Cognitive Therapy with Children

  • Raymond DiGiuseppe

Abstract

Recently, cognitive-behavior therapy has become the zeitgeist in psychotherapy. Despite this trend, the cognitive orientation has been slow to filter down to interventions with children. The majority of practitioners working with children use behavioral psychodynamic family-systems approaches to treatment. As a result, children are viewed as passive recipients of external influences. Although it is true that children are often dependent on others for much of their physical needs, cognitive theory would challenge the notion that children have no influence over their own emotional reactions and that their emotional disturbance is only the result of systemic variables or reward contingencies. Although such factors are obviously important in shaping children’s psychological development, cognitions can be viewed as the mediational variables by which these external factors (family systems and behavioral contingencies) have their effect. One can change children’s behavior by restructuring systems or by rearranging contingencies or, more directly and perhaps more efficiently, by attempting to change the child’s cognitions directly.

Keywords

Emotional Reaction Cognitive Therapy Target Behavior Emotional Disturbance Irrational Belief 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Beck, A. T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  2. Beck, A. T. Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bernard, M. E. (1981). Private thought in rational-emotive psychotherapy. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 5, 125–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bernard, M. E., (August 1988). The Child and Adolescent Scale of Irrationality. Paper presented at the 24th International Congress of Psychology, Sydney.Google Scholar
  5. Bernard, M. E., & Joyce, M. R. (1984). Rational-emotive therapy with children and adolescents. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  6. Cohen, R., and Meyers, A. W. (1983). Cognitive development and self-instruction interventions. In B. Gholson and T. L. Rosenthal (Eds.), Applications of cognitive development theory (pp. 104–132 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  7. Cohen, R., & Schlesar, R. (1984) Cognitive development and clinical intervention. In A. W. Meyer and W. E. Craighead, (Eds.), Cognitive behavior therapy with children (pp. 45–68 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  8. DiGiuseppe, R. A. (1981). Cognitive therapy with children. In G. Emery, S. D. Hollon, and R. C. Bedrosian (Eds.) New directions in cognitive therapy (pp. 50–67). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  9. DiGiuseppe, R. A., & Bernard, M. E. (1983). Principles of assessment and methods of treatment with children. In A. Ellis and M. E. Bernard (Eds.). Rational-emotive approaches to problems of childhood. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  10. Dollard, J., & Miller, N. E. (1950). Personality and psychotherapy. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  11. Dryden, W., & Golden, W. (1986). Cognitive-behavioral approaches to psychotherapy, London: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  12. Ellis, A. (1962). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. New York: Lyle Stuart.Google Scholar
  13. Ellis, A. (1976). Humanistic psychotherapy. New York: McGraw-Hill Paperback.Google Scholar
  14. Ellis, A. (1977). Rejoinder: Elegant and inelegant RET. The Counseling Psychologist, 7 (1), 73–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ellis, A. (1979). The theory of rational-emotional therapy. In A. Ellis and J. M. Whiteley (Eds.), Theoretical and empirical foundations of rational-emotive therapy (pp. 45–65 ). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  16. Ellis, A. (1985). Overcoming resistance: Rational-emotive therapy with difficult clients. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Flavel, J. H. (1977). Cognitive development. Englewood-Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  18. Flavell, J., Beach, D., & Chinsky, J. (1966). Spontaneous verbal rehearsal in a memory task as a function of age. Child Development, 37, 283–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Garber, J., Deal, S., & Parke, C. ( 1986, November) The Coping with Depression pamphlet revised for adolescents: Comprehensibility and acceptability. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy. Chicago.Google Scholar
  20. Kendall, P. C., & Braswell, L. (1985). Cognitive behavioral therapy for Impulsive Children New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  21. Lazarus, A. (1976). Multimodal behavior therapy. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  22. Leitenberg, H., Yost, L., Carroll-Wilson, M. (1986). Negative cognitive errors in children: Questionaire development, normative data, and comparison between children with and without self reported symptoms of depression, low self esteem and evaluation anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 5, 528–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Meichenbaum, D. (1977). Cognitive behavior modification. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  24. Morris, C. W., & Cohen, R. (1982). Cognitive considerations in cognitive behavior modification. School Psychological Review, I1, 14–20.Google Scholar
  25. Neisser, U. (1967). Cognitive psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  26. Reese, H. (1962). Verbal mediation as a function of age. Psychological Bulletin, 59, 502–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schacter, S. (1966). The interaction of cognitive and physiological determinants of emotional statee. In C. D. Spielberger (Ed.), Anxiety and behavior (pp. 193–224 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  28. Schleser, R., Meyers, A., & Cohen, R. (1981). Generalizations of self-instructions: Effects of general versus specific content, active rehearsal, and cognitive level. Child Development, 52, 335–340.Google Scholar
  29. Spivack, G., & Shure, M. (1975). The social adjustment of young children. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Spivack, G., Platt, S., and Shure, M. (1976). The problem-solving approach to adjustment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  30. Urbain, E. S., & Kendall, P. C. (1980). Review of social-cognitive problem-solving interactions with children. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 109–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Vernon, A. (1983). Rational-emotive education. In A. Ellis and M. Bernard (Eds.), Rational-emotive approaches to the problems of childhood. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  32. Waters, V. (1982). Therapies for children: Rational-emotive therapy. In C. R. Reynolds and T. B. Gutkin (Eds.), Handbook of school psychology (pp. 570–579 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  33. Wessler, R., & Wessler, R. (1980). Principles and practice of rational-emotive therapy. San Francisco: JoseBassey.Google Scholar
  34. Wolpe, J. (1973). The practice of behavior therapy. New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raymond DiGiuseppe
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Rational-Emotive TherapyNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations