This linkage between ideas and observations, which suggests that ideas be evaluated by objective means, pinpoints the need in any science for developing such means, and further emphasizes the fact that the testing of theory is dependent upon the availability of robust methods. I have designated the development of such means as “middle range research.” It is not middle range because it is unimportant. Quite to the contrary, it is middle range because it links observations and experiences as to what the world is like to ideas—theories (if you will) that seek to tell us why the world is the way it appears to be. Middle range research results in the production of knowledge and understanding that may grow, serving as the research-based paradigmatic underpinning of science. (Binford 1982:128–129)


Consumer Behavior Market Access Archaeological Record Historical Archaeology Archaeological Data 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, Robert McC., 1966, The Evolution of Urban Society: Early Mesopotamia and Prehispanic Mexico, Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, Robert McC., 1974, Anthropological Perspectives on Ancient Trade, Current Anthropology 15:239–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnould, E., and Netting, R. McC., 1982, Households: Changing Form and function, Current Anthropology 23:571–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker, Vernon G., 1980, Archaeological Visibility of Afro-American Culture: An Example from Black Lucy’s Garden, Andover, Massachusetts, in: Archaeological Perspectives on Ethnicity in America (R. L. Schuyler, ed.), Baywood Publishing, Farmingdale, New York, pp. 29–37.Google Scholar
  5. Beaudry, Mary C., 1984, Archaeology and the Historical Household, Man in the Northeast 28(1):27–38.Google Scholar
  6. Becker, M. J., 1973, Archaeological Evidence for Occupational Specialization Among the Classic Period Maya at Tikal, Guatemala, American Antiquity 38:396–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Binford, Lewis R., 1962, Archaeology as Anthropology, American Antiquity 28:217–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Binford, Lewis R., 1965, Archaeological Systematics and the Study of Culture Process, American Antiquity 31:203–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Binford, Lewis R., 1967, Smudge Pits and Hide Smoking: The Use of Analogy in Archaeological Reasoning, American Antiquity 32(1): 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Binford, Lewis R., 1968, Archaeological Perspectives, in: New Perspectives in Archaeology (S. R. Binford and L. R. Binford, eds.), Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  11. Binford, Lewis R., 1972, Model Building—Paradigms, and the Current State of Paleolithic Research, in: An Archaeological Perspective, Seminar Press, New York, pp. 244–294.Google Scholar
  12. Binford, Lewis R., 1982, Objectivity-Explanation-Archaeology, 1981, in: Theory and Explanation in Archaeology (C. Renfrew, M. J. Rowlands, and B. A. Segraves, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 125–138.Google Scholar
  13. Bowen, J., 1975, Probate Inventories: An Evaluation from the Perspective of Zooarchaeology and Agricultural History at the Mott Farm, Historical Archaeology 9:11–25.Google Scholar
  14. Bushman, Richard L., 1970, From Puritan to Yankee, W. W. Norton, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Childe, V. Gordon, 1951, Social Evolution, World Press, Cleveland.Google Scholar
  16. Chorley, Richard J., and Haggett, Peter (eds.), 1967, Socio-economic Models in Geography, Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  17. Clark, Grahame, 1969, Archaeology and Society, Barnes & Noble, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Clarke, David L., 1972, Models and Paradigms in Contemporary Archaeology, in: Models in Archaeology (D. L. Clarke, ed.), Methuen, London, pp. 1–60.Google Scholar
  19. Clarke, David L., 1978, Analytical Archaeology, Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  20. Cooke, K. R., and Renfrew, C., 1979, An Experiment on the Simulation of Culture Changes, in Transformations: Mathematical Approaches to Culture Change (C. Renfrew and K. R. Cooke, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 327–348.Google Scholar
  21. Deagan, Kathleen, 1982, Avenues of Inquiry in Historical Archaeology, Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 5:151–178.Google Scholar
  22. Deagan, Kathleen, 1983, Spanish St. Augustine: The Archaeology of A Colonial Creole Community, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Deetz, J. F., 1977, In Small Things Forgotten: The Archaeology of Early American Life, Doubleday, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Deetz, J. F., 1982, Households: A Structural Key to Archaeological Explanation, American Behavioral Scientist 25:717–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Diamond, J. M., 1978, Niche Shifts and the Rediscovery of Interspecific Competition, American Scientist 66:322–331.Google Scholar
  26. Dincauze, Dena F., 1984, The Paradigm Trap, or Horatio’s Blindspot: Comments Freely Offered in Advance of the Meeting, Man in the Northeast 27:17–20.Google Scholar
  27. Douglas, Mary, and Isherwood, B., 1979, The World of Goods, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Doran, J., 1982, A Computational Model of Sociocultural Systems and Their Dynamics, in: Theory and Explanation in Archaeology (C. Renfrew, M. J. Rowlands, and B. A. Segraves, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 375–388.Google Scholar
  29. Drucker, Leslie M., 1981, Socioeconomic Patterning at an Undocumented Late 18th Century Lowcountry Site: Spiers Landing, South Carolina, Historical Archaeology 15(2):58–68.Google Scholar
  30. Dyson, S. L., 1982, Material Culture, Social Structure, and Changing Cultural Values: The Ceramics of Eighteenth-and Nineteenth-Century Middletown, Connecticut, in: Archaeology of Urban America: The Search for Pattern and Process (R. S. Dickens, Jr., ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 361–80.Google Scholar
  31. Edwards, Alba M., 1939, A Social Economic Grouping of the Gainful Workers of the United States, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  32. Engel, James F., Blackwell, Roger D. and Kollat, David T., 1978, Consumer behavior, Dryden Press, Hinsdale, Illinois.Google Scholar
  33. Flannery, Kent V., 1972, The Cultural Evolution of Civilizations, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 3:399–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Flannery, Kent V., 1973, Archaeology with a Capital S, in: Research and Theory in Current Archaeology (C. L. Redman, ed.), Wiley, New York, pp. 47–53.Google Scholar
  35. Flannery, Kent V. (ed.), 1976, The Early Mesoamerican Village, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  36. Flannery, Kent V., and Coe, Michael D., 1968, Social and Economic Systems in Formative Meso-america, in: New Perspectives in Archaeology (S. R. Binford and L. R. Binford, eds.), Aldine, Chicago, pp. 103–142.Google Scholar
  37. Flannery, Kent V., and Winter M. C., 1976, Analyzing Household Activities, in: The Early Mesoamerican Village (K. V. Flannery, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 34–47.Google Scholar
  38. Fogel, Robert W., and Engerman, Stanley L. (eds.), 1971, The Reinterpretation of American Economic History, Harper & Row, New York.Google Scholar
  39. Fried, Morton H., 1960, On the Evolution of Social Stratification and the State, in: Culture in History (S. Diamond, ed.), Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  40. Fried, Morton H., 1967, The Evolution of Political Society, Random House, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Friedman, H., 1980, Household Production and the National Economy: Concepts for the Analysis of Agrarian Formations, Journal of Peasant Studies 7:158–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fritz, J. M., and Plog, F. T., 1970, The Nature of Archaeological Explanation, American Antiquity 35:405–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Geismar, Joan H., 1982, The Archaeology of Social Disintegration in Skunk Hollow, A Nineteenth-Century Rural Black Community, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  44. Gould, R., 1978, The Anthropology of Human Residues, American Anthropologist 80:815–835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Haggett, Peter, 1972, Geography: A Modern Synthesis, Harper & Row, New York.Google Scholar
  46. Heilbroner, Robert L., 1970, The Economic Problem, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  47. Herman, Lynne L., Sands, John O., and Schecter, Daniel, 1973, Ceramics in St. Mary’s County, Maryland, During the 1840’s: A Socioeconomic Study, The Conference on Historic Site Archaeology Papers 8:52–93.Google Scholar
  48. Hill, James N., 1970, Broken K. Pueblo: Prehistoric Social Organization in the American Southwest, University of Arizona Press, Tucson.Google Scholar
  49. Hodder, Ian, and Orton, Clive, 1979, Spatial Analysis in Archaeology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.Google Scholar
  50. Hoffman, M. A., 1974, The Social Context of Trash Disposal in an Early Dynastic Egyptian Town, American Antiquity 39:35–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Horne, L., 1982, The Household in Space: Dispersed Holdings in an Iranian Village, American Behavioral Scientist 25:677–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hosler, D., Sabloff, J. A., and Runge, D., 1978, Simulation Model Development: A Case Study of the Classic Maya Collapse, in: Social Process in Maya Prehistory (N. Hammond, ed.). Academic Press, New York, pp. 553–590.Google Scholar
  53. Hutchinson, G. E., 1975, Variations on a Theme by Robert MacArthur, in: Ecology and Evolution of Communities (M. L. Cody and J. M. Diamond, eds.), Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp. 492–521.Google Scholar
  54. Johnson, Paul E., 1978, A Shopkeepers Millennium, Hill & Wang, New York.Google Scholar
  55. Kahl, Joseph A., and Davis, James A., 1955, A Comparison of Indexes of Socio-economic Status, American Sociological Review 20:317–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kristiansen, K., 1982, The Formation of Tribal Systems in Later European Prehistory: Northern Europe, 4000–5000 B.C., in: Theory and Explanation in Archaeology (C. Renfrew, M. J. Rowlands, and B. A. Segraves, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 241–280.Google Scholar
  57. Kuhn, Thomas S., 1970, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  58. Laumann, Edward O., and House, James S., 1970, Living Room Styles and Social Attributes: The Patterning of Material Artifacts in a Modern Urban Community, Sociology and Social Research 54:321–342.Google Scholar
  59. Leone, Mark P., 1977, Foreword in: Research Strategies in Historical Archaeology (S. South, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. xvii–xxi.Google Scholar
  60. Lloyd, Peter E., and Dicken, Peter, 1972, Location in Space: A Theoretical Approach to Economic Geography, Harper & Row, New York.Google Scholar
  61. Longacre, W. (ed.), 1970, Reconstructing Prehistoric Pueblo Societies, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  62. Lowe, John C., and Moryadas, S., 1975, The Geography of Movement, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.Google Scholar
  63. Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor, 1875, Public Document Number 31: Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics of Labor, Wright & Potter, State Printers, Boston.Google Scholar
  64. McManamon, Francis P., 1984, Methods of Description and Interpretation in the Archaeology of Households: An Afterword on Saitta’s Paper, Man in the Northeast 28.1:9–10.Google Scholar
  65. Meltzer, D., 1979, Paradigms and the Nature of Change in American Archaeology, American Antiquity 44:644–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Miller, George L., 1980, Classification and Economic Scaling of 19th Century Ceramics, Historical Archaeology 14:1–41.Google Scholar
  67. Miller, George L., 1984, George M. Coates, Pottery Merchant of Philadelphia, Winterthur Portfolio 19:37–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Miller, George L., and Hurry, Silas D., 1983, Ceramic Supply in an Economically Isolated Frontier Community: Portage County of the Ohio Western Reserve, 1800–1825, Historical Archaeology 17(2):80–92.Google Scholar
  69. Millon, R. (ed.), 1974, Urbanization at Teotihuacan, Volume 1, University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  70. Moran, G. P., Zimmer, E. F., and Yentsch, A. E., 1982, Archaeological Investigations at the Narbonne House, Salem Maritime National Historic Site, Massachusetts, Cultural Resources Management Study 6, Division of Cultural Resources, North Atlantic Regional Office, National Park Service, Boston.Google Scholar
  71. Morris, Craig, 1978, The Archeological Study of Andean Exchange Systems, in: Social Archaeology: Beyond Subsistence and Dating (C. L. Redman, W. T. Langhorne, Jr., M. J. Berman, E. V. Curtin, N. M. Versaggi, and J. C. Wanser, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 315–328.Google Scholar
  72. Mrozowski, Stephen A., 1984, Prospects and Perspectives on an Archaeology of the Household, Man in the Northeast 27:31–50.Google Scholar
  73. Mudar, K., 1978, The Effects of Socio-cultural Variables on Food Preferences in 19th Century Detroit, The Conference on Historic Sites Archaeology Papers 12:323–391.Google Scholar
  74. Otto, John S., 1984, Cannons Point Plantation, 1794–1860: Living Conditions and Status Patterns in the Old South, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  75. Paynter, R., 1982, Models of Spatial Inequality, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  76. Peterson, Willis L., 1977, Principles of Economics: Micro, Richard D. Irwin, Homewood, Illinois.Google Scholar
  77. Pires-Ferreira, Jane W., and Winter, Marcus C., 1976, Distribution of Obsidian among Households in Two Oaxacan Villages, in: The Early Mesoamerican Village (K. Flannery, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 306–311.Google Scholar
  78. Plog, F. T., 1973, Laws, Systems of Law and the Explanation of Observed Variation, in: The Explanation of Culture Change: Models in Prehistory (C. Renfrew, ed.), Duckworth, London, pp. 649–662.Google Scholar
  79. Poe, C., 1979, The Manifestation of Status in 18th Century Criollo Culture in Colonial St. Augustine, paper presented at the Society for Historical Archaeology Meetings, Nashville, Tennessee.Google Scholar
  80. Rathje, William L., 1971, The Origin and Development of Lowland Classic Maya Civilization, American Antiquity, 36(3):275–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rathje, William L. and McCarthy, Michael, 1977, Regularity and Variability in Contemporary Garbage, in: Research Strategies in Historical Archaeology (S. South, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 261–286.Google Scholar
  82. Redman, Charles L., 1978, Mesopotamian Urban Ecology: The Systemic Context of the Emergence of Urbanism, in: Social Archeology: Beyond Subsistence and Dating, Academic Press, New York, pp. 329–347.Google Scholar
  83. Redman, Charles L., Curtin, Edward, Versaggi, Nina, and Wanser, Jeffrey, 1978, Social Archeology: The Future of the Past, in: Social Archeology: Beyond Subsistence and Dating, Academic Press, New York, pp. 1–36.Google Scholar
  84. Reid, J. J., and Whittlesey, S. M., 1982, Households at Grasshopper Pueblo, American Behavioral Scientist 25:687–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Reissman, Leonard, 1959, Class in American Society, Free Press, New York.Google Scholar
  86. Renfrew, C., 1982, Explanation Revisited, in: Theory and Explanation in Archaeology (C. Renfrew, M. J. Rowlands, and B. A. Segraves, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 5–24.Google Scholar
  87. Renger, J., 1971, Notes on Goldsmiths, Jewelers and Carpenters of Neobabylonian Eanna, Journal of American Oriental Society 91:495–503.Google Scholar
  88. Riordan, Timothy B., and Adams, William H., 1985, Commodity Flows and National Market Access, Historical Archaeology 19(2):5–18.Google Scholar
  89. Sabloff, J. A., and Rathje, W. L., 1975, The Rise of a Maya Merchant Class, Scientific American 233:72–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sahlins, M. D., 1958, Social Stratification in Polynesia, University of Washington Press, Seattle.Google Scholar
  91. Sahlins, M. D., 1972, Stone Age Economics, Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  92. Saitta, D. J., 1984, The Archaeology of Households: Alternative Approaches, Man in the Northeast 28.1:1–8.Google Scholar
  93. Sanders, William T., and Webster, David, 1978, Unilinealism, Multilinealism and the Evolution of Complex Societies, in: Social Archaeology: Beyond Subsistence and Dating (C. L. Redman, W. T. Langhorne, Jr., M. J. Berman, E. V. Curtin, N. M. Versaggi, and J. C. Wanser, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 249–302.Google Scholar
  94. Schiffer, M. B., 1972, Archaeological Context and Systematic Context, American Antiquity 37:156–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schiffer, M. B., 1976, Behavioral Archaeology, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  96. Schiffer, M. B., 1983, Toward the Identification of Formation Processes, American Antiquity 48:675–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Schulz, Peter D., and Gust, Sherri M., 1983, Faunal Remains and Social Status in 19th Century Sacramento, Historical Archaeology 17(1):44–53.Google Scholar
  98. Schuyler, Robert L. (ed.), 1980, Archaeological Perspectives on Ethnicity in America, Baywood Publishing, Farmingdale, New York.Google Scholar
  99. Service, Elman, 1962, Primitive Social Organization: An Evolutionary Perspective, Random House, New York.Google Scholar
  100. Singer, David A., 1985, The Use of Fish Remains as a Socio-Economic Measure: An Example from 19th Century New England, Historical Archaeology 19(2):110–113.Google Scholar
  101. South, Stanley, 1977, Method and Theory in Historical Archaeology, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  102. South, Stanley (ed.), 1978, Pattern Recognition in Historical Archaeology, American Antiquity 43:223–230.Google Scholar
  103. Spencer-Wood, S., 1979, The National American Market in Historical Archaeology: Urban Versus Rural Perspectives, in: Ecological Anthropology of the Middle Connecticut River Valley (R. Paynter, ed.), Research Report 18, Department of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, pp. 117–128.Google Scholar
  104. Spencer-Wood, S., 1984, Status, Occupation, and Ceramic Indices: A Nineteenth-Century Comparative Analysis, Man in the Northeast 28.1:87–110.Google Scholar
  105. Starbuck, D. R., 1984, The Shaker Concept of Household, Man in the Northeast, 28.1:73–86.Google Scholar
  106. Taylor, Walter W., 1948, A Study of Archaeology, American Anthropological Association Memoir (No. 69).Google Scholar
  107. Thomas, David H., 1972, A Computer Simulation Model of Great Basin Shoshonean Subsistence and Settlement Patterns, in: Models in Archaeology (D. L. Clarke, ed.), Methuen, London, pp. 671–704.Google Scholar
  108. Tuggle, D. H., Townsend, A. H., and Riley, T. J., 1972, Laws, Systems and Research Designs: A Discussion of Explanation in Archaeology, American Antiquity 37:3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wallace, Anthony F. C., 1978, Rochdale: The Growth of an American Village in the Early Industrial Revolution, W. W. Norton, New York.Google Scholar
  110. Warner, W. Lloyd, with Meeker, Marchia, and Eells, Kenneth, 1960, Social Class in America: A Manual of Procedure for the Measurement of Social Status. Harper & Row, New York.Google Scholar
  111. Wasson, Chester R., 1969, Is it Time to Quit Thinking of Income Classes? Journal of Marketing 33:54–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Watson, P. J., 1978, Architectural Differentiation in Some Near Eastern Communities, Prehistoric and Contemporary, in: Social Archaeology: Beyond Subsistence and Dating (C. L. Redman, W. T. Langhorne, Jr., M. J. Berman, E. V. Curtin, N. M. Versaggi, and J. C. Wanser, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 131–158.Google Scholar
  113. Watson, P. J., LeBlanc, S. A., and Redman, C. L., 1971, Explanation in Archaeology: An Explicitly Scientific Approach, Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  114. Wilk, R. R., and Rathje, W. L., 1982, Household Archaeology, American Behavioral Scientist, 25:617–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wobst, H. Martin, 1974, Boundary Conditions for Paleolithic Social Systems: A Simulation Approach, American Antiquity 39:147–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Worrell, J., 1980, Scars Upon the Earth: Physical Evidence of Dramatic Change at the Stratton Tavern, in: Proceedings of the Conference on Northeastern Archaeology (J. A. Moore, ed.), Research Report 19, Department of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, pp. 133–145.Google Scholar
  117. Yanagisako, S. J., 1979, Family and Household: The Analysis of Domestic Groups, Annual Review of Anthropology 8:161–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Yesner, D. R., 1984, The Structure and Function of Prehistoric Households in Northern New England, Man in the Northeast 28.1:51–72.Google Scholar
  119. Zubrow, Ezra B. W., 1971, Carrying Capacity and Dynamic Equilibrium in the Prehistoric Southwest, American Antiquity 36:127–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suzanne M. Spencer-Wood
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of MassachusettsBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations