Advertisement

Recent Advances in Neuropsychological Assessment of Children

  • Mark A. Williams
  • Thomas J. Boll
Part of the Critical Issues in Neuropsychology book series (CINP)

Abstract

Neuropsychological assessment of children has expanded substantially in recent years, with a broadening of goals, assessment approaches, and populations served. Knowledge acquired from various disciplines including developmental and cognitive psychology, clinical neurosciences, and child psychiatry is increasingly being incorporated into child neuropsychological assessment models. An attempt is made in this chapter to highlight recent trends in child neuropsychological assessment. A broad presentation of the major domains, issues, and developments is presented. Our goal is to provide clinically useful information and multiple citations to point the reader to sources where more detailed consideration of each issue is provided.

Keywords

Traumatic Brain Injury Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Neuropsychological Assessment Learn Disable Learn Disability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1986). The direct observation form of the Child Behavior Checklist (rev. ed). Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the youth self-report and 1991 profile. Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  3. Achenbach, T. M., and Edelbrock, C. S. (1983). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist and revised Child Behavior Profile. Burlington, VT: T. M. Achenbach.Google Scholar
  4. Annett, M. (1973). Laterality of childhood hemiplegia and the growth of speech and intelligence. Cortex, 9, 4–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barkley, R. A. (1981). Hyperactive children: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  6. Barkley, R. A. (1988). Attention. In M. G. Tramontana and S. R. Hooper (Eds.), Assessment issues in child neuropsychology. Critical issues in neuropsychology (pp. 145–176 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  7. Barkley, R. A., and Grodzinsky, G. M. (1994). Are tests of frontal lobe functions useful in the diagnosis of attention deficit disorders? The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 8, 121–139.Google Scholar
  8. Basser, L. S. (1962). Hemiplegia of early onset and the faculty of speech with special reference to the effects of hemispherectomy. Brain, 85, 427–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bawden, H. N. (1985). Speeded performance following head injury in children. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 7, 39–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Beery, K. E., and Buktenica, N. A. (1989). Developmental Test of Visual—Motor Integration. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  11. Beitchman, J. H., and Corradini, A. (1988). Self-report measures for use with children: A review and comment. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 477–490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bender, L. (1938). A visual motor gestalt test and its clinical use (Research Monograph No. 3 ). New York: American Orthopsychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  13. Benton, A. L., Hamsher, K. deS., Varney, N. R., and Spreen, O. (1993). Contributions to neuropsychological assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Benton, A. L., and Pearl, D. (1978). Dyslexia. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Berg, R. A., Bolter, J. E, Ch’ien, L. T., Williams, S. J., Lancaster, W., and Cummins, J. (1984). Comparative diagnostic accuracy of the Halstead—Reitan and the Luria—Nebraska Neuropsychological Adults and Children’s Batteries. Clinical Neuropsychology, 6, 200–204.Google Scholar
  16. Bigler, E. D. (1988). The role of neuropsychological assessment in relation to other types of assessment with children. In M. G. Tramontana and S. R. Hooper (Eds.), Assessment issues in child neuropsychology. Critical issues in neuropsychology (pp. 67–91 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  17. Boll, T. J. (1974). Behavioral correlates of cerebral damage in children aged 9–14. In R. M. Reitan and L. A. Davison (Eds.), Clinical neuropsychology: Current status and applications (pp. 91–120 ). Washington, DC: Winston.Google Scholar
  18. Boll, T. J. (1981). The Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychology Battery. In S. B. Filskov and T. J. Boll (Eds), Handbook of clinical neuropsychology (pp. 577–607 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  19. Boll, T. J. (1993). Children’s Category Test. New York: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  20. Boyd, T. A. (1988). Clinical assessment of memory in children: A developmental framework for practice. In M. G. Tramontana and S. R. Hooper (Eds.), Assessment issues in child neuropsychology. Critical issues in neuropsychology (pp. 177–204 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  21. Brink, J., Garrett, A., Hale, W., Woo-Sum, J., and Nickel, V. (1970). Recovery of motor and intellectual function in children sustaining severe head injuries. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 12, 565–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Brown, A. L. (1975). The development of memory, knowing, knowing about knowing, and knowing how to know. In H. W. Reese (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 10, pp. 103–152 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  23. Brown, G., Chadwick, O., Shaffer, D., Rutter, M., and Traub, M. (1981). A prospective study of children with head injuries: Psychiatric sequelae. Psychological Medicine, 11, 63–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Brown, L., and Hammill, D. D. (1983). Examiner’s manual for the Behavior Rating Profile, Austin, TX: PRO-ED.Google Scholar
  25. Buschke, H. (1974). Components of verbal learning in children: Analysis by selective reminding. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 18, 488–496.Google Scholar
  26. Butcher, J. N., Williams, C. L., Graham, J. R., Archer, R. P., Tellegen, A., Ben-Porath, Y. S., and Kaemmer, B. (1992). MMPI-A: Manual for administration, scoring, and interpretation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  27. Bzoch, K. R., and League, R. (1971). Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale. Gainesville, FL: Tree of Life Press.Google Scholar
  28. Caplan, D. (1995). Language disorders. In R. L. Mapou and J. Spector (Eds.), Clinical neuropsychological assessment: A cognitive approach (pp. 83–113 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  29. Carr, M. (1983). A test of clinical utility: The Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery, Children’s Revision. (Doctoral dissertation, Boston University Graduate School, 1983). Dissertation Abstracts International, 44, 1586.Google Scholar
  30. Carrow, E. (1985). Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language-Revised. Boston: Teaching Resources.Google Scholar
  31. Chadwick, O., Rutter, M., Brown, G., Shaffer, D., and Traub, M. (1981). A prospective study of children with head injuries: II. Cognitive sequelae. Psychological Medicine, 11, 49–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Chadwick, O., Rutter, M., Shaffer, D., and Shrout, P. E. (1981). A prospective study of children with head injuries: IV. Specific cognitive deficits. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 3, 101–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Chambers, W. J., Puig-Antich, J., Hirsch, M., Paez, P., Ambrosini, P. J., Tabrizi, A., and Davies, M. (1985). The assessment of affective disorders in children and adolescents by semistructured interview: Test-retest reliability of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Present Episode Version. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 696–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Chelune, G. J., and Thompson, L. L. (1987). Evaluation of the general sensitivity of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test among younger and older children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 3, 81–89.Google Scholar
  35. Clodfelter, C. J., Dickson, A. L., Newton-Wilkes, C., and Johnson, R. B. (1987). Alternate forms of selective reminding for children. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 1, 243–249.Google Scholar
  36. Costello, A., Edelbrock, C., Kalas, R., Kessler, M., and Klaric, S. (1984). NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC). Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health.Google Scholar
  37. Crary, M. A., Voeller, K. K. S., and Haak, N. J. (1988). Questions of developmental neurolinguistic assessment. In M. G. Tramontana and S. R. Hooper (Eds.), Assessment issues in child neuropsychology. Critical issues in neuropsychology (pp. 249–279 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  38. Crawford, J. R., Stewart, L. E., and Moore, J. W. (1989). Demonstration of savings on the AVLT and development of a parallel form. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 11, 975–981.Google Scholar
  39. Curry, J. F., Logue, P. E., and Butler, B. (1986). Child and adolescent norms for Russell’s revision of the Wechsler Memory Scale. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 15, 214–220.Google Scholar
  40. DeFries, J. C. (1989). Gender ratios in children with reading disability and their affected relatives: A commentary. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22, 544–545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Delis, D. C., Kramer, J., Kaplan, E., and Ober, B. A. (1994). California Verbal Learning Test-Children’s Version. New York: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  42. Dennis, M. (1988). Language and the young damaged brain. In T. Boll and B. K. Bryant (Eds.), Clinical neuropsychology and brain function: Research, measurement, and practice. The master lecture series (Vol. 7, pp. 89–123 ). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  43. Dennis, M. (1992). Word finding in children and adolescents with a history of brain injury. Topics in Language Disorders, 13, 66–82.Google Scholar
  44. Denton, C. L., and McIntyre, C. W. (1978). Span of apprehension in hyperactive boys. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 6, 19–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Dorman, C., and Katzir, B. (1994). Cognitive effects of early brain injury. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Douglas, V. I. (1988). Cognitive deficits in children with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. In L. M. Bloomingdale and J. A. Sergeant (Eds.), Attention deficit disorder: Criteria, cognition, intervention (pp. 65–81 ). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  47. Duffy, J. B., Ritter, D. R., and Fedner, M. (1976). Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration and the Goodenough Draw-a-Man Test as predictors of academic success. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 43, 543–546.Google Scholar
  48. Eide, P. K., and Tysnes, O. B. (1992). Early and late outcome in head injury patients with radiologic evidence of brain damage. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 86, 194–198.Google Scholar
  49. Emhart, C. B., Graham, E. K., Eichman, P. L., Marshall, J. M., and Thurston, D. (1963). Brain injury in the preschool child: Some developmental considerations. II. Comparison of brain injured and normal children. Psychological Monographs, 77 (Whole No. 574 ), 17–33.Google Scholar
  50. Ewing-Cobbs, L., Fletcher, J. M., Landry, S. H., and Levin, H. S. (1985). Language disorders after pediatric head injury. In J. K. Darby (Ed.), Speech and language evaluation in neurology: Childhood disorders (pp. 97–111 ). San Diego: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  51. Fenichel, G. M. (1988). Clinical pediatric neurology. Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar
  52. Fisk, J. L., and Rourke, B. P. (1979). Identification of subtypes of learning disabled children at three age levels: A neuropsychological, multivariate approach. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1, 29–31.Google Scholar
  53. Fletcher, J. M. (1988). Brain-injured children. In E. J. Mash and L. G. Terdal (Eds.), Behavioral assessment of childhood disorders (Vol. 2, pp. 451–489 ). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  54. Fletcher, J. M., Miner, M. E., and Ewing-Cobbs, L. (1987). Age and recovery from head injury in children: Developmental issues. In H. S. Levin, J. Grafman, and H. M. Eisenberg (Eds.), Neurobehavioral recovery from head injury (pp. 279–291 ). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Fletcher, J. M., and Satz, P. (1980). Developmental changes in the neuropsychological correlates of reading achievement: A six-year longitudinal follow-up. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 2, 23–37.Google Scholar
  56. Fletcher, J. M., and Taylor, H. G. (1984). Neuropsychological approaches to children: Towards a developmental neuropsychology. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 6, 24–37.Google Scholar
  57. Fletcher, S. G. (1978). The Fletcher Time-by-Count Test of Diadochokinetic Syllable Rate. New York: Tigard, C. C. Publications.Google Scholar
  58. Forehand, R. L., and Brody, G. (1985). The association between parental personal/marital adjustment and parent-child interactions in a clinic sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 211–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Foster, S. L., and Cone, J. D. (1986). Design and use of direct observation procedures. In A. R. Ciminero, K. S. Calhoun, and H. E. Adams (Eds.), Handbook of behavioral assessment ( 2nd ed., pp. 253–324 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  60. Frankenburg, W. K., Dodds, J. B., Fandel, A. W., Kazuk, E., and Cohrs, M. (1975). Denver Developmental Screening Test. Denver: LADOCA Project and Publishing Foundation.Google Scholar
  61. Friedman, D., Vaughan, H., and Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L. (1978). Task related cortical potentials in children in two kinds of vigilance tasks. In D. A. Otto (Ed.), Multidisciplinary perspectives in event-related brain potential research (pp. 309–313 ). Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  62. Gaddes, W. H., and Edgell, D. (1993). Learning disabilities and brain function ( 3rd ed. ). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  63. Gardner, W. J., Karnoch, I. J., McClure, C. C., and Gardner, A. K. (1955). Residual function following hemispherectomy for tumour and for infantile hemiplegia. Brain, 78, 487–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Gates, R. D. (1984). Florida Kindergarten Screening Battery. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 6, 459–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Geary, D. C., and Gilger, J. W. (1984). The Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children’s Revision: Comparison of learning-disabled and normal children matched on full scale IQ. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 58, 115–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Glutting, J. J., and Kaplan, D. (1990). Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, fourth edition: Making the case for reasonable interpretations. In C. R. Reynolds and R. W. Kamphaus (Eds.), Handbook of psychological and educational assessment of children (pp. 277–295 ). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  67. Golden, C. J. (1981). The Luria-Nebraska Children’s Battery. Theory and formulation. In G. W. Hynd and J. E. Obrzut (Eds.), Neuropsychological assessment and the school-age child: Issues and perspectives (pp. 277–302 ). New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  68. Golden, C. J. (1988). The Nebraska Neuropsychological Children’s Battery. In C. R. Reynolds and E. Fletcher-Janzen (Eds.), Handbook of clinical child neuropsychology (pp. 193–204 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  69. Goldstein, F. C., and Levin, H. S. (1985). Intellectual and academic outcome following closed head injury in children and adolescents: Research strategies and empirical findings. Developmental Neuropsychology, 1, 195–214.Google Scholar
  70. Goyette, C. H., Conners, C. K., and Ulrich, R. F. (1978). Normative data on revised Conners Parent and Teacher Rating Scales. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 6, 221–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Gustayson, J. L., Golden, C. J., Wilkening, G. N., Hermann, B. P., Plaisted, J. R., Maclnnes, W. D., and Leark, R. A. (1984). The Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children’s Revision: Validation with brain-damaged and normal children. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 2, 199–208.Google Scholar
  72. Halperin, J. M., Healey, J. M., Zeitchik, E., Ludman, W. L., and Weinstein, L. (1989). The development of linguistic and mnestic abilities in school-age children. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 11, 518–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hammill, D. D., and Newcomer, P. L. (1982). Test of language development. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
  74. Henry, S. A., and Wittman, R. D. (1981). Diagnostic implications of Bannatyne’s recategorized WISC-R scores for identifying learning disabled children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 14, 517–520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Herjanic, B., and Campbell, W. (1977). Differentiating psychiatrically disturbed children on the basis of a structured interview. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 5, 127–134.Google Scholar
  76. Herjanic, B., and Reich, W. (1982). Development of a structured psychiatric interview for children: Agreement between child and parent on individual symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10, 307–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Hetherington, E. M., and Martin, B. (1979). Family interaction. In H. C. Quay and J. S. Werry (Eds.), Psychopathological disorders of childhood ( 2nd ed., pp. 247–302 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  78. Hodges, K., McKnew, D., Cytryn, L., Stern., L., and Kline, J. (1982). The Child Assessment Schedule (CAS) diagnostic interview: A report of reliability and validity. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 21, 468–473.Google Scholar
  79. Hynd, G. W. (1988). Neuropsychological assessment in clinical child psychology. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  80. Hynd, G. W., Semrud-Clikeman, M., Lorys, A. R., Novey, E. S., and Eliopulos, D. (1990). Brain morphology in developmental dyslexia and attention deficit disorder/hyperactivity. Archives of Neurology, 47, 919–926.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Hynd, G. W., Semrud-Clikeman, M., Lorys, A. R., Novey, E. S., Eliopulos, D., and Lyytinen, H. (1991). Corpus callosum morphology in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Morphometric analysis of MRI. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 3, 141–146.Google Scholar
  82. Isaacson, R. L. (1975). The myth of recovery from early brain damage. In N. Ellis (Ed.), Aberrant development in infancy (pp. 1–26 ). London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  83. Kagan, J., Rosman, B., Day, D., Albert, J., and Phillips, W. (1964). Information processing in the child: Significance of analytic and reflective attitudes. Psychological Monographs, 78 (I, Whole No. 578).Google Scholar
  84. Kail, R. (1975). Interrelations in children’s use of mnemonic strategies. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  85. Kail, R., and Hagen, J. W. (1982). Memory in childhood. In B. Wolman, G. Stricker, S. Ellman, P. Keith-Spiegel, and D. Palermo (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychology (pp. 350–366 ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  86. Kaufman, A. S. (1981). The WISC-R and learning disabilities assessment: State of the art. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 14, 520–526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Kemper, M. B., Hagerman, R. J., Ahmad, R. S., and Mariner, R. (1986). Cognitive profiles and the spectrum of clinical manifestations in heterozygous fragile X females. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 23, 139–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Kinsbourne, M. (1984). Beyond attention deficit: Search for the disorder in ADD. In L. Bloomingdale (Ed.), Attention deficit disorder; Diagnostic, cognitive, and therapeutic understanding (pp. 133–162 ). New York: Spectrum Publications.Google Scholar
  89. Kistner, J. A., and Torgesen, J. K. (1987). Motivational and cognitive aspects of learning disabilities. In B. B. Lahey and A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol. 10, pp. 289–333 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  90. Klee, S. H., and Garfinkel, B. D. (1983). The Computerized Continuous Performance Task: A new measure of inattention. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 11, 487–496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Klorman, R., Salzman, L. F., and Borgstedt, A. D. (1988). Brain event-related potentials in evaluation of cognitive deficits in attention deficit disorder and outcome of stimulant therapy. In L. M. Bloomingdale (Ed.), Attention deficit disorder: Vol. 3. New research in attention, treatment, and psychopharmacology (pp. 49–80 ). Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  92. Kolb, B., and Whishaw, I. (1985). Fundamentals in human neuropsychology ( 2nd ed. ). New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  93. Kovacs, M. (1982). The longitudinal study of child and adolescent psychopathology: I. The Semi-Structured Psychiatric Interview Schedule for Children (ISC). Unpublished manuscript, Western Psychiatric Institute.Google Scholar
  94. Kovacs, M. (1985). The Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 21, 995–998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Kraus, J. F., Rock, A., and Hemyari, P. (1990). Brain injuries among infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. American Journal of Disabilities in Children, 144, 684–691.Google Scholar
  96. Kreutzer, M., Leonard, C., and Flavell, J. (1975). An interview study of children’s knowledge about memory. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 40, (1, Whole No. 159).Google Scholar
  97. Lachar, D. (1982). Personality Inventory for Children (PIC). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  98. Lachar, D. (1990). Objective assessment of child and adolescent personality: The Personality Inventory for Children (PIC). In C. R. Reynolds and R. W. Kamphaus (Eds.), Handbook of psychological and educational assessment of children (pp. 298–323 ). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  99. Lachar, D., and Gruber, C. P. (1994). A manual for the Personality Inventory for Youth (PIY): A self-report comparison to the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  100. Lee, L. L. (1971). Northwestern Syntax Screening Test. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. Levin, H. S., Aldrich, E. F., and Saydjari, C. (1992). Severe head injury in children: Experience of the traumatic coma data bank. Neurosurgery, 32, 435–443.Google Scholar
  101. Levin, H. S., and Eisenberg, H. M (1979a). Neuropsychological impairment after closed head injury in children and adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 4, 389–402.Google Scholar
  102. Levin, H. S., and Eisenberg, H. M. (1979b). Neuropsychological outcome of closed head injury in children and adolescents. Child’s Brain, 5, 281–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Levin, H. S., Ewing-Cobbs, L., and Benton, A. L. (1984). Age and recovery from brain damage: A review of clinical studies. In S. W. Scheff (Ed.), Aging and recovery of function in the central nervous system (pp. 169–205 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  104. Levin, H. S., Grafman, J. and Eisenberg, H. M. (1987). Neurobehavioral recovery from brain injury. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Levin, H. S., Mendelsohn, D., Lilly, M. A., Fletcher, J. A., Culhane, K. A., Chapman, S. B., Harward, H., Kusnerik, C., Bruce, D., and Eisenberg, H. M. (1994). Tower of London performance in relation to magnetic resonance imaging following closed head injury in children. Neuropsychology, 8, 171–179.Google Scholar
  106. Levine, S. C., Huttenlocher, P., Banich, M. T., and Duda, E. (1987). Factors affecting cognitive functioning of hemiplegic children. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 29, 27–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Lindgren, S. D., and Benton, A. L. (1980). Developmental patterns of visuospatial judgment. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 5, 217–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Lou, H. C., Henriksen, L., and Bruhn, P. (1984). Focal cerebral hypoperfusion in children with dysphasia and/or attention deficit disorder. Archives of Neurology, 41, 825–829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Lou, H. C., Henriksen, L., Bruhn, P., Borner, H., and Nielsen, J. B. (1989). Striatal dysfunction in attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder. Archives of Neurology, 46, 48–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Markwardt, E C. (1989). Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  111. Massman, P. J., Nussbaum, N. L., and Bigler, E. D. (1988). The mediating effect of age on the relationship between Child Behavior Checklist hyperactivity scores and neuropsychological test performance. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 16, 89–95.Google Scholar
  112. McConaughy, S. H., and Achenbach, T. M. (1988). Practical guide for the Child Behavior Checklist and related materials. Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  113. McConaughy, S. H., and Achenbach, T. M. (1990). Guide for the Semistructured Clinical Interview for children aged 6–11. Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  114. McGee, R., and Share, D. L. (1988). Attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity and academic failure: Which comes first and what should be treated ? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 318–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Meerwaldt, J. D., and van Dongen, H. R. (1988). Disturbances of spatial perception in children. Behavioral Brain Research, 31, 131–134.Google Scholar
  116. Menyuk, P., and Bernholts, N. (1969). Prosodic features and children’s language. Quarterly Progress Report of Research Laboratory of Electronics, 93, 216–219.Google Scholar
  117. Milich, R., and Kramer, J. (1984). Reflections on impulsivity: An empirical investigation of impulsivity as a construct. Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities, 3, 57–94.Google Scholar
  118. Morgan, S. E (1982). Measuring long-term memory, storage, and retrieval in children. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 4, 77–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. National Joint Committee for Learning Disabilities. (1987). Perspectives in dyslexia. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 20, 107–108.Google Scholar
  120. Nolan, D. R., Hammeke, T. A., and Barkley, R. A. (1983). A comparison of the patterns of the neuropsychological performance in two groups of learning-disabled children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 12, 13–21.Google Scholar
  121. Parker, R. S. (1990). Traumatic brain injury and neuropsychological impairment. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  122. Pennington, B. E. (1991). Diagnosing learning disorders: A neuropsychological framework. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  123. Pennington, B. E, Heaton, R. K., Karzmark, P., Pendleton, M. G., Lehman, R., and Shucard, D. W. (1985). The neuropsychological phenotype in Turner syndrome. Cortex, 21, 391–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Puig-Antich, J., and Chambers, W. (1978). The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children. New York: New York State Psychiatric Institute.Google Scholar
  125. Quay, H. C., and Peterson, D. R. (1983). Interim manual for the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist. Unpublished manuscript, University of Miami.Google Scholar
  126. Rapport, M. D. (1993). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In T. H. 011endick and M. Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of child and adolescent assessment. General psychology series (Vol. 167, pp. 269–291 ). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  127. Rapport, M. D., Tucker, S. B., DuPaul, G. J., Merlo, M., and Stoner, G. (1986). Hyperactivity and frustration: The influence of control over and size of rewards in delaying gratification. Journal ofAbnormal Child Psychology, 14, 191–204.Google Scholar
  128. Reed, H. B. C., Reitan, R. M., and Klove, H. (1965). Influence of cerebral lesions on psychological test performance of older children. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 29, 247–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Reitan, R. M. (1969). Manual for administration of neuropsychological test batteries for adults and children. Indianapolis, IN: Author.Google Scholar
  130. Reitan, R. M. (1974). Psychological effects of cerebral lesions in children of early school age. In R. M. Reitan and L. A. Davison (Eds.), Clinical neuropsychology: Current status and applications (pp. 53–90 ). Washington, DC: Winston.Google Scholar
  131. Reitan, R. M., and Boll, T. J. (1973). Neuropsychological correlates of minimal brain dysfunction. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 205, 65–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Reynolds, C. R. (1990). Conceptual and technical problems in learning disability diagnosis. In C. R. Reynolds and R. W. Kamphaus (Eds.), Handbook of psychological and educational assessment of children (pp. 571–592 ). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  133. Reynolds, C. R., and Bigler, E. (1994). Tests of memory and learning. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  134. Reynolds, C. R., and Richmond, B. O. (1985). Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  135. Reynolds, W. M. (1986). Reynolds Adolescent Depression Inventory. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  136. Richman, L. C., and Lindgren, S. D. (1981). Verbal mediation deficits: Relation to behavior and achievement in children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90, 99–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Riley, G., and Riley, J. (1985). Oral motor assessment and treatment: Improving syllable production. New York: Tigard, C. C. Publications.Google Scholar
  138. Rourke, B. P. (1982). Central processing deficiencies in children: Toward a developmental neuro-psychological model. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 4, 1–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Rourke, B. P. (1989). Nonverbal learning disabilities: The syndrome and the model. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  140. Rourke, B. P., and Finlayson, M. A. J. (1978). Neuropsychological significance of variations in patterns of academic performance: Verbal and visual-spatial abilities. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 6, 121–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Rourke, B. P., and Gates, R. D. (1980). Underlining Test: Preliminary norms. Windsor, Ontario: Author. Rourke, B. P., and Gates, R. D. (1981). Neuropsychological research and school psychology. In G. W. Hynd and J. E. Obrzut (Eds.), Neuropsychological assessment of the school-age child: Issues and procedures (pp. 3–25 ). New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  142. Rourke, B. P., and Orr, R. (1977). Prediction of the reading and spelling performances of normal and retarded readers: A four-year follow-up. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 5, 9–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Rudel, R G. (1978). Neuroplasticity: Implications for development and education. In J. S. Chall andE. Mirsky (Eds.), Education and the brain (Part II). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  144. Rutter, M. (1982). Developmental neuropsychiatry: Concepts, issues, and prospects. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 4, 91–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Ryckman, D. B., and Rentfrow, R. K. (1971). The Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration: An investigation of reliability. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 4, 333–334.Google Scholar
  146. Schachar, R., Logan, G., Wachsmoth, R., and Chajczyk, D. (1988). Attaining and maintaining preparation: A comparison of attention in hyperactive, normal, and disturbed control children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 16, 361–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Seidel, U. P., Chadwick, O., and Rutter, M. (1975). Psychological disorders in crippled children: A comparative study of children with and without brain damage. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 17, 563–573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Shallice, T. (1982). Specific impairments of planning. In D. E. Broadbent and L. Weiskrautz (Eds.), Theneuropsychology of cognitive function (pp. 199–209 ). London: The Royal Society.Google Scholar
  149. Shallice, T. (1988). From neuropsychology to mental structure. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  150. Shapiro, K., and Smith, L. P. (1993). Special considerations for the pediatric age group. In P. R. Cooper (Ed.), Head Injury ( 3rd ed., pp. 427–458 ). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  151. Shaywitz, S. E., Schnell, C., Shaywitz, B. A., and Towle, V. R. (1986). Yale Children’s Inventory (YCI): An instrument to assess children with attentional deficits and learning disabilities: I. Scale development and psychometric properties. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 14, 347–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Shaywitz, S. E., Shaywitz, B. A., Fletcher, J. M., and Escobar, M. D. (1990). Prevalence of reading disabilities in boys and girls: Results of the Connecticut Longitudinal Study. Journal of American Medical Association, 264, 998–1002.Google Scholar
  153. Sheslow, D., and Adams, W. (1990). Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning. Wilmington, DE: Jastak Associates.Google Scholar
  154. Slomka, G. T., and Tarter, R. E. (1993). Neuropsychological assessment. In T. H. 011endick and M. Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of child and adolescent assessment. General psychology series (Vol. 167, pp. 208–223 ). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  155. Smith, A. (1982). Symbol Digit Modalities Test. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  156. Snow, J. H., and Hynd, G. W. (1985a). A multivariate investigation of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children’s Revision with learning-disabled children. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 3, 101–109.Google Scholar
  157. Snow, J. H., and Hynd, G. W. (1985b). Factor structure of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children’s Revision. Journal of School Psychology, 23, 271–276.Google Scholar
  158. Snow, J. H., Hynd, G. W., and Hartlage, L. C. (1984). Difference between mildly and more severely learning-disabled children on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children’s Revision. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 2, 23–28.Google Scholar
  159. Spreen, O., Risser, A. H., and Edgell, D. (1995). Developmental neuropsychology. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  160. St. James-Roberts, I. (1979). Neurological plasticity, recovery from brain insult, and child development. In H. W. Reese and L. P. Lipsitt (Eds.), Advances in child development and behavior (pp. 253–319 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  161. Stevenson, H., Parker, T., and Wilkinson, A. (1975). Ratings and measures of memory processes in young children. Unpublished manuscript, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  162. Stiles-Davis, J., Sugarman, S., and Nass, R. (1985). The development of spatial and class relations in four young children with right-cerebral-hemisphere damage: Evidence for an early spatial constructive deficit. Brain and Cognition, 4, 388–412.Google Scholar
  163. Stone, W. L., and LeManek, K. L. (1990). Developmental issues in children’s self-reports. In A. M. La Greca (Ed.), Through the eyes of the child: Obtaining self-reports from children and adolescents (pp. 18–56 ). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  164. Tarter, R. E., Van Theil, D. H., and Edwards, K. L. (Eds.). (1988). Medical neuropsychology: The impact of disease on behavior. Critical issues in neuropsychology (pp. 75–97 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  165. Taylor, H. G., and Fletcher, J. M. (1990). Neuropsychological assessment of children. In G. Goldstein, and M. Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of psychological assessment (pp. 228–255 ). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  166. Teasdale, G., and Jennett, B. (1974). Assessment of coma and injured consciousness: A practical scale. Lancet, 2, 81–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Templin, M., and Darley, F. (1969). Templin-Darley Tests of Articulation ( 2nd ed. ). Iowa City: Burea of Educational Research and Services, University of Iowa.Google Scholar
  168. Thompson, L. L., Heaton, R. K., Mathews, C. G., and Grant, J. (1987). Comparison of preferred and nonpreferred hand performance on four neuropsychological motor tasks. Clinical Neuropsychology, 1, 324–334.Google Scholar
  169. Thorndike, R. L., Hagen, E. P., and Sattler, J. M (1986). Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Fourth Edition. Chicago: Riverside.Google Scholar
  170. Timmermans, S. R., and Christensen, B. (1991). The measurement of attention deficits in TBI children and adolescents. Cognitive Rehabilitation, 9, 26–31.Google Scholar
  171. Tramontana, M. G., and Hooper, S. R. (1988). Child neuropsychological assessment: Overview of current status. In M. G. Tramontana and S. R. Hooper (Eds.), Assessment issues in child neuro-psychology. Critical issues in neuropsychology (pp. 3–38 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  172. Tramontana, M. G., Sherrets, S. D., and Wolf, B. A. (1983). Comparability of the Luria-Nebraska and Halstead-Reitan neuropsychological batteries for older children. The International Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 5, 186–190.Google Scholar
  173. van Zomeren, A. H., and Brouwer, W. H. (1994). Clinical neuropsychology of attention. New York: Oxford Press.Google Scholar
  174. Wechsler, D. (1991). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition. New York: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  175. Wechsler, D. (1992). Wechsler Individual Achievement Test. New York: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  176. Wechsler, D. (1995). Children’s Memory Scale. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation. Werry, J. S., Reeves, J. C., and Elkind, G. S. (1987). Attention deficit, conduct, oppositional, and anxiety disorders in children: III. Laboratory differences. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 15, 409–428.Google Scholar
  177. Wiig, E. H. (1982a). Let’s talk: Developing prosocial communication skills. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.Google Scholar
  178. Wiig, E. H. (1982b). Let’s talk inventory for adolescents. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.Google Scholar
  179. Wiig, E. H., and Bray, C. M. (1983). Let’s talk for children. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.Google Scholar
  180. Wilkening, G. N., Golden, C. J., Maclnnes, W. D., Plaisted, J. R., and Hermann, B. P. ( 1981, August). The Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children’s Revision: A preliminary report. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
  181. Wilkinson, G. S. (1993). The Wide Range Achievement Test (3rd ed.). Wilmington DE: Jastak. D. C., Zorn, G. L., and Kirklin, J. K. (1995). Neurocognitive and emotional deficits in lung transplant candidates. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  182. Winogron, H. W., Knights, R. M., and Bawden, H. N. (1984). Neuropsychological deficits following head injury in children. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 6, 269–286.Google Scholar
  183. Witelson, S. F. (1987). Neurobiological aspects of language in children. Child Development, 58, 653–688.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Witken, H. A., Oltman, P., Raskin, E., and Karp, S. (1971). Manual for the Children’s Embedded Figures Test. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  185. Woodcock, R. W., and Johnson, M. B. (1989). Woodcock–Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery—Revised. Allen, TX: DLM Teaching Resources.Google Scholar
  186. Woods, B. T., and Carey, S. (1979). Language deficits after apparent clinical recovery from childhood aphasia. Annals of Neurology, 6, 405–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Zametkin, A. J., Nordahl, T. E., Gross, M., King, A. C., Semple, W. E., Rumsey, J., Hamburger, S., and Cohen, R. (1990). Cerebral glucose metabolism in adults with hyperactivity of childhood onset. New England Journal of Medicine, 323, 1361–1366.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark A. Williams
    • 1
  • Thomas J. Boll
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Division of Neurological Surgery, Section of NeuropsychologyUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

Personalised recommendations