Research on the Coercion of Persons with Severe Mental Illness

  • Phyllis Solomon
Part of the The Springer Series in Social Clinical Psychology book series (SSSC)


Issues of concern regarding coercion of psychiatric patients, which were once relevant only to psychiatric hospitalization, are now applicable to the community arena as well. The need to understand coercive treatment strategies used in community settings for handling those with severe mental disorders is pressing, as the consequences of the competing values between preserving individual autonomy and protecting vulnerable individuals are far more visible in a growing population of mentally ill people living in the community. For example, homeless mentally ill persons on the streets of virtually every large urban area raise the issue of whether these individuals have an inherent right to remain in this situation or whether they should be forced into hospitals, homeless shelters, or other structured housing arrangements. These types of dilemmas that are being confronted today make the use of coercive strategies to force compliance with outpatient treatment quite attractive to some (Mulvey, Geller, & Roth, 1987). Coerced treatment includes mandated attendance at day programs, counseling, and acceptance of neuroleptic medication enforced by a threat of institutional controls. The situations that necessitate coercing patients into receiving needed treatment are not going to go away; therefore, coercive strategies will persist and “can no longer be ignored” (Steinwachs et al., 1992, p. 649).


Criminal Justice System Community Psychiatry Parole Officer Civil Commitment Conditional Release 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bachrach, L. (1994). Residential planning: Concepts and themes. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 45, 202–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavior change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bellack, A., and Mueser, K. (1993). Psychosocial treatment for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 19, 317–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bloom, J. D., Williams, M. A., and Bigelow, D. A. (1991). Monitored conditional release of persons found not guilty by reason of insanity. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 444–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown, G. W., Birley, J. L. T., and Wing, J. K. (1972). Influence of family life on the course of schizophrenic disorders: A replication. British Journal of Psychiatry, 121, 241–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bursten, B. (1986). Post hospital mandatory outpatient treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 1255–1258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Carpentier, N., Lesage, A., Goulet, A., Lalonde, P., and Renaud, M. (1992). Burden of care of families not living with young schizophrenic relatives. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 43, 38–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Carroll, J. (1991). Consent to mental health treatment: A theoretical analysis of coercion, freedom, and control. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9, 129–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carroll, J., and Lurigio (1984). Conditional release on probation and parole: Implications for provision of mental health services. In L. Teplin (Ed.), Mental health and criminal justice (pp. 297–315). Beverly Hills, CA:Google Scholar
  10. Gardner, W., Hoge, S., Bennett, N., Roth, L., Lidz, C., Monahan, J., and Mulvey, E. (1993). Two scales for measuring patients’ perceptions for coercion during mental hospital admission. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 11, 307–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Geller, J. (1987). The quandaries of enforced community treatment and unenforced outpatient commitment statutes. Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 15, 151–158.Google Scholar
  12. Goldman, H. H. (1982). Mental illness and family burden: A public health perspective. Hospial and Community Psychiatry, 33, 557–560.Google Scholar
  13. Gottfredson, M., Mitchell-Herzfeld, S., and Flanagan, T. (1982). Another look at the effectiveness of parole supervision. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 19, 277–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Greenley, J. (1986). Social control and expressed emotion. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174, 24–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hiday, V., and Scheid-Cook, T. (1989). A follow-up of chronic patients committed to outpatient treatment. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 40, 52–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hoge, S., Lidz, C., Mulvey, E., Roth, L., Bennett, N., Siminoff, L., Arnold, R., and Monahan, J. (1993). Patient, family, and staff perceptions of coercion in mental hospital admission: An exploratory study. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 11, 281–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lamb, H. R., Weinberger, L. E., and Gross, B. H. (1988). Court-mandated community outpatient treatment for persons not guilty by reason of insanity: A five-year follow-up. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 450–456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Martin, S. S., and Scarpitti, F. R. (1990). An intensive case management approach for paroled IV drug users. Journal of Drug Issues, 23, 43–59.Google Scholar
  19. McFarland, B., Faulkner, L., Bloom, J., Hallaux, R., and Bray, J. D. (1989). Investigators’ and judges’ opinions about civil commitment. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 17, 15–25.Google Scholar
  20. Miller, R. (1985). Commitment to outpatient treatment: A national survey. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 36, 265–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Miller, R. (1988). Outpatient civil commitment of the mentally ill: An overview and an update. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 6, 99–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Miller, R., and Fiddleman, P. (1984). Outpatient commitment: Treatment in the least restrictive environment? Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 35, 147–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Monahan, J., Hoge, S., Lidz, C., Roth, L., Bennett, N., Gardner, W., and Mulvey, E. (1995). Coercion and commitment: Understanding involuntary mental hospital admission. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 18, 249–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Monahan, J., and Shah, S. (1989). Dangerousness and commitment of the mentally disordered in the United States. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 15, 541–553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mulvey, E., Geller, J., and Roth, L. (1987). The promise and peril of involuntary outpatient commitment. American Psychologist, 42, 571–584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rogers, J., and Centifanti, J. B. (1991). Beyond “self-paternalism”: Response to Rosenson and Kasten. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 17, 9–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rosenson, M. K., and Kasten, A. M. (1991). Another view of autonomy: Arranging for consent in advance. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 17, 1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Solomon, P., and Draine, J. (1995a). Jail recidivism in a forensic case management program. Health and Social Work, 20, 168–173.Google Scholar
  29. Solomon, P., and Draine J. (1995b). One-year outcomes of a randomized trial of case management with seriously mentally ill clients leaving jail. Evaluation Review, 19, 256–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Solomon, P., Draine J., and Delaney, M. A. (1995). The use of restraining orders by families of severely mentally ill adults. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 23, 157–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Solomon, P., Rogers, R., Draine, J., and Meyerson, A. (1995b). Interaction of the criminal justice system and psychiatric professionals where civil commitment standards are prohibitive. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 23, 117–128.Google Scholar
  32. Steinwachs, D., Cullum, H., Dorwart, R., Flynn, L., Frank, R., Friedman, M., Herz, M., Mulvey, E., Snowden, L., Test, M. A., Tremaine, L., and Windle, C. (1992). Service systems research. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 18, 627–668.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tonry, M. (1990). Stated and latent functions of ISP. Crime and Delinquency, 36, 174–191. Van Putten, R., Santiago, J., and Berren, M. (1988). Involuntary outpatient commitment inGoogle Scholar
  34. Arizona: A retrospective study. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 39, 953–958. Vaughn, C., and Leff, J. (1976). The influence of family and social factors on the course of psychiatric illness. British Journal of Psychiatry, 129, 125–137.Google Scholar
  35. Vaughn, C., Snyder, K., Jones, S., Freeman, W., and Falloon, I. (1984). Family factors in schizophrenic relapse. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 1169–1177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wilk, R. (1988). Involuntary outpatient commitment of the mentally ill. Social Work, 33, 133–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Zanni, G., and deVeau, L. (1986). Inpatient stays before and after outpatient commitment. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 37, 941–942.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Phyllis Solomon
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Social WorkUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations