Abstract

Cognitive approaches to stress have focused on the role of individual differences in the appraisal of situations and coping responses in determining behavioral and emotional responses to stressful situations (e.g., Bandura, 1977; Beck, 1984; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). Lazarus and Folkman (1984) define stress as “a particular relationship between the person and the environment that is appraised by the person as taxing or exceeding his or her resources and endangering his or her well-being” (p. 19). In their view, stress appraisals include harm or loss, threat, and challenge. Beck (1984) on the otherhand refers to three “stress syndromes” (hostility, fear, and depression) that represent emotional responses. In the hostility syndrome, individuals are hypersensitive to events that signal restraint or assault, whereas in the fear syndrome individuals are highly sensitive to danger. In the depression syndrome, the negative cognitive triad is activated. The basic tenet of this theory is that stress consists of the activation of cognitive schemas, with an idiosyncratic content specific for each syndrome.

Keywords

Coping Response Homework Assignment Automatic Thought Work Colleague Stress Appraisal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavior change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beck, A. T. (1984). Cognitive approaches to stress. In R. Wool-folk & P Lehrer (Eds.), Principles and practice of stress management. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  3. Beck, A. T., Emery, G., & Greenberg, R. L. (1985). Anxiety disorders and phobias: A cognitive perspective. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  4. Burns, D. D. (1980). Feeling good. New York: Signet.Google Scholar
  5. Burns, D. D. (1989). The feeling good handbook. New York: William Morrow.Google Scholar
  6. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  7. Mulhall, D. J. (1978). Manual for the Personal Questionnaire Rapid Scaling Technique. Windsor, England: NFER/Nel son.Google Scholar
  8. Schultz, J. H., & Luthe, W. (1969). Autogenic therapy, volume 1: Autogenic methods. New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  9. Spielberger, C.D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. E. (1970). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  10. Wells, A. (1990). Panic disorder in association with relaxation induced anxiety: An attentional training approach to treatment. Behavior Therapy, 21, 273–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Suggested Readings

  1. Cox, T. (1978). Stress. London: Macmilan.Google Scholar
  2. Meichenbaum, D. (1985). Stress inoculation training. New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  3. Meichenbaum, D. (1986). Cognitive-behavior modification. In F. H. Kanfer & A. P. Goldstein (Eds.), Helping people change: A textbook of methods (3rd ed., pp. 346–380). New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  4. Michelson, L., & Ascher, L. M. (Eds.). (1988). Anxiety and stress disorders: Cognitive-behavioral assessment and treatment. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adrian Wells
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Warneford HospitalUniversity of OxfordOxfordEngland

Personalised recommendations