The first comprehensive attempt to study and classify animals was made by Aristotle (384–322 ac). He grouped animals according to structure, habitat, and customs. For the most part, his observations were accurate, but one startling error was his classification of porpoises and whales with fish and sharks. During the Roman period and through the ensuing Dark Ages, there was little or no progress in the biological sciences. At the beginning of the Renaissance (1200 AD), the oppressive religious influence lessened and universities commenced and grew, spreading scientific knowledge. The great Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus (1707–1778) established a definitive nomenclature for animals and plants, much of which is still in use today.


Green Turtle Roman Period Loggerhead Turtle Bony Skeleton Favoured Race 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Suggested Readings

  1. Doolittle, R. F., 1976, The evolution of vertebrate fibrinogen, Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 35: 2145.Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jessica H. Lewis
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Central Blood BankPittsburghUSA

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