Cognitive Behavioral Interventions with Mentally Retarded Children
A number of theories of mental retardation have been advanced in recent years (cf. Mercer & Snell, 1977). These theories can be distinguished on various dimensions, the most basic of which is whether they attribute the differences between mentally retarded and normal functioning to a fundamental defect in cognitive structure of the individual or to normal polygenetic variation and adverse environmental conditions during the developmental period. These two models, referred to as the defect and developmental models (Zigler, 1967), lead to different predictions about task performance of mentally retarded and intellectually average individuals equated for developmental level (MA). Because of the diverse implications of these positions for theapeutic interventions, several specific theories from each paradigm will be briefly described.
KeywordsTarget Behavior Nonverbal Behavior Cognitive Behavioral Intervention Retarded Child Retarded Individual
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