Advertisement

Abstract

The term common factors refers to effective aspects of treatment shared by diverse forms of psychotherapy. Theorists and researchers interested in them argue that they may be more important than are factors unique to specific treatments and hailed by advocates of these treatments to be the important change agents (see e.g., Frank, 1973). This argument is bolstered by the fact that whereas psychotherapy has been shown to lead to beneficial effects, rarely has any specific type of treatment been shown to be superior to any other (Lambert, Shapiro, & Bergin, 1986; Luborsky, Singer, & Luborsky, 1975; Smith, Glass, & Miller, 1980; Stiles, Shapiro, & Elliot, 1986). If the multitude of different systems examined in these reviews can legitimately claim equal success, and it seems that they can, then maybe their diversity is illusory and they share core features which, in fact, are the curative elements responsible for therapeutic success (cf. Lambert, 1986).

Keywords

Common Factor American Psychologist Therapeutic Relationship Therapeutic Alliance Psychodynamic Psychotherapy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alexander, E (1963). The dynamics of psychotherapy in the light of learning theory. American Journal of Psychiatry, 120, 440–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander, E, & French, T. M. (1946). Psychoanalytic psychotherapy: Principles and applications. New York: Ronald Press.Google Scholar
  3. Alexander, L., & Luborsky, L. (1986). The Penn helping alliance scales. In L. Greenberg & W. Pinsof (Eds.), The psychotherapeutic process: A research handbook (pp. 325–366). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  4. Appelbaum, S. A. (1976). The dangerous edge of insight. Psychotherapy, 13, 202–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Appelbaum, S. A. (1978). Pathways to change in psychoanalytic therapy. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 42, 239–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Arkowitz, H. (1989). The role of theory in psychotherapy integration. Journal of Integrative and Eclectic Psychotherapy, 8, 8–16.Google Scholar
  7. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bandura, A. (1978). The self system in reciprocal determinism. American Psychologist, 33, 344–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37, 122–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  11. Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory American Psychologist, 44, 1175–1184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beitman, B. D., Goldfried, M. R., & Norcross, J. C. (1989). The movement toward integrating the psychotherapies: An overview. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146,138–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Benjamin, L. S. (1984). Principles of prediction using structural analysis of social behavior (SASB). In R. A. Zucker, J. Aaronoff, & A. J. Rabin (Eds.), Personality and the prediction of behavior (pp. 121–174). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  14. Bergin, A. E. (1971). The evaluation of therapeutic outcomes. In A. E. Bergin & S. L. Garfield (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (pp. 217–270). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  15. Bergin, A. E. (1982). Comment on converging themes in psychotherapy. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  16. Bergin, A. E. (1983). Values and evaluating therapeutic change. In J. Helm & A. E. Bergin (Eds.), Therapeutic behavior modification (pp. 9–14). Berlin, Germany: VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften.Google Scholar
  17. Bergin, A. E. (1985). Proposed values for guiding and evaluating counseling and psychotherapy. Counseling and Values, 29, 99–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Beutler, L. E., Crago, M., & Arizmendi, T. G. (1986). Research on therapist variables in psychotherapy. In S. L. Garfield & A. E. Bergin (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (pp. 257–310). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  19. Blatt, S. J. (in press). The differential effect of psychotherapy on anaclitic and introjective patients. The Menninger Psychotherapy Research Project revisited. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association. Google Scholar
  20. Bordin, E. S. (1979). The generalizability of the psychoanalytic concept of the working alliance. Psychotherapy, 16, 252–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Boudewyns, P. A., & Shipley, R. H. (1983). Flooding and implosive therapy: Direct therapeutic exposure in clinical practice. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brady, J. P., Davison, G. C, Dewald, P. A., Egan, G., Fadiman, J., Frank, J. D, Gill, M. M., Hoffman, I., Kempler, W., Lazarus, A. A., Raimy, V, Rotter, J. B., & Strupp, H. H. (1980). Some views on effective principles of psychotherapy. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 4, 269–306.Google Scholar
  23. Brody, N. (1983). Human motivation. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  24. Candiotte, M. M., & Lichtenstein, E. (1981). Self-efficacy and relapse in smoking cessation programs. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 648–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Colijn, S., & Sollod, R. N. (April 1990). The relevance of traditional healing for psychotherapy: Content and/or context? Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for the Exploration for Psychotherapy Integration, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  26. Critelli, J. W, & Neumann, K. F. (1984). The placebo: Conceptual analysis of a construct in transition. American Psychologist, 39, 32–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Curtis, R. C. (Ed.). (1991). The rational self. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  28. Dollard, J., & Miller, N. E. (1950). Personality and psychotherapy. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  29. Emmelkamp, P M. G. (1982). Phobic and obsessive-compulsive disorders: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Emmelkamp, P. M. G. (1986). Behavior therapy with adults. In S. L. Garfield & A. E. Bergin (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (3rd ed., pp. 385–442). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  31. Fenichel, O. (1945). The psychoanalytic theory of neurosis. New York: W W Norton.Google Scholar
  32. Fielder, F. E. (1950). The concept of an ideal therapeutic relationship, journal of Consulting Psychology, 14, 239–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Frank, J. D. (1961). Persuasion and healing. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Frank, J. D. (1973). Persuasion and healing (rev. ed.). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Frank, J. D. (1976). Restoration of morale and behavior change. In A. Burton (Ed.), What makes behavior change possible? New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  36. Frank, J. D. (1982). Therapeutic components shared by all psychotherapies. In J. H. Harvey & M. M. Parks (Eds.), The master lecture series (Vol 1): Psychotherapy research and behavior change (pp. 9–37). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Frank, J. D., Gliedman, L. H., Imber, S. D, Stone, A. R., & Nash, E. H. (1959). Patients’ expectancies and relearning as factors determining improvement in psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 115, 961–968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Frank, J. D, Nash, E. H., Stone, A. R., & Imber, S. D. (1963). Immediate and long-term symptomatic course of psychiatric outpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 120, 429–439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Friedman, H. J. (1963). Patient expectancy and symptom reduction. Archives of General Psychiatry, 8, 61–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Garfield, S. L. (1957). Introductory clinical psychology. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  41. Garfield, S. L., & Bergin, A. E. (1986). Introduction and historical overview. In S. L. Garfield & A. E. Bergin (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (3rd ed., pp. 3–22). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  42. Gaston, L. (1990). The concept of the alliance and its role in psychotherapy: Theoretical and empirical considerations. Psychotherapy, 27, 143–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Goldfried, M. R. (1980). Toward the delineation of therapeutic change principles. American Psychologist, 35, 991–999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Goldfried, M. R. (Ed.). (1982). Converging themes in psychotherapy. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  45. Gomes-Schwartz, B., Hadley, S. W, & Strupp, H. H. (1978). Individual psychotherapy and behavior therapy. Annual Review of Psychology, 29, 435–471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Grencavage, L. M., & Norcross, J. C. (1990). What are the commonalities among the therapeutic factors? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 21, 372–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hafner, R. J., & Marks, I. M. (1976). Exposure in vivo in agoraphobics: Contributions of diazepam, group exposure, and anxiety evocation. Psychological Medicine, 6, 71–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Heine, R. W (1953). A comparison of patients’ reports of psychotherapeutic experience with psychoanalytic, nondirective, and Adlerian therapists. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 7, 16–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Horvath, A. D, & Greenberg, L. S. (1986). The development of the working alliance inventory. In L. Greenberg & W Pinsoff (Eds.), The psychotherapeutic process: A research handbook (pp. 529–556). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  50. Horwitz, L. (1974). Clinical prediction in psychotherapy. New York: Aronson.Google Scholar
  51. Horwitz, L. (1976). New perspectives for psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 40, 263–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Jensen, J. P., & Bergin, A. E. (1988). Mental health values of professional therapists: A national interdisciplinary survey. Professional Psychology, 19, 290–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Karasu, T. B. (1986). The specificity versus nonspecificity dilemma: Toward identifying therapeutic change agents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 687–695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kazdin, A. E. (1979). Nonspecific treatment factors in psychotherapy outcome research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 846–851.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kelly, T. A. (1990). The role of values in psychotherapy: A critical review of process and outcome effects. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 171–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kirsch, I. (1985). Response expectancy as a determinant of experience and behavior. American Psychologist, 40,1189–1202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Klee, M. R., Abeles, N., & Muller, R. T. (1990). Therapeutic alliance: Early indicators, course, and outcome. Psychotherapy, 27, 166–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Klein, M., Dittman, A. T., Parloff, N. B., & Gill, M. M. (1969). Behavior therapy: Observations and reflections. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 33, 259–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lachmann, E (1971). A recent development in the technique of psychanalysis: The therapeutic alliance. Clinical Psychologist, 25, 10–11.Google Scholar
  60. Lambert, M. J. (1986). Implications of psychotherapy outcome research for eclectic psychotherapy. In J. C. Norcross (Ed.), Handbook of eclectic psychotherapy (pp. 436–462). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  61. Lambert, M. J., Shapiro, D. A., & Bergin, A. E. (1986). Evaluation of therapeutic outcomes. In S. L. Garfield & A. E. Bergin (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (3rd ed., pp. 157–212). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  62. Leitenberg, H., Agras, W S., Barlow, D. H., & Oliveau, D. C. (1969). Contribution of selective positive reinforcement and therapeutic instructions to systematic desensitization therapy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 74, 382–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. London, P. (1986). The modes and morals of psychotherapy (2nd ed.). New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  64. Luborsky, L., Crits-Cristoph, P., & Mellon, J. (1986). Advent of objective measures of the transference concept. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 39–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Luborsky, L., Singer, B., & Luborsky, S. (1975). Comparative studies of psychotherapies: Is it true that “Everyone has won and all must have prizes”? Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 995–1008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Marcia, J. E., Rubin, B. M., & Efran, J. S. (1969). Systematic desensitization: Expectancy change or counterconditioning? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 74, 382–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mendel, W. M. (1964). The phenomenon of interpretation. American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 24, 184–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Norcross, J. C. (Ed.). (1986). Handbook of eclectic psychotherapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  69. Orlinsky, D. E., & Howard, K. I. (1986). Process and outcome in psychotherapy. In S. L. Garfield & A. E. Bergin (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (3rd ed., pp. 283–330). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  70. Orlinsky, D. E., & Howard, K. I. (1987). A generic model of psychotherapy. Journal of Integrative and Eclectic Psychotherapy, 6, 6–26.Google Scholar
  71. Parloff, M. B. (1986). Placebo controls in psychotherapy research: A sine qua non or a placebo for research problems? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 79–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Patterson, C. H. (1989). Foundations for a systematic eclecticism in psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 26, 427–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Reichenbach, H. (1938). Experience and prediction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  74. Rogers, C. (1951). Client-centered therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  75. Rogers, C. (1957a). A note on “the nature of man.” Journal of Counseling Psychology, 4, 199–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rogers, C. (1957b). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21, 95–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rogers, C. (1958). The characteristics of a helping relationship. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 37, 6–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rosenthal, D., & Frank, J. D. (1956). Psychotherapy and the placebo effect. Psychological Bulletin, 53, 294–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rosenzweig, S. (1936). Some implicit common factors in diverse methods of psychotherapy. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 6, 412–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Shapiro, A. K., & Morris, L. A. (1978). The placebo effect in medical and psychological therapies. In S. L. Garfield & A. E. Bergin (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (2nd ed., pp. 369–410). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  81. Shapiro, D. A. (1981). Comparative credibility of treatment rationales: Three tests of expectancy theory. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 21, 111–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Shapiro, D. A., & Shapiro, D. (1982). Meta-analysis of comparative therapy outcome studies: A replication and refinement. Psychological Bulletin, 92, 581–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Silberschatz, G., Fretter, P. B., & Curtis, J. T (1986). How do interpretations influence the process of psychotherapy? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 646–652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Silverman, L. H. (1979). The unconscious fantasy as therapeutic agent in psychoanalytic treatment. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 7, 189–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Sloane, R. B., Staples, F. R., Cristol, A. H., Yorkston, N. J., & Whipple, K. (1975). Psychotherapy vs. behavior therapy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Smith, M. L., Glass, G. V, & Miller, F. I. (1980). The benefits of psychotherapy. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  87. Sollod, B. (1981). Goodwin Watson’s 1940 conference. American Psychologist, 36, 1546–1547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Spence, D. P (1982). Narrative truth and historical truth: Meaning and interpretation in psychoanalysis. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  89. Stiles, W. B., Shapiro, D. A., & Elliot, R. (1986). Are all psychotherapies equivalent? American Psychologist, 41, 165–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Strupp, H. H. (1970). Specific versus nonspecific factors in psychotherapy and the problem of control. Archives of General Psychiatry, 23, 393–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Strupp, H. H. (1974). On the basic ingredients of psychotherapy. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 24, 249–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Strupp, H. H., & Binder, J. L. (1984). Psychotherapy in a new key: A guide to time-limited dynamic psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  93. Strupp, H. H., & Hadley, S. W (1977). A tripartite model of mental health and therapeutic outcomes. American Psychologist, 32, 187–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Strupp, H. H., & Hadley, S. W (1979). Specific versus nonspecific factors in psychotherapy: A controlled study of outcome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 36,1125–1136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Turner, J. L., Gallimore, R., & Fox-Henning, C. (1980). An annotated bibliography of placebo research. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10, 33 (Ms. No. 2063).Google Scholar
  96. Wachtel, P. L. (1975). Behavior therapy and the facilitation of psychoanalytic exploration. Psychotherapy, 12, 68–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wachtel, P. L. (1977). Psychoanalysis and behavior therapy: Toward an integration. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  98. Watson, G. (1940). Areas of agreement in psychotherapy. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 10, 698–709.Google Scholar
  99. Weinberger, J. (1985). Is the meta-analysis/placebo controversy a case of new wine in old bottles? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 7, 757–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Weinberger, J. (April, 1990a). Application of the REMA model to psychodynamic psychotherapy. Paper delivered at the Society for the Exploration for Psychotherapy Integration, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  101. Weinberger, J. (April 1990b). The REMA common factor model of psychotherapy. Paper delivered at the Society for the Exploration for Psychotherapy Integration, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  102. Weinberger, J. (1991). The REMA (relationship, exposure, mastery, attribution) common factor model of psychotherapy. Unpublished manuscript, Derner Institute, Adelphi University.Google Scholar
  103. Weiss, J., & Sampson, H., and the Mount Zion Research Group. (1986). The psychoanalytic process. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  104. Wilkins, W (1979). Expectancies in therapy research: Discriminating among heterogeneous nonspecifics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 837–845.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wilkins, W (1984). Psychotherapy: The powerful placebo. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 570–573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wilson, G. X, & Davison, G. C. (1971). Processes of fear reduction in systematic desensitizatibn: Animal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 76, 1–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wolpin, M., & Raines, J. (1966). Visual imagery, expected roles and extinction as possible factors in reducing fear and avoidance behavior. Behavior Research and Therapy, 4,25–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joel Weinberger
    • 1
  1. 1.Derner Institute of Advanced Psychological StudiesAdelphi UniversityGarden CityUSA

Personalised recommendations