The Halstead—Reitan Neuropsychological Battery

  • James C. Reed
  • Homer B. C. Reed
Part of the Critical Issues in Neuropsychology book series (CINP)

Abstract

Two books published in 1947 were of interest to psychologists. The first book was Halstead’s (1947) Brain and Intelligence. This book served as the development of what is now known as the Halstead—Reitan Battery of Neuropsychological Tests (HRB), which for the past nearly 50 years has had a major impact on the field of human clinical neuropsychology by (1) expanding knowledge on brain—behavior relations, and (2) validating studies that have influenced clinical practice. More research has been done with this battery of tests than any other single neuropsychological battery. In the 1930s and 1940s, Halstead’s work was not universally accepted. Dr. Earl Walker, a neurosurgeon and colleague of Halstead at the University of Chicago, wrote, “since this battery was quite unique and a departure from most of the previous tests of brain functions, Dr. Halstead found some reluctance on the part of classical psychologists to accept his criteria” (Reed, 1984, p. 290). Dr. Paul Bucy, another neurosurgeon and also a colleague of Halstead, wrote

Ward Halstead developed a method of assessing the patient’s emotional and psychological situation which was relatively free of subjective evaluation by the examiner. The examination could be repeated in the same way over and over again and after considerable intervals. It was criticized by some as being too mechanical but I think this criticism was false. (Reed, 1984, p. 290)

Change is slow to occur; there are neuropsychologists still around who have some reluctance to accept the Halstead tests and there are those today who still criticize the HRB as being too mechanical. We think that criticism is false also.

Keywords

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Head Injury Neuropsychological Test Brain Damage Neuropsychological Evaluation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ( 4th ed. ). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Benton, A. (1992). Clinical neuropsychology: 1960–1990. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 14, 407–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Braff, D. L., Heaton, R., Kuck, J., Cullum, M., Moranville, J., Grant, I., Zisook, S. (1991). The gen-eralized pattern of neuropsychological deficits in outpatients with chronic schizophrenia with het-erogeneous Wisconsin Card Sorting Test results. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 891–898.Google Scholar
  4. Bryson, A. J., Silverstein, M. L., Nathan, A., Stephen, L. (1993). Differential rate of neuropsycho-logical dysfunction in psychiatric disorders: Comparison between the Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska batteries. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 76, 305–306.Google Scholar
  5. Cameron, N. (1944). The functional psychoses. In J. McV. Hunt (Ed.), Personality and the behavior disorders (Vol. I, pp. 861–921 ). New York: Ronald Press.Google Scholar
  6. Choca, J. P., Laatsch, L., Wetzel, L., Agresti, A. (1993, August). The Halstead Category Test: Afiftyyear perspective. J. P. Choca (Chair), Symposium conducted at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  7. Clark, C., Klonoff, E (1988). Reliability and construct validity of the six-block Tactual Performance Test in an adult sample. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 10, 175–184.Google Scholar
  8. Cullum, C. M., Thompson, L. L., Heaton, R. K. (1989). The use of the Halstead-Reitan battery with older adults. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 5, 595–610.Google Scholar
  9. Dikmen, S., Machamer, J., Temkin, N., McLean, A. (1990). Neuropsychological recovery in patients with moderate to severe head injury: 2 year follow-up. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 12, 507–519.Google Scholar
  10. Dikmen, S., McLean, A., Temkin, N. (1986). Neuropsychological and psychosocial consequences of minor head injury. Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry, 49, 1227–1232.Google Scholar
  11. Dikmen, S., McLean, A., Temkin, N. R., Wyler, A. R. (1986). Neuropsychologic outcome at one-month post injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 67, 507–513.Google Scholar
  12. Dikmen, S. S., Temkin, N. R., Machamer, J. E., Holubkou, A. L., Fraser, R. T., Winn, R. (1994). Employment following traumatic head injuries. Archives of Neurology, 51, 177–186.Google Scholar
  13. Donders, J., Kirsch, N. (1991). Nature and implications of selective impairment on the Booklet Category Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting test. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 5, 78–82.Google Scholar
  14. Elias, M. F., Robbins, M. A., Schultz, N. R., Jr., Pierce, T. W. (1990). Is blood pressure an important variable in research on aging and neuropsychological test performance? Journal of Gerontology, 45, 128–135.Google Scholar
  15. Elias, M. F., Robbins, M. A., Walter, L. J., Schultz, N. R., Jr. (1993). The influence of gender and age on Halstead-Reitan neuropsychological test performance. Journal of Gerontology, 48, 278–281.Google Scholar
  16. Farmer, M. E. (1994). Cognitive deficits related to major organ failure: The potential role of neuro-psychological testing. Neuropsychology Review, 4, 117–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Filley, C. M., Heaton, R. K., Rosenberg, N. L. (1990). White matter dementia in chronic toluene abuse. Neurology, 40, 532–534.Google Scholar
  18. Fitzhugh, K. B., Fitzhugh, L. D., Reitan, R. M. (1962). Wechsler Bellevue comparisons in groups with “chronic” and “current” lateralized diffuse brain lesions. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 26, 303–310.Google Scholar
  19. Gardner, E. (1947). Fundamentals of neurology. Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar
  20. Goldberg, T. E., Kelsoe, J. R., Weinberger, D. R., Pliskin, N. H., Kirwin, P. D., Berman, K. F. (1988). Performance of schizophrenic patients on putative neuropsychological tests of frontal lobe function. International Journal of Neuroscience, 42, 51–58.Google Scholar
  21. Goldstein, G. (1986). An overview of similarities and differences between the Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska neuropsychological batteries. In T. Incagnoli, G. Goldstein, C. J. Golden (Eds.), Clinical application of neuropsychological test batteries (pp. 235–275 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  22. Goldstein, G. (1987). Neuropsychological assessment batteries for rehabilitation: Fixed batteries, automated systems and non-psychometric methods. In M. Meier, A. Benton, L. Diller (Eds.), Neuropsychological rehabilitation (pp. 18–40 ). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  23. Goldstein, G. (1991). Comprehensive neuropsychological test batteries and research in schizophrenia. In S. R. Steinhauer, J. H. Gruzelier, J. Zubin (Eds.), Handbook of Schizophrenia: Vol. 5. Neuro-psychology, psychophysiology, and information processing (pp. 525–551 ). New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  24. Goldstein, G. (1994). Neurobehavioral heterogeneity in schizophrenia. Archives of Clinical Neuro-psychology, 9, 265–276.Google Scholar
  25. Goldstein, G., Materson, B. J., Cushman, W. C., Reda, D. J., Freis, E. D., Ramirez, E. A., Talmers, F. N., White, T. D., Nunn, S., Chapman, R. H., Khatri, I., Schnaper, H., Thomas, J. R., Henderson, W. C., Fye, C. (1990). Treatment of hypertension in the elderly: II. Cognitive and behavioral function. Hypertension, 15, 361–369.Google Scholar
  26. Goldstein, G., Watson, J. R. (1989). Test-retest reliability of the Halstead-Reitan battery and the WAIS in a neuropsychiatrie population. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 3, 265–273.Google Scholar
  27. Goldstein, G., Zubin, J. (1990). Neuropsychological differences between young and old schizophren- ics with and without associated neurological dysfunction. Schizophrenia Research, 3, 117–126.Google Scholar
  28. Goldstein, G., Zubin, J., Pogue-Geile, M. F. (1991). Hospitalization and the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. The influences of age and education. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 179, 202–206.Google Scholar
  29. Goldstein, K., Scheerer, M. (1941). Abstract and concrete behavior: An experimental study with special tests. Psychological Monographs, 53 ( 2, Serial No. 239).Google Scholar
  30. Grant, I., Heaton, R. K. (1990). Human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) and the brain. Jour-nal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 22–30.Google Scholar
  31. Halstead, W. C. (1947). Brain and intelligence: A quantitative study of the frontal lobes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  32. Harris, M. J., Jeste, D. V., Krull, A., Montague, J., Heaton, R. K. (1991). Deficit syndrome in older schizophrenic patients. Psychiatry Research, 39, 285–292.Google Scholar
  33. Heaton, R. K., Grant, I., Matthews, C. G. (1986). Differences in neuropsychological test performance associated with age, education, and sex. In I. Grant K. M. Adams (Eds.), Neuropsy- chological assessment in neuropsychiatric disorders: Clinical methods and empirical findings (pp. 100–120 ). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Heaton, R. K., Grant, I., Matthews, C. G. (1991). Comprehensive norms for an expanded Halstead-Reitan battery. Demographic corrections, research findings, and clinical applications. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  35. Heaton, R. K., Paulsen, J. S., McAdams, L. A., Cuck, J., Zisook, S., Graff, B., Harris, M. J., Jeste, E. V. (1994). Neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 469–476.Google Scholar
  36. Heaton, R. K., Velin, R. A., McCutchan, J. A., Gulevich, S. J., Atkinson, J. H., Wallace, M. R., Godfrey, H. P., Kirson, D. A., Grant, I. (1994). Neuropsychological impairment in human immunodeficiency virus-infection: Implications for employment. Psychosomatic Medicine, 56, 8–17.Google Scholar
  37. Heilbronner, R. L., Parsons, O. A. (1989). Clinical utility of the Tactual Performance Test: Issues of lateralization and cognitive style. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 3, 250–264.Google Scholar
  38. Horn, J. (1991). Contributions of the Halstead-Reitan battery in the neuropsychological investigation of stroke. In R. A. Bomstein L. C. Brown (Eds.), Neurobehavioral aspects of cerebrovascular disease (pp. 165–181 ). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Horn, J. (1992). General and specific cognitive dysfunction in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 7, 121–133.Google Scholar
  40. Horn, J. (1993). Brain tumors and dementia. In R. W. Parks, R. E. Zec, R. S. Wilson (Eds.), Neuro-psychology of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias (pp. 210–233 ). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Hom, J., Reitan, R. M. (1984). Neuropsychological correlates of rapidly vs. slowly growing intrinsic cerebral neoplasms. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 3, 303–324.Google Scholar
  42. Hom, J., Reitan, R. M. (1990). Generalized cognitive function after stroke. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 12, 644–654.Google Scholar
  43. Horn, J., Turner, M. B., Risser, R., Bonte, F. J., Tintiner, R. (1994). Cognitive deficits in asymptomatic first-degree relatives of Alzheimer’s disease patients. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 16, 568–576.Google Scholar
  44. Kane, R. L. (1991). Standardized and flexible batteries in neuropsychology: An assessment update. Neuropsychology Review, 2, 281–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Kane, R. L., Parsons, O. A., Goldstein, G., Moses, J. A. (1987). Diagnostic accuracy of the Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological batteries: Performance of clinical raters. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 783–784.Google Scholar
  46. Leckliter, I. N., Matarazzo, D. (1989). The influence of age, education, IQ, gender, and alcohol abuse on Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery performance. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45, 484–512.Google Scholar
  47. Lezak, M. D. (1983). Neuropsychological assessment ( 2nd ed. ). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Lezak, M. D. (1987). Assessment for rehabilitation planning. In M. Meier, A. Benton, L. Diller (Eds.), Neuropsychological rehabilitation (pp. 41–58 ). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  49. Mahalanobis, P. C. (1936). On the generalized distance function in statistics. International Science Congress, India, XII, 49–55.Google Scholar
  50. Matarazzo, J. D. (1972). Wechsler’s measurement and appraisal of adult intelligence. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  51. Meier, M., Benton, A., Diller, L. (Eds.). (1987). Neuropsychological rehabilitation. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  52. Meyerink, L. H. (1982). Intellectual functioning: The nature and patterns of change with aging. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 1982). Dissertation Abstracts International, 43, 855B.Google Scholar
  53. Moehle, K. A., Long, C. J. (1989). Models of aging and neuropsychological test performance decline with aging. Journal of Gerontology, 44, 176–177.Google Scholar
  54. O’Malley, S., Adamse, M., Heaton, R. K., Gawin, E H. (1992). Neuropsychological impairment in chronic cocaine abusers. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 18, 131–44.Google Scholar
  55. Parsons, O. A. (1986). Overview of the Halstead-Reitan battery. In T. Incagnoli, G. Goldstein, C. J. Golden (Eds.), Clinical application of neuropsychological test batteries (pp. 155–192 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  56. Perrin, K. (1993). Differential aspects of conceptual processing in the Category and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 15, 447–626.Google Scholar
  57. Preiss, J., Hynek, K. (1991). The Halstead-Reitan neuropsychology battery. Initial experience with its use in Czechoslovakia. Ceskoslovenska Psychiatrie, 87 (5–6), 249–54.Google Scholar
  58. Rappaport, D. (1945). Diagnostic psychological testing (Vol. 1 ). Chicago: Yearbook Publications.Google Scholar
  59. Reed, H. B. C., Reitan, R. M. (1963). Change in psychological test performance associated with the normal aging process. Journal of Gerontology, 18, 271–274.Google Scholar
  60. Reed, J. C. (1984). The contribution of Ward Halstead, Ralph Reitan, and their associates. International Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 289–293.Google Scholar
  61. Reitan, R. M. (1955a). Certain differential effects of left and right cerebral lesions in human adults. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 48, 474–477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Reitan, R. M. (1955b). An investigation of the validity of Halstead’s measures of biological intelligence. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 73, 28–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Reitan, R. M. (1959). The comparative effects of brain damage on the Halstead Impairment Index and the Wechsler-Bellevue Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 15, 281–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Reitan, R. M. (1964). Psychological deficits resulting from cerebral lesions in man. In J. M. Warren K. A. Akert (Eds.), The frontal granular cortex and behavior (pp. 295–312 ). New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  65. Reitan, R. M. (1984). Aphasia and sensory perceptual deficits in adults. Tucson, AZ: Neuropsychology Press.Google Scholar
  66. Reitan, R. M. (1988). Integration of neuropsychological theory, assessment, and application. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 2, 331–349.Google Scholar
  67. Reitan, R. M. (1994). Ward Halstead’s contribution to neuropsychology and the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50, 47–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Reitan, R. M., Davison, L. A. (Eds.). (1974). Clinical neuropsychology: Current status and applications. Washington, DC: V. H. Winston Sons.Google Scholar
  69. Reitan, R. M., Horn, J., Wolfson, D. (1988). Verbal processing by the brain. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 10, 400–408.Google Scholar
  70. Reitan, R. M., Sena, D. (1983, August). The efficacy of the REHABIT techniques in remediation of brain-injured people. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Anaheim, CA.Google Scholar
  71. Reitan, R. M., Wolfson, D. (1985). The Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery. Tucson, AZ: Neuropsychology Press.Google Scholar
  72. Reitan, R. M., Wolfson, D. (1986a). The Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery and aging. Clinical Gerontologist, 5, 39–61.Google Scholar
  73. Reitan, R. M., Wolfson, D. (1986b). Traumatic brain injury: Vol. I. Pathophysiology and neuro-psychological evaluation. Tucson, AZ: Neuropsychology Press.Google Scholar
  74. Reitan, R. M., Wolfson, D. (1988a). Traumatic brain injury: Vol. II. Recovery and rehabilitation. Tucson, AZ: Neuropsychology Press.Google Scholar
  75. Reitan, R. M., Wolfson, D. (1988b). The Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery and REHABIT: A model for integrating evaluation and remediation of cognitive impairment. Cognitive Rehabilitation, 6, 10–17.Google Scholar
  76. Reitan, R. M., Wolfson, D. (1989). The Seashore Rhythm Test and brain functions. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 3, 70–78.Google Scholar
  77. Reitan, R. M., Wolfson, D. (1990). The significance of the Speech Sounds Perception Test for cerebral functions. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 5, 265–272.Google Scholar
  78. Reitan, R. M., Wolfson, D. (1992a). Conventional intelligence measures and neuropsychological concepts of adaptive abilities. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 48, 521–529.Google Scholar
  79. Reitan, R. M., Wolfson, D. (1992b). Neuropsychological evaluation of older children. Tucson, AZ: Neuropsychology Press.Google Scholar
  80. Reitan, R. M., Wolfson, D. (1993). The Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery: Theory and clinical interpretation ( 2nd ed. ). Tucson, AZ: Neuropsychology Press.Google Scholar
  81. Reitan, R. M., Wolfson, D. (1994a). Dissociation of motor impairment and higher-level brain deficits in strokes and cerebral neoplasms. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 8, 193–208.Google Scholar
  82. Reitan, R. M., Wolfson, D. (1994b). A selective and critical review of neuropsychological deficits and the frontal lobes. Neuropsychology Review, 4, 161–198.Google Scholar
  83. Reitan, R. M., Wolfson, D. (1995a). Influence of age and education on neuropsychological test results. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 9, 151–158.Google Scholar
  84. Reitan, R. M., Wolfson, D. (1995b). The Category Test and the Trail Making Test as measures of frontal lobe functions. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 9, 50–56.Google Scholar
  85. Ross, B. L., Temkin, N. R., Newell, D., Dikmen, S. S. (1994). Neuropsychological outcome in relationto head injury severity. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 73, 341–347.Google Scholar
  86. Russell, E. W. (1985). Comparison of the TPT ten and six hole formboard. Journal of Clinical Psy-chology, 41, 68–81.Google Scholar
  87. Russell, E. W., Neuringer, C., Goldstein, G. (1970). Assessment of brain damage. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  88. Savage, E. P., Keefe, T. J., Mounce, L. M., Heaton, R. K., Lewis, J. A., Burcar, P. J. (1988). Chronic neurological sequelae of acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning. Archives of Environmental Health, 43, 38–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Scheibel, R. S., Hannay, H. J., Myers, C. A. (1993, February). The Category Test in patients with lateralized frontal and nonfrontal gliomas. Poster session presented at the meeting of the International Neuropsychological Society, Galveston, TX.Google Scholar
  90. Sena, D. A. (1985). The effectiveness of cognitive retraining for brain impaired individuals. The International Journal of Clinical Psychology, 7, 62.Google Scholar
  91. Sena, D. A. (1986). The effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation for brain-impaired patients. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 8, 142.Google Scholar
  92. Sena, H. M., Sena, D. A. (1986a). The comparison of subject characteristics between treatment and non-treatment patients. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1, 74.Google Scholar
  93. Sena, H. M., Sena, D. A. (1986b). A quantitative validation of the effectiveness of cognitive retraining. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1, 74.Google Scholar
  94. Sewell, D. D., Jeste, D. V., Atkinson, J. H., Heaton, R. K., Hesselink, J. R., Wiley, C., Thal, L., Chandler, J. L., Grant, I. (1994). HIV-associated psychosis: A study of 20 cases. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 237–242.Google Scholar
  95. Sheikh, M., Nagdy, S., Townes, B. D., Kennedy, M. C. (1987). The Luria—Nebraska and Halstead—Reitan Neuropsychological Test batteries: A cross-cultural study in English and Arabic. International Journal of Neuroscience, 32 (3–4), 757–764.Google Scholar
  96. Shelly, C., Goldstein, G. (1982). Psychometric relations between the Luria—Nebraska and Halstead—Reitan Neuropsychological batteries in a neuropsychiatrie setting. Clinical Neuro-psychology, 4, 128–133.Google Scholar
  97. Sherer, M., Adams, R. L. (1993). Cross-validation of Reitan and Wolfson’s Neuropsychological Deficit Scales. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 8, 429–435.Google Scholar
  98. Sherer, M., Parsons, O. A., Nixon, S. J., Adams, R. L. (1991). Clinical validation of the Speech-Sounds Perception Test and the Seashore Rhythm Test. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Psychology, 13, 741–751.Google Scholar
  99. Silverstein, M. L., Marengo, J. T., Fogg, L. (1991). Two types of thought disorder and lateralized neuropsychological dysfunction. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 17, 679–687.Google Scholar
  100. Skenazy, J. A., Bigler, E. D. (1985). Psychological adjustment and neuropsychological performance in diabetic patients. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41, 391–396.Google Scholar
  101. Thompson, L. L., Heaton, R. K. (1991). Pattern of performance on the Tactual Performance Test. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 5, 322–328.Google Scholar
  102. Thompson, L. L., Heaton, R. K., Matthews, C. G., Grant, I. (1987). Comparison of preferred and nonpreferred hand performance on four neuropsychological motor tasks. The Clinical Neuro-psychologist, 1, 324–334.Google Scholar
  103. Wechsler, D. (1955). Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. New York: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  104. Wheeler, L. (1964). Complex behavioral indices weighted by linear discriminant functions for the prediction of cerebral damage. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 19, 907–923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Wheeler, L., Burke, C. J., Reitan, R. M. (1963). An application of discriminant functions to the problem of predicting brain damage using behavioral variables. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 16, 417–440.Google Scholar
  106. Wheeler, L., Reitan, R. M. (1962). The presence and laterality of brain damage predicted from response to a short Aphasia Screening test. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 16, 681–701.Google Scholar
  107. Wheeler, L., Reitan, R. M. (1963). Discriminant functions applied to the problem of predicting cerebral damage from behavior tests: A cross-validation study. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 16, 681–701.Google Scholar
  108. Wolfson, D., Reitan, R. M. (1995). Cross-validation of the General Neuropsychological Deficit Scale (GNDS). Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 10, 125–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Yeudall, L. T., Reddon, J. R., Gill, P. M., Stefanyk, W. O. (1987). Normative data for the Halstead—Reitan neuropsychological tests stratified by age and sex. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 346–367.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • James C. Reed
    • 1
  • Homer B. C. Reed
    • 2
  1. 1.WaylandUSA
  2. 2.Neuropsychology LaboratoryNew England Medical CenterBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations