Mechanisms and Treatment of Raynaud’s Disease and Phenomenon

  • Robert R. Freedman
Part of the The Plenum Series in Behavioral Psychophysiology and Medicine book series (SSBP)


Raynaud’s phenomenon is characterized by episodic digital vasospasms that are provoked by cold exposure or emotional stress or both (Freedman & Ianni, 1983a). Estimates of its prevalence range from 4.3% of female respondents to a questionnaire study in North Carolina to 19% of female patients of general practitioners in the United Kingdom (Weinrich, Maricq, Keil, McGregor, & Diat, 1990; Simian, Holligan, Brennan, & Madison, 1990). The corresponding estimates for males were 2.7% and 11%, respectively.


Finger Blood Flow Autogenic Training Temperature Feedback Finger Temperature Progressive Relaxation 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert R. Freedman
    • 1
  1. 1.C. S. Mott CenterWayne State UniversityDetroitUSA

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