Community-Based Intervention and Prevention

Conceptual Underpinnings and Progress toward a Science of Community Intervention and Evaluation
  • Robert D. Felner
  • David DuBois
  • Angela Adan
Part of the Applied Clinical Psychology book series (NSSB)

Abstract

It is less than 30 years since individual psychotherapy provided in a psychiatrist’s office or inpatient hospitalization were the dominant means of addressing mental health problems. Since that time the landscape of mental health has changed dramatically. Some of these changes, as noted in previous chapters, have been in our understanding of the causes and treatment of disorders. A parallel set of changes, that built on these developments and others, took place under the rubric of the community mental health movement. As this label implies, a core characteristic of community mental health approaches is their emphasis on the role of external, environmental factors in the development and treatment of mental disorders. These approaches differ from their predecessors in what they see as the appropriate timing, locations, resources and goals of mental health services. Mental health services that are provided in such nontraditional sites for treatment as the school, workplace, or home, that focus on early intervention or prevention, that use nonprofessionals to deliver the intervention, and that focus on the building of strengths as well as alleviation of disorder are now all established parts of the mental health care system. All of these have their origins in the community mental health movement. Before we turn to a discussion of specific strategies and programs that are representative of these changes, let us briefly consider some of the factors that led to the emergence of these shifts in the mental health landscape.

Keywords

Mental Health Mental Health Service Primary Prevention Community Mental Health American Psychological Association 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albee, G. W. (1959). Mental health manpower trends. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  2. Bloom, B. L. (1984). Community mental health: A general introduction. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  3. Bloom, B. L., & Hodges, W. F. (1988). The Colorado separation and divorce program: A preventive intervention program for newly separated persons. In R. H. Price, E. L. Cowen, R. P. Lorion, & J. Ramos-McKay (Eds.), Fourteen ounces of prevention: A casebook for practitioners (pp. 153–164). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Botvin, G. J., & Tortu, S. (1988). Preventing adolescent substance abuse through life skills training. In R. H. Price, E. L. Cowen, R. P. Lorion, & J. Ramos-McKay (Eds.), Fourteen ounces of prevention: A casebook for practitioners (pp. 98–110). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chandler, C. L., Weissberg, R. P., Cowen, E. L., & Guare, J. (1984). Long-term effects of a school-based secondary prevention program for young maladapting children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 165–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Condry, S. (1983). History and background of preschool intervention programs and the consortium for longitudinal studies. In Consortium for Longitudinal Studies (Ed.), As the twig is bent: Lasting effects of preschool programs (pp. 1–31). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  7. Connell, D. B., Turner, R. R., & Mason, E. F. (1985). Summary of the findings of the school health education evaluation: Health from effectiveness, implementation, and costs. Journal of School Health, 55, 316–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cowen, E. L. (1985). Person-centered approaches to primary prevention in mental health: Situation-focused and competence-enhancement. American Journal of Community Psychology, 13, 31–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cowen, E. L., Gesten, E. L., & Wilson, A. B. (1979). The primary mental health project (PMHP): Evaluation of current program effectiveness. American Journal of Community Psychology, 7, 293–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cowen, E. L., Pederson, A., Babigian, H., Izzo, L. D., & Trost, M. A. (1973). Long-term follow-up of early detected vulnerable children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 41, 438–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cowen, E. L., Trost, M. H., Lorion, R. D., Dorr, D., Izzo, L. D., & Isaacson, R. V. (1975). New ways in school mental health: Early detection and prevention of school maladjustment. New York: Early Sciences Press.Google Scholar
  12. Dellario, D. J., & Anthony, W A. (1981). On the relative effectiveness of institutional and alternative placement for the psychiatrically disabled. Journal of Social Issues, 37, 21–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Elias, M. J., Gara, M., Ubriaco, M., Rothbaum, P. A., Clabby, J. F., & Schuyler, T. (1986). Impact of a preventive social problem-solving intervention on children’s coping with middle-school stressors. American Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 259–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fairweather, G. W., & Davidson, W. S. (1986). An introduction to community experimentation: Theory, methods, & practice. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  15. Feiner, R. D., & Adan, A. M. (1988). The school transitional environment project: An ecological intervention and evaluation. In R. H. Price, E. L. Cowen, R. E. Lorion, & J. Ramos-McKay (Eds.), Fourteen ounces of prevention: A casebook for practitioners (pp. 111–122) Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  16. Feiner, R. D., Farber, S. S., & Primavera, J. (1983). Transitions and stressful life events: A model for primary prevention. In R. D. Feiner, L. A. Jason, J. N. Moritsugu, & S. S. Farber (Eds.), Preventive psychology: Theory, research, and prevention (pp. 191–215). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  17. Felner, R. D., & Felner, T. Y. (1988). Prevention programs in the educational context: A transactional-ecological framework for program models. In L. Bond & B. Compas (Eds.), Primary prevention in the schools (pp. 13–49). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  18. Feiner, R. D., Ginter, M. A., & Primavera, J. (1982). Primary prevention during school transitions: Social support and environmental structure. American Journal of Community Psychology, 10, 277–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Felner, R. D., Jason, L. A., Moritsugu, J. N., & Farber, S. S. (1983). Preventive psychology: Evaluation and current status. In R. D. Feiner, L. A. Jason, J. N. Moritsugu, & S. S. Farber (Eds.), Preventive psychology: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 3–10). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  20. Gesten, E. L., Rains, M., Rapkin, B., Weissberg, R. P., Flores de Apodaca, R., Cowen, E. L., & Bowen, R. (1983). Training children in social problem-solving competencies: A first and second look. American Journal of Community Psychology, 10, 95–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gesten, E. L., Weissberg, R. P., Amisoy, P. L., & Smith, J. K. (1987). Social problem-solving training: A skills based approach to prevention and treatment. In C. A. Maher & J. E. Zins (Eds.), Psychoeducational interventions in the schools (pp. 26–45). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  22. Glasscote, R. M., Kraft, A. M., Glassman, S. M., & Jepson, WW (1969). Partial hospitalization for the mentally ill. Washington, DC: Joint Information Service of the American Psychiatric Association and National Association for Mental Health.Google Scholar
  23. Glenwick, D. S., & Jason, L. A. (1980). Behavioral community psychology: Progress and prospects. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  24. Goldston, S. W. (1977). Defining primary prevention. In G. W. Albee & J. M. Joffe (Eds.), Primary prevention of psychopathology (vol. 1, pp. 18–23). Hanover, NJ: University Press of New England.Google Scholar
  25. Goodstadt, M. S. (1978). Alcohol and drug education. Health Education Monographs, 6, 263–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Grotberg, E. (1969). Review of Head Start research, 1965–1969 (OEO Pamphlet 1608:13, [ED0028308]). Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  27. Gurin, G., Veroff, J., & Field, S. (1960). Americans view their mental health. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  28. Hertz, M. I., Endicott, J., Spitzer, R. L., & Mesnikoff, A. (1971). Day versus inpatient hospitalization—a controlled study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 502–507.Google Scholar
  29. Jensen, A. R. (1969). How much an we boost IQ and scholastic achievement? Harvard Educational Review, reprint series no. 2, 1-23.Google Scholar
  30. Johnson, D. L. (1988). Houston parent-child development project. In R. H. Price, E. L. Cowen, R. P. Lorion, & J. Ramos-McKay (Eds.), Fourteen ounces of prevention: A casebook for practitioners (pp. 44–52). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Joint Commission on Mental Illness and Health. (1961). Action for mental health. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  32. Kanfer, F. H., & Stevenson, M. K. (1985). The effects of self-regulation on concurrent cognitive processing. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 9, 667–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kiesler, C. A. (1982). Mental hospitals as alternative care: Noninstitutionalization as a potential public policy for mental patients. American Psychologist, 37, 349–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lamb, H. R., & Zusman, J. (1979). Primary prevention in perspective. American Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 12–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Lazar, I. (1983). Discussion and implications of the findings. In The consoritium for longitudinal studies, As the twig is bent: Lasting effects of preschool programs (pp. 461–466). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  36. Lorion, R. P. (1983). Evaluating preventive interventions: Guidelines for the serious social change agent. In R. D. Feiner, L. A. Jason, J. N. Moritsugu, & S. S. Farber (Eds.), Preventive psychology: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 199–220). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  37. Mednick, S. A., Griffith, J. J., & Mednick, B. R. (1981). Problems with traditional strategies in mental health research. In F. Schulsinger, S. A. Mednick, & J. Knop (Eds.), Longitudinal research: Methods and uses in behavioral science (pp. 3–15). Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Meichenbaum, D. (1985). Stress inoculation training. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  39. Miller, J. A., & Peterson, D. W. (1987). Peer-influenced academic interventions. In C. A. Maher & S. E. Zins (Eds.), Psychoeducational interventions in the schools (pp. 81–100). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  40. Olds, D. (1988). Prenatal/early infancy project. In R. H. Price, E. L. Cowen, R. P. Lorion, & J. Ramos-McKay (Eds.), Fourteen ounces of prevention: A casebook for practitioners (pp. 9–23). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pedro-Carroll, J. L., & Cowen, E. L. (1985). The children of divorce intervention project: An investigation of the efficacy of a school-based prevention program. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 603–611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pedro-Carroll, J. L., Cowen, E. L., Hightower, A. D., & Guare, J. C. (1986). Preventive intervention with latency-age children of divorce: A replication study. American Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 277–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pentz, M. A., & Pentz, C. A. (1986). A social competence approach to stress prevention in early adolescents. Annals of Behavioral Medicine.Google Scholar
  44. President’s Commission on Mental Health. (1978). Report to the President (Vol. 1. Stock No. 040-000-0390-8). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  45. Price, R. H., Cowen, E. L., Lorion, R. P., & Ramos-McKay, J. (1988). Model prevention programs: Epilogue and future prospects. In R. H. Price, E. L. Cowen, R. P. Lorion, & J. Ramos-McKay (Eds.), Fourteen ounces of prevention: A casebook for practitioners (pp. 187–191). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Price, R. H., & Smith, S. (1985). A guide to evaluating prevention programs in mental health (DHHS Pub. No. ADM 85-1365). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  47. Rappaport, J. (1987). Terms of empowerment-exemplars of prevention. Toward a theory for community psychology. 15(2), 121–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rappaport, J., Seidman, E., Toro, P. A., McFadden, L. S., Reischl, T. M., Roberts, L. J., Salem, D. A., Stein, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (1985). Collaborative research with a mutual help organization. Social Policy, 15, 12–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Robinson, R., DeMarche, D. F., & Wagle, M. K. (1960). Community resources in mental health. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  50. Rotherman, M. J. (1988). The children’s assertiveness training program. In R. H. Price, E. L. Cowen, R. P. Lorion, & J. Ramos-McKay (Eds.), Fourteen ounces of prevention: A casebook for practitioners (pp. 83–97). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  51. Rotherman, M. J., Armstrong, M., & Boorsem, C. (1982). Assertiveness training in fourth and fifth grade children. American Journal of Psychology, 10, 567–582.Google Scholar
  52. Royce, J. M., Darlington, R. B., & Murray, H. W. (1983). Pooled analyses: Findings across studies. In The Consortium for Longitudinal Studies (Ed.), As the twig is bent: Lasting effects of preschool programs (pp. 411–460). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  53. Salem, D. A., Seidman, E., & Rappaport, J. (in press). Community treatment of the mentally ill: The promise of mutual help organizations. Social Work.Google Scholar
  54. Sameroff, A. J., & Chandler, M. J. (1975). Reproductive risk and the continuum of caretaking casualty. In E D. Horowitz, M. Hetherington, S. Scarr-Salapatek, & G. Siegal (Eds.), Review of Child Development Research (vol. 4). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  55. Sarason, I. G., & Sarason, B. R. (1981). Teaching cognitive and social skills to high school students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 908–919.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Schaps, E., Bartold, R. D., Moskowitz, J., Palley, C. S., & Churgin, S. (1981, Winter). A review of 127 drug abuse prevention program evaluations. Journal of Drug Issues, pp. 17-43.Google Scholar
  57. Schinke, S. P., Blythe, B. J., & Gilchrist, L. D. (1981). Cognitive-behavioral prevention of adolescent pregnancy. Social Work with Groups, 4, 121–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Schinke, S. P., & Gilchrist, L. D. (1985). Preventive cigarette smoking with youth. Journal of Primary Prevention, 5, 48–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Schweinhart, L. J., & Weikart, D. P. (1988). The High/Scope Perry Preschool Program. In R. H. Price, E. L. Cowen, R. P. Lorion, & J. Ramos-McKay (Eds.), Fourteen ounces of prevention: A casebook for practitioners (pp. 53–66). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Scull, A. T. (1977). Decarceration: Community treatment and the deviant—A radical view. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  61. Shure, M. B. (1986). Problem-solving and mental health of ten-to twelve-year-olds (Final Summary Report No. MH35989). Washington, DC: National Institute of Mental Health.Google Scholar
  62. Shure, M. B., & Spivack, G. (1982). Interpersonal problem-solving in young children: A cognitive approach to prevention. American Journal of Community, 10, 341–356.Google Scholar
  63. Shure, M. B., & Spivack, G. (1988). Interpersonal cognitive problem-solving. In R. H. Price, E. L. Conen, R. P. Lorion, & J. Ramos-McKay (eds.), Fourteen ounces of prevention: A casebook for practitioners (pp. 68–82). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  64. Silverman, P. R. (1988). Widow-to-widow: A mutual help program for the widowed. In R. H. Price, E. L. Cowen, R. P. Lorion, & J. Ramos-McKay (Eds.), Fourteen ounces of prevention: A casebook for practitioners (pp. 175–186). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Test, M. A., & Stein, L. I. (1978). The clinical rationale for community treatment: A review of the literature. In L. I. Stein & M. A. Test (Eds.), Alternatives to mental hospital treatment. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  66. U.S. Congress. (1963). P.L. 88-164—Mental Retardation Facilities and Community Mental Health Centers Construction Act of 1963. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  67. U.S. Congress. (1955). P.L. 84-182—the Mental Health Study Act of 1955. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  68. U.S. Congress. (1978). P.L. 95-622—Community Mental Health Centers Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  69. Watt, N. F., Anthony, E. J., Wynne, L. C., & Rolf, J. E. (1984). Children at risk for schizophrenia: A longitudinal perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Weissberg, R. P., Cowen, E. L., Lotyczewski, B. S., & Gesten, E. L. (1983). The primary mental health project: Seven consecutive years of program outcome research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 100–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Weissberg, R. P., Gesten, E. L., Rapkin, B. D., Cowen, E. L., Davidson, E., Flores de Apooaca, R., & McKim, B. J. (1981). The evaluation of a social problem-solving training program for suburban and inner-city third grade children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 251–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Westinghouse Learning Corporation. (1969). The impact of Head Start: An evaluation of the effects of Head Start on children’s cognitive and affective development (Executive Summary, Ohio University Scientific and Technical Information [EDO36321]).Google Scholar
  73. Zax, M., & Spector, G. A. (1974). An introduction to community psychology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert D. Felner
    • 1
  • David DuBois
    • 1
  • Angela Adan
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Government and Public AffairsUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA

Personalised recommendations