral research. Journal of Behavioral Education, 1, 5–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Perone, V. (1991). Expanding student assessment. Washington, DC: Association for Curriculum Development and Assessment.Google Scholar
  75. Premack, D. (1971). Catching up with common sense or two sides of a generalization: Reinforcement and punishment. In R. Glaser (Ed.), The nature of reinforcement (pp. 121–150). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  76. Rast, J., Johnston, J. M., & Drum, C. (1984). A parametric analysis of the relation between food quantity and ruminative behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 41, 125–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rosenshine, B. (1983). Personal communication.Google Scholar
  78. Rosenshine, B., & Stevens, R. (1986). Teaching functions. In M. C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook on research in teaching (3rd ed.). (pp. 376–391). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  79. Sainata, D. M., Strain, P. S., & Lyon, S. L. (1987). Increasing academic responding of handicapped preschool children during group instruction. Journal of the Division of Early Childhood Special Education, 12, 23–30.Google Scholar
  80. Schuster, J. W., Griffin, A. K., & Wolery, M. (1992). Simultaneous prompting and constant time delay procedures in teaching sight words to elementary students with moderate mental retardation. Journal of Behavioral Education, 2, 305–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Schwartz, B. (1993). A comparison of three tactics for teaching the mand function with preschoolers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Columbia University Teachers College, New York.Google Scholar
  82. Selinske, J., Greer, R. D., & Lodhi, S. (1991). A functional analysis of the comprehensive application of behavior analysis to schooling. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 645–654.Google Scholar
  83. Sidman, M. (1986). Functional analysis of emergent classes. In T. Thompson & M. Zeiler (Eds.), Analysis and integration of behavioral units (pp. 213–245). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  84. Sidman, M. (1993). Strategies and tactics of scientific research. Boston: Context Press.Google Scholar
  85. Skinner, B. F. (1938). The behavior of organisms. Cambridge, MA: B. F. Skinner Foundation.Google Scholar
  86. Skinner, B. F. (1956). Science and human behavior. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  87. Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal behavior. Cambridge, MA: B. F. Skinner Foundation.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Skinner, B. F. (1968). The technology of teaching. New York: Appleton, Century, & Crofts.Google Scholar
  89. Skinner, B. F. (1976). About behaviorism. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  90. Skinner, B. F. (1984a). The shame of American education. The American Psychologist, 39, 947–954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Skinner, B. F. (1984b). The evolution of behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 41, 217–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sulzer-Azaroff, B., Drabman, R. M., Greer, R. D., Hall, R. V., Iwata, B. A., & O’Leary, S. G. (1988). Behavior analysis in education from the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis: Reprint series Vol. 3. Lawrence, KS: Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.Google Scholar
  93. Sundberg, M. L. (1985). Teaching verbal behavior to pigeons. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 3, 11–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Vargas, E. A. (1991). Behaviorology: Its paradigm. In W. Ishaq (Ed.), Human behavior in today’s world (pp. 141–148). New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  95. Vargas, E. A. (1993, October). From behaviorism to selectionism. Educational Technology, pp. 46-51.Google Scholar
  96. Vargas, E. A., & Vargas, J. S. (1991). Programmed Instruction: What it is and how to do it. Journal of Behavioral Education, 1, 235–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Warren, S. F., McQuarter, R. J., & Rogers-Warren, A. K. (1984). The effects of mands and models on the speech of unresponsive language delayed preschool children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 49, 40–51.Google Scholar
  98. Weisburg, P. (1994). Helping preschoolers from low-income background make substantial progress in reading through direct instruction. In R. Gardner III et al. (Eds.), Behavior analysis in education: Focus on measurably superior instruction (pp. 115–128). Pacific Groves, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  99. West, R., & Hammerlynck, L. (1992). Designs for excellence in education: The legacy of B. F. Skinner. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.Google Scholar
  100. Williams, G., & Greer, R. D. (1993). A comparison of verbal behavior and linguistic curricula. Behaviorology, 1(1), 31–46.Google Scholar
  101. Wolery, M., & Holcombe, A. (1993). Constant time delay: Effects of varying levels of procedural fidelity. Pittsburg: Early Childhood Intervention Program, Department of Psychiatry, Allegheny-Singer Research Institute.Google Scholar
  102. Zurrif, G. (1986). A conceptual reconstruction of behaviorism. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Douglas Greer
    • 1
  1. 1.Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and SciencesColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations